2015年珠穆朗玛峰雪崩

2015年珠穆朗玛峰雪崩事故发生在2015年4月25日,是矩震级8.1级尼泊尔地震的次生灾害,地震波造成珠穆朗玛峰山体晃动引发致命雪崩,造成至少19人丧生,超过了一年多前的事故,成为了最致命的雪崩灾难。

雪崩编辑

地震发生时有数百人在珠穆朗玛峰[1]。地震引发数次大雪崩,波及邻近山区。普莫里峰附近出现的一次雪崩[2],横扫昆布冰瀑,席卷珠峰大本营[3][4][5][6]。一名印度陆军登山队员从大本营南面寻获19具遗体,救出至少61人被困登山者[7][8][9]

珠峰位于震中以东220千米处,有700人至1000多人被认为当时在山上,至少61人受伤,“数十人”失踪,更多人起初被困在高海拔的营地里,迷失了安全降落路线的方向。少数未被事故吓倒的登山者,力求尼泊尔政府允许他们重新攀登[4][5][10][11][12][13]

搜救编辑

印度空军直升机4月26日上午抵达珠穆朗玛峰展开救援行动[14],将22名重伤者送往裴丽切村(Pheriche),但行动因天气恶劣而被叫停[15]。裴丽切是登山者的重要中转站,外国志愿者和当地人在当地设置了一所简陋的医院。

当天晚些时候,一架直升机据称从珠峰一号大本营撤出数名登山者,大本营上方的第一阶梯仍有100人无法安全降至一号和二号营地[16]。更多人于4月27日获救[17]。处在大本营的登山者在灾难发生几天后发布Twitter称留下来的人“悲凉得伟大”,“高度尚未确定”。灾区看上去好像被核弹击中。一名登山者透过Facebook表示,被困于高处的人们“越来越绝望”[18]。4月27日有60人从一号营地救出,170人从二号营地救出[19]

4月25日发现17具尸体,4月27日又发现一具。4月26日,61名重伤者中的一名在KMC医院去世[19]

死者编辑

Google高管丹·福瑞迪博格Dan Fredinburg)与公司另外三名员工攀登珠峰,为Google地球类项目测绘时遭遇雪崩身亡[20][21][22]

4月28日尼泊尔登山协会公布19名死者名单,其中10名为尼泊尔夏尔巴人,5名外国登山者,有4人身份尚未确认[23]。5名外国登山者中有2名美国人,1名中国人,1名澳大利亚人,1名日本人[24]

影响编辑

昆布冰瀑阶梯在事故中损坏[25],而申请再次攀登的登山者于2015年4月29日获准[26]。“梯子将在未来两到三天内修复,攀登会继续下去,任何人都没有理由去放弃他们的远征,”尼泊尔旅游部负责任图尔西·高塔姆表示:“尽管没有预测另一场地震的科学依据......但我们认为地面适合攀登,尽管余震不够稳定。”[26]

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Earthquake Devastates Nepal, Killing More Than 1,900. NY Times. 2015-04-26 [2015-04-28]. 
  2. ^ Everest Base Camp a ‘War Zone’ After Earthquake Triggers Avalanches. National Geographic. [2015-04-28]. 
  3. ^ 10 confirmed dead in Mount Everest avalanche, but toll expected to rise. The Washington Post. 2015-04-25 [2015-04-26]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Gopal Sharma. Seventeen bodies found at Everest base camp: Official. The Toronto Sun. Reuters. 2015-04-25. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Beaumont, Peter. Deadly Everest avalanche triggered by Nepal earthquake. The Guardian. 2015-04-25 [2015-04-25]. 
  6. ^ Extent of the Damage From the Nepal Earthquake. NY Times. 2015-04-26 [2015-04-28]. 
  7. ^ 'Huge disaster': Hikers around Everest run for lives, treat injured. CNN. 
  8. ^ Nepal earthquake: Over 1,900 dead as search for survivors continues. iTV.com. 
  9. ^ Indian Army's expedition team rescues 61 climbers from Mount Everest. DNA India. 
  10. ^ Gregory Korte and Aamer Madhani. Mount Everest avalanche survivor: 'I had to survive'. USA Today. 2015-04-26 [2015-04-28]. 
  11. ^ "Avalanche sweeps Everest base camp, killing 17, injuring 61" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2015-04-30., 2015-04-25; 2015-04-28访问
  12. ^ Peter Holley. Massive avalanche slams into Everest base camp following Nepal earthquake. Washington Post. 2015-04-25 [2015-04-28]. 
  13. ^ Melanie Eversley and Tom Vanden Brook. At least 10 dead, others missing as Nepal quake rocks Mount Everest. USA Today. 2015-04-25 [2015-04-28]. 
  14. ^ Live: First rescue plane lands at Kathmandu airport with 15 injured from Mt. Everest avalanche. firstpost.com. 
  15. ^ Gardiner Harris. At Least 10 Everest Climbers Killed as Nepal Quake Sets Off Avalanche. New York Times. 2015-04-25 [2015-04-28]. 
  16. ^ Sanjeev Miglani. Injured flown from Everest, aftershock triggers new avalanches. Reuters. 2015-04-26 [2015-04-28]. 
  17. ^ Zoroya, Gregg. High-altitude helicopter rescues begin on Mt. Everest. USA Today. [2015-04-28]. 
  18. ^ Climbers trapped on Mount Everest 'are getting desperate'. Washington Post. [2015-04-27]. 
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 Update News about avalanche at Everest, Nepal Mountaineering Association, 28 April, 2015
  20. ^ Conor Dougherty. 'Google Adventurer' Dies on Mt. Everest. New York Times. 2015-04-25 [2015-04-28]. 
  21. ^ Wills Robinson. 'If you don't return we'll know that you've already lived the equivalent of at least 100 lives': The heartbreaking letter from a friend Google engineer was carrying to read at Everest summit before avalanche killed him. Daily Mail. 2015-04-27 [2015-04-27]. 
  22. ^ Peter Holley. Before the Everest avalanche, four Americans were exactly where they wanted to be. Washington Post. 2015-04-28 [2015-04-29]. 
  23. ^ Name List of 15 identified dead body among 19 dead body found at Mt. Everest, Nepal Mountaineering Association, April 28, 2015
  24. ^ The Latest on Nepal: In Ravaged Hamlets, Lives Were Spared, U.S. News and World Reports, April 29, 2015
  25. ^ Samudra Gupta Kashyap. Assam mountaineers undetterred after avalanche await Nepal govt’s permission to climb Everest. The Indian Express. 2015-04-28 [2015-04-29]. 
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 Climbing to resume on Mount Everest by next week: official. Agence France-Presse. 2015-04-29 [2015-04-30].