K·p微扰论

推导

${\displaystyle \psi _{n,\mathbf {k} }=e^{i\mathbf {k} \mathbf {r} }u_{n,\mathbf {k} }}$

${\displaystyle H_{\mathbf {k} }u_{n,\mathbf {k} }=E_{n,\mathbf {k} }u_{n,\mathbf {k} }}$

微扰方法

${\displaystyle H_{\mathbf {k} }=H_{0}+H_{\mathbf {k} }',\;\;H_{0}={\frac {p^{2}}{2m}}+V,\;\;H_{\mathbf {k} }'={\frac {\hbar ^{2}k^{2}}{2m}}+{\frac {\hbar \mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {p} }{m}}}$

${\displaystyle u_{n,\mathbf {k} }=u_{n,0}+{\frac {\hbar }{m}}\sum _{n'\neq n}{\frac {\langle u_{n,0}|\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {p} |u_{n',0}\rangle }{E_{n,0}-E_{n',0}}}u_{n',0}}$

${\displaystyle E_{n,\mathbf {k} }=E_{n,0}+{\frac {\hbar ^{2}k^{2}}{2m}}+{\frac {\hbar ^{2}}{m^{2}}}\sum _{n'\neq n}{\frac {|\langle u_{n,0}|\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {p} |u_{n',0}\rangle |^{2}}{E_{n,0}-E_{n',0}}}=E_{n,0}+{\frac {\hbar ^{2}k^{2}}{2m}}+{\frac {\hbar ^{2}}{m^{2}}}\sum _{n'\neq n}\sum _{i,j}{\frac {|\langle u_{n,0}|p_{i}|u_{n',0}\rangle ||\langle u_{n,0}|p_{j}|u_{n',0}\rangle |}{E_{n,0}-E_{n',0}}}k_{i}k_{j}}$

${\displaystyle ({\frac {1}{m^{\star }}})_{ij}={\frac {1}{m}}\delta _{ij}+{\frac {2}{m^{2}}}\sum _{n'\neq n}{\frac {|\langle u_{n,0}|p_{i}|u_{n',0}\rangle ||\langle u_{n,0}|p_{j}|u_{n',0}\rangle |}{E_{n,0}-E_{n',0}}}}$

${\displaystyle ({\frac {1}{m^{\star }}})_{ij}={\frac {1}{m}}\delta _{ij}+{\frac {2}{m^{2}}}{\frac {|\langle u_{n,0}|p_{i}|u_{n_{min},0}\rangle ||\langle u_{n,0}|p_{j}|u_{n_{min},0}\rangle |}{\Delta E_{min}}}}$

${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{m^{\star }}}={\frac {1}{m}}+{\frac {2}{m^{2}}}\sum _{i}{\frac {|\langle u_{n,0}|p_{i}|u_{n_{min},0}\rangle ||\langle u_{n,0}|p_{i}|u_{n_{min},0}\rangle |}{E_{g}}}}$

${\displaystyle {m^{\star }}/m=E_{g}/20ev}$

${\displaystyle H_{\mathbf {k} }={\frac {p^{2}}{2m}}+{\frac {\hbar }{m}}\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {p} +{\frac {\hbar ^{2}k^{2}}{2m}}+V+{\frac {\hbar }{4m^{2}c^{2}}}(\nabla V\times (\mathbf {p} +\hbar \mathbf {k} ))\cdot {\vec {\sigma }}}$

参考文献

1. 黄昆、韩汝琦. 固体物理学. 高等教育出版社. 1988: p328.
2. C. Kittel. Quantum Theory of Solids Second Revised Printing. New York: Wiley. 1987: 186–190. ISBN 0-471-62412-8.
3. ^
4. ^ P. Yu, M. Cardona. Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties 3rd. Springer. 2005. Section 2.6, pp. 68 ff' [2016-06-19]. ISBN 3-540-25470-6. （原始内容存档于2017-04-21）.
5. ^ J. M. Luttinger, W. Kohn. Motion of Electrons and Holes in Perturbed Periodic Fields. Physical Review. 1955, 97: 869. Bibcode:1955PhRv...97..869L. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.97.869.