A panel organized by the U.S. Department of Energy concluded there was no convincing evidence that useful sources of energy would result from the phenomena attributed to cold fusion. By the mid-1990s, most governments and scientists in the United States and Europe had dismissed the concept as illusion.
A panel由美國能源部組織結束那裡是有用的能源會起因於現象歸因於冷聚變的沒有令人相信的證據。在90 年代中期以前, 多數政府和科學家在團結的狀態和歐洲駁回了概念作為幻覺。
Since then, many scientists with a variety of credentials have contributed to the field or participated in the international conferences on cold fusion. Independent replication of excess heat and other effects have been reported in specialized peer reviewed journals. The sophistication of calorimeters had made significant progress, a DOE panel observed in 2004, and evidence of power that cannot be attributed to ordinary sources was more compelling than in 1989. Still, its report said, many experiments were poorly documented, the magnitude of the effect had not increased, it was not easily repeatable, and a nuclear cause was generally rejected. The panel decided against a major federally-funded research program, and identified several areas of scientific inquiry that might resolve some of the controversies.
從那以後, 許多科學家與各種各樣的證件對領域貢獻了或參加了關於冷聚變的國際會議。剩餘熱的獨立複製和其它作用被報告了在專業同輩被回顧的學報裡。測熱器的優雅獲得了重大進展, 2004 年DOE panel被觀察, 1989 年並且無法歸因於普通的來源力量的證據強制比。但是, 它的報告說, 許多實驗窮地被提供了, 作用的巨大未增加, 它容易地不是反覆性的, 並且核起因一般rejected 。盤區決定了反對一個主要聯邦被資助的研究方案, 和辨認了也許解決一些爭論科學詢問的幾個區域。
When water is electrolyzed in a closed cell surrounded by a calorimeter, we can account for all energy transfer using the theories of electricity, thermodynamics and chemistry: the electrical input energy, the heat accumulated in the cell, the chemical storage of energy and the heat leaving the cell balance out. When the cathode is made of palladium, and heavy water is used instead of light water, we expect to observe the same conservation of energy.
當水電解在一個閉合的細胞由測熱器圍攏, 我們能佔所有能量轉移使用電、熱力學和化學的理論: 電力輸入能量, 熱積累了在細胞、能量化工存貯和熱忽略細胞平衡。當負極由鈀製成, 並且重水被使用代替輕水, 我們準備觀察同樣能源節約。
What Fleischmann and Pons said they observed, to their own astonishment, was that, in some cases, the heat measured by the calorimeter exceeded the expectations. When they calculated the power density based on the volume of the cathode, they reached a value too high to be explained by chemical reactions. As a consequence, they concluded that the effect must be nuclear, although they lacked evidence for it.
What Fleischmann 和Pons認為他們觀察了, 對他們自己的驚訝, 是, 在某些情況下, 熱由測熱器測量超出了期望。當他們計算了功率密度根據負極的容量, 他們太高到達了價值由化學反應解釋。結果他們認為作用必須核, 雖然他們缺乏證據為它。
Others have tried to replicate the excess heat observations. Many failed, but some succeded and reported high power densities in peer reviewed journals such as the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics and the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry.. Some researchers believe that the experimental evidences are sufficient to establish the scientific validity of the effect, but others reject those evidences, and the 2004 DOE review left the panel evenly split on the issue (a significant change compared to the 1989 panel which rejected all evidences).
其他人設法複製剩餘熱觀察。許多未通過, 但一些成功和報告了大功率密度在同輩被回顧的學報裡譬如應用的物理日本學報和Electroanalytical Chemistry.一些研究員相信, 實驗性證據是充足建立作用的科學有效性, 但其他人拒絕了那些證據, 和2004 年DOE回顧panel均勻地被分裂關於問題(重大的變動與拒絕所有證據) 的1989 比較了panel。
The search of the products of nuclear fusion has resulted in conflicting evidences, leading two thirds of the DOE reviewers to exclude the possibility of nuclear reactions in these experiments in 2004. One additional reason for many to exclude a nuclear origin for the effect is that current physics theory cannot explain how fusion could occur in these experiments, and how the energy generated could be converted into heat (as opposed to radiation or other nuclear products). Still, in 2006, Mosier-Boss and Szpak, researchers in the U.S. Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, reported unambiguous evidences of nuclear reactions, which still need to be independently replicated.
Our current knowledge of the effect, if it exists, is insufficient to expect commercial applications soon. The 2004 DOE panel identified several areas that could be further studied using appropriate scientific methods.
核裂變產品的查尋導致矛盾的證據, 2004 年帶領DOE評論者的三分之二排除核反應的可能性在這些實驗。許多的一個另外的原因排除一個核起源為作用是, 當前的物理理論無法解釋怎麼融合能發生在這些實驗, 並且怎麼能量引起能被轉換成熱(與輻射或其它核產品相對) 。但是, 2006 年, Mosier 上司和Szpak, 研究員在美國海軍的空間和海戰系統中心聖地牙哥, 被報告核反應的毫不含糊的證據, 仍然需要獨立地是複製品.作用的我們的通用知識, 如果它存在, 是不足很快期待商務應用。2004 年DOE panel辨認了能進一步被學習運用適當的科學方法的幾個區域。
The cold fusion researchers presenting their review document to the 2004 DoE panel on cold fusion said that the possibility of calorimetric errors has been carefully considered, studied, tested and ultimately rejected by cold fusion researchers. They explain that, in 1989, Fleischmann and Pons used an open cell from which energy was lost in a variety of ways: the differential equation used to determine excess energy was awkward and subject to misunderstanding, and the method had an error of 1% or less. Recognizing these issues, SRI International and other research teams used a flow calorimeter around closed cells: the governing equations become trivial, and the method has an error of 0.5 % or better. Over 50 experiments conducted by SRI International showed excess power well above the accuracy of measurement. Arata and Zhang have observed excess heat power averaging 80 watts over 12 days. The researchers also said that the amount of energy reported in some of the experiments appears to be too great compared to the small mass of material in the cell, for it to be stored by any chemical process. Their control experiments using light water never showed excess heat.While Storms says that light water is an impurity that can kill the effect,Miley and others have reported low energy nuclear reactions with light water.
冷聚變研究員提出他們的回顧文件對2004 年母鹿盤區在冷聚變說, 量熱法錯誤的可能性仔細地被考慮了, 學習了, 由冷聚變研究員測試和最後拒絕。他們解釋, 1989 年Fleischmann 和Pons使用了能量丟失用各種各樣的方式的一個開放細胞: 微分方程使用確定剩餘能量笨拙和依於誤解, 並且方法有錯誤1% 或較少。認可這些問題, SRI 國際和其它研究小組使用了流程測熱器在閉合的細胞附近: 治理的等式變得瑣細, 並且方法有0.5 % 錯誤或更好。50 次試驗由SRI 國際被顯示的剩餘力量做很好在測量之上準確性。Arata 和張觀察剩餘熱力量平均為80 瓦特12 天。研究員並且說, 相當數量能量被報告在一些實驗看來是太偉大的與材料比較小大量在細胞, 使它由任一個化學過程存放。他們的控制實驗使用輕水從未顯示了剩餘熱。當Storms認為輕水是可能殺害附加價值的雜質, Miley 和其他人報告了低能量核反應與輕水。
When asked whether the evidence for power that cannot be attribued to ordinary chemical or solid state source is compelling or inexistent, the 2004 DoE panel was evenly split. Many reviewers in the panel noted that poor experiment design, documentation, background control and other similar issues hampered the understanding and interpretation of the results presented to the DoE panel. The reviewers who did not find the production of excess power convincing said that excess power in the short term is not the same as net energy production over the entire of time of an experiment, that all possible chemical and solid state causes of excess heat have not been investigated and eliminated as an explanation, that the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, or that production over a period of time is a few percent of the external power applied and hence calibration and systematic effects could account for the purported effect.
Other evidences of heat generation not reviewed by the DOE include the detection of hot spots by infrared (see picture), the detection of mini-explosions by a piezoelectric substrate, and the observation of discrete sites exhibiting molten-like features that require substantial energy expenditure.
當問是否證據為無法是的力量認為是對普通的化學製品或固態來源是強制或不存在的, 2004 年DOE panel均勻地被分裂了。許多評論者在Panel注意到, 粗劣的實驗設計、文獻、背景控制和其它相似的問題阻礙了結果的理解和解釋被提出對DOE panel。沒有發現剩餘力量說服生產說的評論者剩餘力量近期像淨發電不是相同在整個實驗的時期, 所有剩餘熱的可能的化學製品和固體起因未被調查和未被消滅作為解釋, 作用的巨大未增加完全成功在十年工作, 或生產經過一段時間是外部電力被申請和因此定標和系統的作用的幾百分之能佔被聲稱的作用。 其它熱世代的證據由母鹿沒回顧包括熱點的偵查由紅外線(參見圖片), 微型爆炸的偵查由一個壓電基體, 和分離站點的觀察陳列溶解像要求堅固能量開支的特點。
For a nuclear reaction to be proposed as the source of energy, it is necessary to show that the amount of energy is related to the amount of nuclear products. When asked about evidences of low energy nuclear reactions, two thirds of the 2004 DOE panel did not feel that there was any conclusive evidence, five found the evidence "somewhat convincing" and one was entirely convinced.
If the excess heat were generated by the hot fusion of two deuterium atoms, the most probable outcome, according to current theory, would be the generation of either a tritium and a proton, or a 3He and a neutron. The level of protons, tritium, neutrons and 3He actually observed in Fleischmann-Pons experiment have been higher than current theory asserts, but well below the level expected in view of the heat generated, implying that these reactions cannot explain it.
If the excess heat were generated by the hot fusion of two deuterium atoms into 4He, a reaction which is normally extremely rare, 4Helium and gamma rays would be generated. Miles et al. reported that 4helium was indeed generated in quantity consistent with the excess heat, but no studies have shown levels of gamma rays consistent with the excess heat.Current nuclear theory cannot explain these results. Researchers are puzzled that some experiments produce heat without 4Helium.Critics note that great care must be used to prevent contamination by helium naturally present in atmospheric air.
Although there appears to be evidence of transmutations and isotope shifts near the cathode surface in some experiments, cold fusion researchers generally consider that these anomalies are not the ash associated with the primary excess heat effect.
In 2006, experimental evidence of nuclear activity was demonstrated by the use of a standard nuclear track detector called a CR-39. Photographs show scarring of the detector which is consistent with nuclear activity. The intensity and pattern of the scarring appears to rule out anomalous sources such as background radiation as the cause. The research was first presented at a science conference in Washington, D.C. on August 2, 2006. A detailed article appeared in New Energy Times, an online news magazine on November 10, 2006.
為一個核反應提議作為能源, 它是必要表示, 相當數量能量與相當數量核產品有關。當詢問低能量核反應的證據, panel沒有認為2004 年的三分之二DOE有任一確鑿的證據, 五發現證據"令人相信有些" 並且你整個地被說服了。 如果剩餘熱由二氘原子的熱的融合引起了, 最可能的結果, 根據當前的理論, 會是或超重氫的世代和氫核, 或3He 和中子。氫核的水平, 超重氫、中子和3He 實際上被觀察在Fleischmann和Pons實驗高級比當前的理論斷言, 但很好在水平之下被期望由於熱引起, 暗示這些反應無法解釋它。 如果剩餘熱由二氘原子的熱的融合引起了入4He, 通常是極端罕見的反應, 4Helium 和伽馬射線會引起。Miles 等報告, 4helium 的確引起了在數量一致以剩餘熱, 但研究未顯示伽馬射線的水平一致與剩餘熱能.流動核理論無法解釋這些結果。一些實驗導致熱沒有4Helium.評論筆記的研究員困惑巨大關心必須由氦氣使用防止汙穢自然地當前在大氣空氣裡。 雖然那裡看來是嬗變的證據並且同位素轉移在負極表面附近在一些實驗, 冷聚變研究員一般考慮, 這些反常現象不是灰與相關主要剩餘熱作用。 2006 年, 核活動的實驗性證據由對一臺標準核軌道探測器的用途展示了稱CR-39 。相片顯示結疤探測器哪些與核活動是一致的。結疤的強度和樣式看上去排除異常來源譬如背景輻射作為起因。研究第一次被提出了在科學會議在華盛頓特區, 在2006 年8月2 日。一篇詳細的文章出版在新能量時間, 一本網上新聞雜誌在2006 年11月10 日。
結果可再現性 The cold fusion researchers presenting their review document to the 2004 DoE panel on cold fusion said that the observation of excess heat has been reproduced, that it can be reproduced at will when the proper conditions are reproduced, and that many of the reasons for failure to reproduce it have been discovered. Yet, most reviewers stated that the effects are not repeatable.
In 1989, the DOE panel said: "Even a single short but valid cold fusion period would be revolutionary. As a result, it is difficult convincingly to resolve all cold fusion claims since, for example, any good experiment that fails to find cold fusion can be discounted as merely not working for unknown reasons.".
Nobel Laureate Julian Schwinger said that it is not uncommon to have difficulty in reproducing a new phenomenon that involves an ill-understood macroscopic control of a microscopic mechanism. As examples, he gave the onset of microchip studies, and the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity.
冷聚變研究員提出他們的回顧文件對2004 年母鹿盤區在冷聚變說, 剩餘熱的觀察被再生產了, 它可能被再生產任意當適當的條件被再生產, 並且許多疏忽的原因再生產它被發現了。然而, 多數評論者闡明, 作用不是反覆性的。 1989 年, 母鹿盤區說: "唯一短小但合法的冷聚變期間會是革命的。結果, 它令人信服地難解決所有冷聚變要求因為, 例如, 不發現冷聚變的任一個好實驗像不僅僅工作可能被打折為未知的原因。"。 諾貝爾得獎者朱利安Schwinger 說, 它不是不凡有困難在再生產介入一個微觀機制的不適被瞭解的宏觀控制的一種新現象。作為例子, 他給了微集成電路研究起始, 和在高溫超導性的發現上。
Cold fusion's most significant problem in the eyes of many scientists is that current theories describing hot nuclear fusion can not explain how a cold fusion reaction could occur at relatively low temperatures, and that there is currently no accepted theory to explain cold fusion. The DOE panel says: "Nuclear fusion at room temperature, of the type discussed in this report, would be contrary to all understanding gained of nuclear reactions in the last half century; it would require the invention of an entirely new nuclear process". Current understanding of hot nuclear fusion shows that the following explanations are not adequate:
Nuclear reaction in general: The average density of deuterium in the palladium rod seems vastly insufficient to force pairs of nuclei close enough for fusion to occur according to mechanisms known to mainstream theories. The average distance is approximately 0.17 nanometers, a distance at which the attractive strong nuclear force cannot overcome the Coulomb repulsion. Actually, deuterium atoms are closer together in D2 gas molecules, which do not exhibit fusion. Absence of standard nuclear fusion products: if the excess heat were generated by the fusion of 2 deuterium atoms, the most probable outcome would be the generation of either a tritium atom and a proton, or a 3He and a neutron. The level of neutrons, tritium and 3He actually observed in Fleischmann-Pons experiment have been well below the level expected in view of the heat generated, implying that these fusion reactions cannot explain it. Fusion of deuterium into helium 4: if the excess heat were generated by the hot fusion of 2 deuterium atoms into 4He, gamma rays and helium would be generated. Again, insufficient levels of helium and gamma rays have been observed to explain the excess heat, and there is no known mechanism to explain how gamma rays could be converted into heat. Furthermore, the generation of 4He is always 107 lower than that of tritium and proton for even the lowest energy of the incident deuteron measured so far. In order for fusion to occur, the electrostatic force (Coulomb repulsion) that repels the positively charged nuclei must be overcome. Once the distance between the nuclei becomes comparable to one femtometre, the attractive strong interaction takes over and the fusion may occur. However, bringing the nuclei so close together requires an energy on the order of 10 MeV per nucleus, whereas the energies of chemical reactions are on the order of several electronvolts; it is hard to explain where the required energy would come from in room-temperature matter. Nuclei are so far apart in a metal lattice that it is hard to believe that the distant atoms could somehow facilitate the fusion reaction. Moreover, when fusion occurs, a large amount of energy is normally released as gamma rays or energetic protons or neutrons: there is no known mechanism that would release this energy as heat within the relatively small metal lattice. Robert F. Heeter said that the direct conversion of fusion energy into heat is not possible because of energy and momentum conservation and the laws of special relativity. Other critics say that until the observations are satisfactorily explained, there is no reason to believe that the effects have a nuclear rather than a non-nuclear origin.
The following mechanisms have been proposed to explain the discrepancies:
Bose-Einstein condensate-like: Theoretical work suggests that deuterons in shallow potential wells such as may be found in a palladium metal lattice may exhibit a cooperative behaviour similar to a Bose–Einstein condensate . This would allow nuclei to react despite the coulomb barrier, due to quantum tunneling and superposition. However, traditional Bose condensates only occur at much lower temperatures (close to absolute zero). Mossbauer effect-like: Theoretical work suggests that the energy of fusion can be transmitted to the entire metal lattice rather than a single atom, preventing the emission of gamma rays . It is interesting to compare this to the Mossbauer effect, in which the recoil energy of a nuclear transition is absorbed by a crystal lattice as a whole, rather than by a single atom. However, the energy involved must be less than that of a phonon, on the order of ?? keV, compared with 23 MeV in nuclear fusion. Multi-body interactions: The following reaction, if proven to exists, would not generate gamma rays: d+d+d+d -> 8Be -> 2 4He. Enhanced cross section; neutron formation; particle-wave transformation; resonance, tunneling and screening; exotic particles; formation of proton or deuteron clusters; formation of electron clusters. Deuterons embedded in palladium could settle at points and in channels within the metal's electron orbitals which substantially increase the likelihood of deuteron collisions. V.A. Filimonov and his colleagues in Russia have described this as a combination of deuteron cluster formation, shock wave fronts involving phase boundaries, and the directional propagation of solitons. (See also Zhang, W.-S. et al., 1999, 2000, and 2004.)
冷聚變的最重大的問題在許多科學家眼裡是, 當前的理論描述熱的核裂變無法解釋怎麼冷聚變反應能發生在相對地低溫, 並且有當前沒有被接受的理論解釋冷聚變。DOE panel認為: "核裂變在室溫, 型被談論在這個報告, 與所有理解會是相反的被獲取核反應在後半局世紀; 它會要求一個整個地新核能過程的發明"。對熱的核裂變的當前的理解表示, 以下解釋不是充分的:
核反應總之: 平均密度氘在鈀標尺似乎浩大地不足強迫對中堅力量足夠緊密使融合發生根據機制對主流理論已知。平均距離是大約0.17 毫微米, 一個距離有吸引力的強的核部隊無法克服庫侖厭惡。實際上, 氘原子一起是接近的在D2 氣體分子裡, 不陳列融合。
缺乏標準核裂變產品: 如果剩餘熱由2 氘原子的融合引起了, 最可能的結果會是或超重氫原子的世代和氫核, 或3He 和中子。中子的水平, 超重氫和3He 實際上被觀察在Fleischmann 腦橋實驗是很好在水平之下被期望由於熱引起, 暗示, 這些融合反應無法解釋它。
氘的融合入氦氣4: 如果剩餘熱由2 氘原子的熱的融合引起了入4He, 伽馬射線和氦氣會引起。再, 氦氣的不足的水平和伽馬射線被觀察解釋剩餘熱, 並且沒有知道的機制解釋怎麼伽馬射線能被轉換成熱。
此外, 4He 的世代比那總是107 低超重氫和氫核為事件氘核的最低的能量到目前為止被測量。
為了融合發生, 靜電力量(庫侖厭惡) 排斥明確.緊張的中堅力量必須被克服。距離在中堅力量之間一次變得可比較與一femtometre, 有吸引力的強的互作用接管並且融合也許發生。但是, 帶來中堅力量很接近一起要求能量大約10 兆伏特每中堅力量, 但是化學反應能量是大約幾electronvolts; 它是困難解釋何處必需的能量會來自在室溫問題。中堅力量是到目前為止單獨在金屬格子, 它是困難相信遙遠的原子能以某種方法促進融合反應。而且, 當融合發生, 很多能量通常被發布作為伽馬射線或精力充沛的氫核或中子: 沒有會發布這能量作為熱在相對地小金屬格子之內的知道的機制。羅伯特・F. Heeter 說, 融合能量直接轉換入熱不是可能的由於能量和動量保護和特別相對法律。其它評論家說直到觀察令人滿意地被解釋, 沒有理由相信作用有一個核而不是一個非核起源。 以下機制提議解釋差誤:
Bose 艾因斯坦凝析油像: 理論工作建議, 氘核在淺潛在的井譬如也許被發現在鈀金屬格子也許顯示合作行為相似與Bose 艾因斯坦凝析油。這會允許中堅力量起反應儘管庫侖障礙, 由於量子挖洞和疊置。但是, 傳統Bose 凝析油只發生在低溫(緊挨□對零度) 。
Mossbauer 作用像: 理論工作建議, 融合能量可能被傳達給整個金屬格子而不是唯一原子, 防止伽馬射線放射。它是有趣比較這與Mossbauer 作用, 核轉折反衝能量由晶格吸收整體上, 而不是由唯一原子。但是, 介入的能量必須是決不那一聲子, 大約?? keV, 比較23 兆伏特在核裂變。
多身體互作用: 以下反應, 如果證明存在, 不會引起伽馬射線: d+d+d+d - 8Be - 2 4He 。改進的橫剖面; 中子形成; 微粒揮動變革; 共鳴, 挖洞和篩選; 異乎尋常的微粒; 氫核或氘核群的形成; 電子群的形成。氘核被埋置在鈀裡能安定在點和在渠道裡在極大地增加氘核碰撞可能的金屬的電子軌道之內。V.A. Filimonov 和他的同事在俄國描述了這作為氘核群形成的組合, 衝擊波前線介入階段界限, 和solitons 的定向傳播。(參見也張, W.-S. 等, 1999 年, 2000 年, 和2004 年。)
- 向 http://www.science.doe.gov/Sub/Newsroom/News_Releases/DOE-SC/2004/low_energy/index.htm 中加入存档链接 https://web.archive.org/web/20070906034155/http://www.science.doe.gov/Sub/Newsroom/News_Releases/DOE-SC/2004/low_energy/index.htm
- 向 http://pesn.com/2006/03/24/9600253_Fleischmann_joins_D2Fusion/ 中加入存档链接 https://web.archive.org/web/20061021093333/http://pesn.com/2006/03/24/9600253_Fleischmann_joins_D2Fusion/