|赤經||13h 42m 08.10s|
|赤緯||+09° 28′ 38.61″|
29.36 Gly（9.00 Gpc）|
13.1 Gly（4.0 Gpc）
|ULAS J134208.10+092838.61, Quasar20171206|
來自ULAS J1342+0928的光是理論預測星際物質從結束電中性成為電離狀態的過渡時期（再電離時期）。類星體在這個過程中可能是一個重要的能量來源，這標誌著黑暗時期，也就是宇宙的黑暗時代的終結。所以，觀察來自黑暗時期的過渡時期的類星體是理論學家主要的興趣所在。由於它們的高紫外線光度，類星體也是研究再電離過程的最好來源。這一發現也被描述為對黑洞形成理論具有挑戰性：通過在宇宙早期階段擁有一個比預期大得多的超大質量黑洞。然而，這並不是第一個能提供這樣挑戰的遙遠類星體 。
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"This black hole grew far larger than we expected in only 690 million years after the Big Bang, which challenges our theories about how black holes form," said study co-author Daniel Stern of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
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A black hole that grew to gargantuan size in the Universe's first billion years is by far the largest yet spotted from such an early date, researchers have announced. The object, discovered by astronomers in 2013, is 12 billion times as massive as the Sun, and six times greater than its largest-known contemporaries. Its existence poses a challenge for theories of the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, astronomers say. Light from the black hole took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth, so astronomers see the object as it was 900 million years after the Big Bang. That “is actually a very short time” for a black hole to have grown so large, says astronomer Xue-Bing Wu of Peking University in Beijing.
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Now, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) have discovered three quasars that challenge conventional wisdom on black hole growth. These quasars are extremely massive, but should not have had sufficient time to collect all that mass. The astronomers observed quasars whose light took nearly 13 billion years to reach Earth. In consequence, the observations show these quasars not as they are today, but as they were almost 13 billion years ago, less than a billion years after the big bang. The quasars in question have about a billion times the mass of the sun. All current theories of black hole growth postulate that, in order to grow that massive, the black holes would have needed to collect infalling matter, and shine brightly as quasars, for at least a hundred million years. But these three quasars proved to be have been active for a much shorter time, less than 100,000 years. "This is a surprising result," explains Christina Eilers, a doctoral student at MPIA and lead author of the present study. "We don't understand how these young quasars could have grown the supermassive black holes that power them in such a short time."
- Jamie Seidel. Black hole at the dawn of time challenges our understanding of how the universe was formed. News Corp Australia. 7 December 2017 [9 December 2017].
It had reached its size just 690 million years after the point beyond which there is nothing. The most dominant scientific theory of recent years describes that point as the Big Bang — a spontaneous eruption of reality as we know it out of a quantum singularity. But another idea has recently been gaining weight: that the universe goes through periodic expansions and contractions — resulting in a “Big Bounce”. And the existence of early black holes has been predicted to be a key telltale as to whether or not the idea may be valid. This one is very big. To get to its size — 800 million times more mass than our Sun — it must have swallowed a lot of stuff. ... As far as we understand it, the universe simply wasn’t old enough at that time to generate such a monster.
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This new theory that accepts that the Universe is going through periodic expansions and contractions is called "Big Bounce"