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仰望星空派
英語:Stargazy pie
Baked stargazy pie.jpg
准备上桌的仰望星空派
別稱 Starrey gazey pie
上菜順序 主食
起源地 英国
地區 康沃爾郡Mousehole英语Mousehole
上菜溫度
主要成分 Pilchards英语Pilchards

仰望星空派(英語:Stargazy pie,亦作英語:starrey gazey pie)是英国康沃尔地区的一种传统美食,由沙丁鱼搭配马铃薯和鸡蛋,上敷起酥面皮烤制而成。儘管還有一些使用其他魚類做料理的版本,普遍而言,仰望星空派最為獨特之處即是魚頭(或魚尾)向上穿出酥皮,呈仰望天空之狀。

長久以來,仰望星空派的起源地被認為是康沃爾西南端的毛斯爾村(Mousehole village),用於慶祝當地的傳統節日「湯姆鮑考克之夜」(英語:Tom Bawcock's Eve),以紀念這位村民在暴風驟雨的冬夜出海捕魚的英雄壯舉。在「湯姆鮑考克之夜」當天,村民會用彩燈打造出仰望星空派造型的燈飾,而根據此節日活動可知,湯姆當夜出海的全部收穫,總共七種魚類,用於烤製出巨型仰望星空派後,幫助、解救村民度過饑荒。 有證據表明,節日的源頭可能更加久遠,甚至先於基督教的傳入。而湯姆鮑考克的故事能廣為人知,則歸因於Antonia Barber所創作的兒童繪本 The Mousehole Cat,而該繪本便是以「仰望星空派」的由來為一大特點。 2007年,選手Mark Hix更用一種仰望星空派,在英國廣播公司所主辦的「大英選單」節目(Great British Menu)贏得勝利。

描述编辑

仰望星空派是一道以油酥麵糰為基底,且傳統上使用整尾沙丁魚填滿的鮮魚派。值得注意的是,每尾沙丁魚都必須保留下牠們的魚頭,好穿出上層的油酥餅皮,這樣才能呈現出昂首仰望星空的景象。 這樣魚的擺放方式,能讓烹煮過程中釋出的油脂倒流回派中,除了可以增添更飽滿的風味,更可以確保整個派得以維持濕潤[1]。名主廚 Rick Stein,則建議:也可以嘗試讓沙丁魚的魚尾穿出派面,以營造出魚兒躍出水面的畫面[2]。 儘管British Food Trust將仰望星空派形容成對於兒童而言,不僅有趣而且十分俱有娛樂性的料理[1],但它仍然被 New York Daily News 根據美國作家Neil Setchfield的一本著作,將其列為「噁心!真的有人在吃的噁心食物」之一[3][4]。 另外,在一段重新演繹過的傳說故事裡,仰望星空派在「湯姆鮑考克之夜」的有些時候,只能在毛斯爾當地唯一一家酒吧──The Ship Inn,才能享用得到[5]

起源编辑

"Merry place you may believe, Tiz Mouzel 'pon Tom Bawcock's eve
To be there then who wouldn't wesh, to sup o' sibm soorts o' fish
When morgy brath had cleared the path, Comed lances for a fry
And then us had a bit o' scad an' Starry-gazie pie
As aich we'd clunk, E's health we drunk, in bumpers bremmen high,
And when up caame Tom Bawcock's name, We'd prais'd 'un to the sky"

Traditionally sung on Tom Bawcock's Eve[6]

仰望星空派起源于康沃尔西南端的渔村Mousehole。s with many parts of Cornish heritage, a legend has appeared about its origins. 这种派是为了纪念Tom Bawcock的过人勇气。Tom Bawcock是16世纪的当地渔民。根据传说,一个暴风雨不断的冬天,由于反常的猛烈暴风雨,渔船无法出海。耶诞将至,以鱼类为主要食物来源的村民却饥寒交迫。[6]

12月23日,Tom Bawcock 决定在风暴中驾船出海。在恶劣的天气和呼啸的海浪中,他成功捕回足够全村食用的鱼。全部收获烤制成一个大派,这七种鱼的鱼头冲破表面的酥皮The entire catch (including seven types of fish) was baked into a pie, which had the fish heads poking through to prove that there were fish inside. 从此,12月23日成为渔村的节日,the Tom Bawcock's Eve festival is held on 23 December in Mousehole. 在晚间的庆典期间,村民会抬着巨派游行,手提手工灯笼,然后将派享用,以纪念汤姆的壮举。[6][7][8]

An older feast, held by the fishermen towards the end of December, included a pie cooked with different fish to represent the variety of catches the men hoped to achieve in the coming year. There is a possibility that Tom Bawcock's Eve is an evolution of this festival.[9] Since 1963, the festival has been run against the backdrop of the Mousehole village illuminations, 灯塔会灯火通明,其他活动[10] One set of lights even represents the pie itself, showing fish heads and tails protruding from a pie dish underneath six stars.[11]

有传言说,这一节日只是当地旅馆Ship inn在1950年代炮制的。然而,早在1927年的《老康沃尔》 杂志中,Morton Nance, an author on the 康沃尔语就已经记载了这一节日。他认为,这一节日在20世纪之前就已经存在,尽管他怀疑汤姆的真实性,并提出这个人名源于"Beau Coc"。他同时在书中肯定这一节日起源于基督教传入之前,然而仰望星空派何时成为节日的一部分却无从考证。Morton Nance 还传统歌曲,went on to restore the traditional song sung on Tom Bawcock's Eve, played to the local tune "wedding March".[12]

烹饪方法编辑

 
仰望星空派,沙丁鱼看上去像望向天空。放入烤箱烘培之前的仰望星空派

传说中最早的仰望星空派包括sand eel英语sand eelhorse mackerel英语horse mackerelpilchards、鲱鱼dogfish英语Scyliorhinus and 魣鱈 along with a seventh fish。而传统的仰望行空派的主要材料是沙丁鱼,有时mackerel or herring也可作为替代。Richard Stevenson, chef at The Ship Inn in Mousehole, 任何白肉鱼类均可以作为原料,with pilchards or herring just added for the presentation. 。为食用方便,备料时鱼身要先去鳞去骨,而保留完整头尾。其他传统配料包括浓缩牛奶、鸡蛋和著熟的马铃薯。[13]

仰望星空派还有添加其他原料的变种,包括煮鸡蛋、培根、洋葱、芥末或白葡萄酒之类。有一些版本中,鱼肉甚至可以改为crayfish and 兔肉羊肉。无论底料如何,正宗的仰望星空派的表面一定要覆盖面皮,通常shortcrust,但有时puff pastry, 鱼头、偶尔是鱼尾从中穿出来。[13]

由于摆盘的需要,建议将沙丁鱼尾部向心排列,这样头部可以朝向四周的边缘伸出。由于有面皮和土豆作为主食,仰望星空派可以单独食用,也可搭配面包或蔬菜。柠檬碎。Other suggested accompaniments are Cornish Yarg, Rhubarb chutney, poached eggs or a slice of lemon.[13][14]

在流行文化中编辑

The Mousehole Cat编辑

The children's book The Mousehole Cat by Antonia Barber is inspired by Tom Bawcock's Eve. It is the story of Tom Bawcock and his loyal black and white cat, Mowzer, setting sail to catch the fish. When the boat hits the storm, it is represented by a giant "Storm-Cat", allowing Mowzer to eventually save the day by soothing the storm with her purring. This purring becomes a song and while the Storm-Cat is resting Tom is able to haul in his catch and return to the village. When they arrive back at the village, the entire catch is baked into a "Star-Gazy" pie, on which the villagers feast. Notably, Antonia Barber points out that stargazy pie was a staple of Mousehole diet before Tom's heroic fishing expedition, however, whereas according to tradition it dates from his return and legendary catch.[15]

Great British Menu和Mark Hix编辑

The main course of the second series of the Great British Menu was won by Mark Hix, head chef at The Ivy in London, with a variation on stargazy pie.[16] Instead of the traditional pilchards, 兔肉和淡水龙虾 for the filling, 并将虾头穿出酥皮表面。As the winning main course, the pie was served along with the other winning courses at an Ambassador's dinner at the 巴黎的英国大使馆的大使晚宴 in Paris.[16][17]评委还破例选择了他的甜点,使其成为节目历史上唯一的主菜和甜点双料冠军。Mark Hix had previously created a similar version of the dish for a festival aimed at increasing the use of 羊肉. His 他的羊肉龙虾仰望星空派制成于2006年,并一度在他的餐馆推出这道菜。[18]

恶魔与仰望星空派编辑

根据另一段传说,仰望星空派和其他康沃尔地区的奇葩派使得魔鬼从来不敢进入康沃尔。

Robert Hunt英语Robert Hunt (scientist)在他所著的康沃尔传统丛书《Popular romances of the west of England; or, The drolls, traditions, and superstitions of old Cornwall》中解释道,恶魔曾经穿过塔馬河来到托波因特。此章节名为“The Devil's Coits, etc”,原因是当恶魔看到这些派后,发现康沃尔人做派无所不用其极,并决定在被他们做成“魔鬼派”之前逃离,回到德文郡。[19][20]

其他编辑

• The BBC miniseries Poldark featured Cornish couple Demelza and Ross Poldark eating a stargazy pie.
Ladies in Lavender, 设定于康沃尔,was also set in Cornwall and featured a stargazy pie.
• The dish was also featured on the ITV show, Britain's Best Dish.
• In the children's book, The Lighthouse Keeper's Cat by Ronda and David Armitage, the protagonist's favourite dish is stargazy pie, and he is rewarded with one at the end.[21]
• The American rock band, The Silver Seas (under their previous name The Bees U.S.) released an album called Starry Gazey Pie. The album and titular track were based upon a recipe in a cookbook which band member Daniel Tashian remembered from his childhood.[22]
• A stargazy pie appears in the film adaptation of James and the Giant Peach.
• 仰望星空派为英国广播公司电视系列节目天空之派的第二季第三部增添了戏剧色彩。剧中的新手主厨为了让他的晚餐引人注目,准备了他个人版本的仰望星空派,结果却一塌糊涂。
• This culinary creation has been presented in Chinese media as a dish that "has come to epitomise British cuisine in Chinese eyes".[23]

参见编辑

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Stargazey pie. The British Food Trust. [7 January 2011]. 
  2. ^ Stein, Rick. Rick Stein's Food Heroes. BBC Books. 2005. ISBN 0-563-52175-9. 
  3. ^ Yuck! disgusting things people eat (number 9). New York Daily News. 24 August 2010 [7 January 2011]. 
  4. ^ Setchfield, Neil. Yuck! The things people eat. Merrell. 2010. ISBN 1-85894-524-0. 
  5. ^ Berry, Oliver; Dixon, Belinda. Devon, Cornwall & South West England. Lonely Planet. 2008: 48 [7 January 2011]. ISBN 1-74104-873-7. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 The Story of Tom Bawcock. BBC News. 2 December 2009 [7 January 2011]. 
  7. ^ Kent, Michael. Cornwall from the Coast Path. Alison Hodge Publishers. 2008: 103. ISBN 0-906720-68-0. 
  8. ^ Trewin, Carol; Woolfitt, Adam. Gourmet Cornwall. Alison Hodge Publishers. 2005: 16. ISBN 0-906720-39-7. 
  9. ^ Paston-Williams, Sara. Fish: Recipes from a Busy Island. National Trust Books. 2006: 21 [7 January 2011]. ISBN 1-905400-07-1. 
  10. ^ Mousehole village illuminations. BBC News. 12 November 2009 [7 January 2011]. 
  11. ^ Mousehole comes to life with light. BBC. [7 January 2011]. 
  12. ^ Deane, Troy; Shaw, Tony. The folklore of Cornwall. Batsford. 1975. ISBN 0-7134-3037-0. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Trewing, Carol; Woolfitt, Adam. Cornish Fishing and Seafood. Alison Hodge Publishers. 2006: 243 [7 January 2011]. ISBN 0-906720-42-7. 
  14. ^ Stargazy pie. Britain's Best Dish. ITV. [7 January 2011]. 
  15. ^ Cohn, Amy. Children's Books: The Mousehole Cat. The New York Times. 10 March 1991 [7 January 2011]. 
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Stacey, Caroline. Mark Hix serves up a seasonal feast. The Times. 11 October 2008 [7 January 2011]. 
  17. ^ Dugan, Emily. Champion of British food dominates the 'Great British Menu'. The Independent. 8 June 2007 [7 January 2011]. 
  18. ^ Mutton gambols back on the menu. BBC News. 1 October 2006 [7 January 2011]. 
  19. ^ Hunt, Robert. Popular romances of the west of England; or, The drolls, traditions, and superstitions of old Cornwall. JC Hotten. 1871: 185–186. 
  20. ^ Croxford, Bob. From Cornwall with love. Dundurn Press. 1993. ISBN 0-9521850-0-8. 
  21. ^ Armitage, Ronda; Armitage, David. The Lighthous Keeper's Cat. Scholastic. 1997. ISBN 0-590-13260-1. 
  22. ^ The Bees (U.S.): 'Starry Gazey Pie'. NPR Music. 20 January 2008 [7 January 2011]. 
  23. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-china-blog-27442398

外部链接编辑