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索宁克人
GuerriersSarrakholais.jpg
索宁克战士,1890年
總人口
约1百万 (2005)
分佈地區
马里, 毛里塔尼亚, 塞内加尔, 科特迪瓦, 布基纳法索, 加纳, 冈比亚, 几内亚比绍
語言
索宁克语
宗教信仰
伊斯兰教
相关族群
曼丁戈人, 班巴拉人, Imraguen, Jakhanke
马里的索宁克人口分布图

索宁克人Soninke,其他拼写SarakoleSeraculeh或'Serahuli)是曼德人的一支,他们是Bafour的后裔且与毛里塔尼亚的Imraguen人关系密切。他们说曼德语中的索宁克语.。他们是古老的加纳帝国 (公元750~1240年)的缔造者。索宁克人的分支包括MarakaWangara.

1066年左右,在与来自北方的 穆拉比特王朝 的穆斯林商人接触后,, 临近的 Takrur的索宁克贵族成为撒哈拉沙漠以南的西非第一批皈依 伊斯兰教的人群。加纳帝国分裂后,索宁克人流散到马里、塞内加尔、毛里塔尼亚、冈比亚和几内亚比绍。这次流散形成了著名的商业民族Wangara,他们的足迹远至传统的曼德地区。在加纳和布基纳法索,Wangara被用来描述城市和村镇里的索宁克人。现在,索宁克人约有100万人。

历史编辑

索宁克人保留着传统的文化,继承了缔造加纳帝国(不要和现代的加纳混淆,加纳只是使用“加纳”这个名字)的祖先们的社会结构。加纳帝国在索宁克人的历史和生活方式中占有重要地位。 据说[誰說的?]加纳帝国的第一位统治者是Dingha Cisse,他被看作是一位半人半神似的的人物。他带领着他的子民从“东方(可能是马里抑或现代的塞内加尔)”而来,领导联盟对抗邻近的部落和“游牧强盗”。一些人相信经过长期和柏柏尔人的战斗之后,Cisse娶了柏柏尔人首领的三个女儿并且缔造了一个影响深远的同盟。

地理编辑

索宁克人现在仍然生活在整个西非,但是集中在加纳帝国的故土、上塞内加尔河和在NaraNioro du Sahel之间的马里与塞内加尔边境。在法国的殖民统治下,一些人被鼓励移民寻找工作,他们在达喀尔和非洲的其他大城市建立了社区。法国的巴黎也有一个庞大且逐渐增长的索宁克人社区。由著名的“Wangara”贸易联盟领导的贸易网络,把索宁克人和他们的文化带到马里和塞内加尔的大部、毛里塔尼亚南部、布基纳法索北部、冈比亚部分地区和几内亚比绍。Maraka——索宁克商人社区和种植园(集中在马里城市塞古的北方)——是班巴拉帝国的经济动力,他们开辟了整个地区的贸易路线。

 
Diobé, ruler of Bakel, and his advisors: 1887-1888. Bakel, a cosmopolitan Soninke trading town, was a target of French expansion of the mid 19th century. This photograph was taken by members of Colonel Joseph Galliéni campaign to create French protectorates up the Senegal River into modern Mali.

社会组织与政治编辑

The ancient Soninke empire was governed by a powerful emperor who controlled the Trans-Saharan Trade. His power was limited by nobles in charge of the bureaucracy, taxes, army, justice and other duties. The central government of the empire was composed of the emperor and those nobles who can be considered as important advisors. The peripheral courts had some freedom deciding on their interior problems however they were supervised by the imperial court concerning imperial problems as well as the army. In the time of Wagadu there was an emperor at the head of the empire followed by the noble’s families. Even after the decline of the empire the majority of the Soninke families still maintained this hierarchy in their villages. In the Soninke social organization everyone occupies a place. Being king or a smith was not by choice, it was an inherited position. This hierarchy is very important in Soninke culture and it is respected by the Soninke. This structural social organization is divided in three levels. 古代的索宁克帝国由一位强力的君王统治,他掌控着跨撒哈拉沙漠贸易。掌管官僚、税收、军队、司法和其他职责的贵族们限制了他的权力。帝国的中央政府由君王和充当顾问的贵族们组成。

The first class are the ″Hooro″, the free men. They have the highest social rank. The Hooro are the rulers, they have the right to punish and dispense justice. The first class in the “Hooro” are the “tunkalemmu”, the princes. They exercise authority. Only a tunkalemmu” can become king. It's an inherited position. The next class after the princes, “tunnkalemmu”, are the “mangu”. The “mangu” are the advisors of the princes. They are their confidants. They act as mediators in conflicts between different classes of “Hooro” or free man. The “mangu” originate from the “kuralemme”, warrior class. In times of war the Mangu become heads of the army. The last class of the “hooro”, free man is the “modinu”, the priest. Their origin is from the influence of Islam in Soninke society. They dispense justice, and educate the population. They teach them Islam and protect them with prayers. They are very respected for their religious knowledge.

The second level of the Soninke organization is the “naxamala” which is also divided in many other classes. The “naxamala” are the dependent men. The “tago” or blacksmiths occupy the highest position. They make weapons and work tools. They also make jewelry. They are respected for their knowledge with iron. The next class after blacksmith is the carpenter, “sakko”. They are the friends of the inhabitants of the forest. They are the confidants and the masters of devils. They are important because of their skills and knowledge with wood. The next class is the praise-singer, “Jaroo”. During ceremonies they are in charge of animation, speaking, and singing. They are the most famous in the “naxamala” dependent class . They are the only ones authorized to say anything they want. They are the orators of the society. They tell the history of most important Soninke families. The last class in the “naxamala” class is the cobbler, “Garanko”. They are in charge of making leather shoes, saddles and saber sheaths.

The lowest level of the Soninke social hierarchy are the slaves known as ‘komo’. The “komo”, slaves work for the masters. Their masters had to take care of them but this was not always the case. The slaves have always been the major labor force in Soninke society. The prosperity of Soninke society was due to their dominance in farming. In the past there were more slaves than free-men.

人民和文化编辑

婚姻编辑

The different Soninke social classes do not marry one another. Free-men do not marry people from the dependent class or slaves. A priest can marry a princess but a prince cannot marry a priestess. 不同社会阶层的Soninke彼此不通婚。 Marriage is preceded by an official courtship ritual. If a man likes a woman, he sends his parents to convince the woman's family to give her in marriage. If both families agree, the couple is engaged (i na tamma laga) in a mosque. Each month after the engagement, the man pays the woman's family his contribution (nakhafa) for their food and other spending. Every holiday, such as tabaski, he also gives them meat if he has the means. When both families agree that it is time for the couple to live together, they organize the marriage, called futtu, usually on a Thursday afternoon, and the woman is sent to the man's house. The friends of the couple come to spend the day with them in separate rooms in their parent’s house. This event is called karikompe.

The newly married couple has advisors. The man’s advisor is called the “khoussoumanta-yougo” and the woman’s is called “khoussoumanta-yakhare”. After one week of celebration, the women meet to show the gifts that the couple received from their parents mostly from the woman's mother.[1]

割礼编辑

索宁克人实行割礼并把它叫做birou。村子里的要人选定举行割礼的日期,在割礼之前的几个星期要举行庆典。[需要解释]

Festivities are organized during many weeks before from the date of circumcision has been chosen by the notables of the village.[需要解释] Every afternoon, the boys who were circumcised the previous year organize tam-tams[需要解释] for the new boys in order to prepare them psychologically. Throughout the circumcision ceremony, the boys to be circumcised sit around the “tambour” called “daïné”. The other teenagers of the village, young girls, women, men and slaves form a circle.[需要解释] During this time the boys surrounded with beautiful scarves disa sing.[2] The author Mamadou Soumare wrote “Above its traditional surgery, the ritual of circumcision makes in evidence, the physical endurance, the pain, the courage, in one word the personality of the child.”

饮食编辑

索宁克人有着种类丰富的食物。例如,早餐包括“fonde(一种由小米、糖、牛奶和盐做成的粥)”和“Sombi(大米、小米或玉米做的粥)”。午餐则是“demba tere”和“takhaya”,这两种食物很常见,里面有大米和花生,有时候还有Soninke的大杂烩——“Dere”,一种把小米和豆子炖着吃的混合物。[3]

经济编辑

传统上,索宁克人参与贸易和农耕。雨季里,男女都参与耕作。但是妇女通常留在家里做饭和照顾孩子,他们也干别的活,像是染羊毛材料。索宁克人传统的颜色是靛青。索宁克人生活标准较高。外出务工在他们的生活中很重要。大部分时间,妇女、儿童和老人呆在家里,年轻人则到附近的城市里赚钱。20世纪60年代以来,法国的大部分西非移民都是索宁克人。[4]索宁克人仍然是冈比亚、塞内加尔和马里这些国家的中流砥柱。历史上他们都是贩卖金子、盐甚至钻石的商人。

宗教编辑

作为古代加纳帝国的遗产[來源請求] ,索宁克人仍然保留着伊斯兰教的信仰。他们是西非最早一批改信伊斯兰教的民族。

参见编辑

引用编辑

  1. ^ Culture Et Tradition. Soninkara.com. 2002 [2006-04-05]. 
  2. ^ The circumcision among Soninke. Soninkara.com. [2006-04-28]. 
  3. ^ Soninke Recipes. Soninkara.com. 2002 [2006-04-05]. 
  4. ^ Meadows, R. Darrell. Willing Migrants: Soninke Labor Diasporas, 1848-1960. Journal of Social History. 1999 [2006-04-28]. 

参考文献编辑

  • (英文) François Manchuelle, Origins of Black African Emigration to France : the Labor Migrations of the Soninke, 1948-1987, Santa Barbara, University of California, 1987 (Thèse)
  • (法文) M. T. Abéla de la Rivière, Les Sarakolé et leur émigration vers la France, Paris, Université de Paris V, 1977 (Thèse de 3 cycle)
  • (法文) Amadou Diallo, L’éducation en milieu sooninké dans le cercle de Bakel : 1850-1914, Dakar, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, 1994, 36 p. (Mémoire de DEA)
  • (法文) Alain Gallay, « La poterie en pays Sarakolé (Mali, Afrique Occidentale) », Journal de la Société des Africanistes, Paris, CNRS, 1970, tome XL, n° 1, p. 7-84
  • (法文) Joseph Kerharo, « La pharmacopée sénégalaise : note sur quelques traitements médicaux pratiqués par les Sarakolé du Cercle de Bakel », Bulletin et mémoires de la Faculté mixte de médecine et de pharmacie de Dakar, t. XII, 1964, p. 226-229
  • (法文) Kanté Nianguiry, Contribution à la connaissance de la migration "soninké" en France, Paris, Université de Paris VIII, 1986, 726 p. (Thèse de 3 cycle)
  • (法文) Michael Samuel, Les Migrations Soninke vers la France, Paris, Université de Paris. (Thèse de 3 cycle)
  • (法文) Badoua Siguine, La tradition épique des forgerons soninké, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 198?, (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
  • (法文) Badoua Siguine, Le surnaturel dans les contes soninké, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1983, 215 p. (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
  • (法文) Mahamet Timera, Les Soninké en France : d'un histoire à l'autre, Karthala, 1996, 244 p. ISBN 2-86537-701-6
  • (法文) Louis Léon César Faidherbe, Vocabulaire d'environ 1,500 mots français avec leurs correspondents en ouolof de Saint-Louis, en poular (toucouleur) du Fouta, en soninké (sarakhollé) de Bakel, 1864, Saint-Louis, Imprimerie du Gouvernement, 1864, 70 p.
  • (法文) Louis Léon César Faidherbe, Langues sénégalaises : wolof, arabe-hassania, soninké, sérère, notions grammaticales, vocabulaires et phrases, E. Leroux, 1887, 267 p.
  • (法文) Christian Girier, Parlons soninké, l'Harmattan, Paris, 1996, ISBN 2-7384-3769-9
  • (法文) Rhonda L. Hartell, Alphabets de langues africaines, Unesco et Summer Institute of Linguistics, Dakar, 1993 ;
  • (法文) Direction de la promotion des langues nationales du Sénégal, Livret d'auto-formation en Soninké, éditions Kalaama-Edicef, 2001.

外部链接编辑