User:Vikarna/沙盒/2

罗摩与罗什曼那骑在迦槃陀双臂之上,准备将其砍断。迦槃陀无头无项,腹生血盆大口。这幅画中它有两只眼睛,但在《罗摩衍那》中,其只有一只眼睛(印度塞勒姆附近一座寺庙中的壁画,约绘于16世纪)

迦槃陀梵語कबन्धIASTKabandha,意为「无头躯干」)是印度史诗罗摩衍那》中的罗刹。它被毗湿奴化身之一——罗摩,及其弟罗什曼那所击败,从而无意间解除了魔咒。它的形象也出现于《摩诃婆罗多》及后来一些《罗摩衍那》改编作品之中。

迦槃陀本是一位乾闼婆,也即天庭乐师,因触怒众神之首因陀罗以及八曲仙人而被诅咒成为一只奇丑无比的怪物。后来在与罗摩及罗什曼那的交手中,被砍断双臂,焚化尸身。在这之后,迦槃陀恢复了其亁闼婆的形象,并指引罗摩前往金砣山,寻求猴族首领須羯哩婆的协助。迦槃陀还建议罗摩与之结盟,以寻找被楞伽城英语Lanka统治者罗波那绑架走的妻子悉多。罗摩听从了他的建议,最终成功救出妻子。

Literary sources编辑

迦槃陀主要在《罗摩衍那》第三篇——《森林篇》中登场[1]。但其早在概述全书的第一篇《童年篇》中便已出现。[2]

The account of Kabandha also appears in the Ramopakhyana – the retelling of Rama's story in the Aranya Parva – the third book of the Mahabharata (composed over a period of 200 years, 5th century BCE to 3rd century BCE),[3] and its appendix Harivamsa英语Harivamsa,[4][5] as well as in later adaptations of the Ramayana such as Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa (composed between 4th to 6th century CE),[4] Bhatti's 7th century work Bhattikavya英语Bhattikavya, Bhavabhuti英语Bhavabhuti's 8th century play Mahaviracharita英语Mahaviracharita, Murari Mishra's 10th century drama Anargharaghava英语Anargharāghava, Kamban英语Kambar (poet)'s 12th century book Kamba Ramayana英语Ramavataram, Adhyatma Ramayana英语Adhyatma Ramayana (chapter 9 of Aranya kanda, dated between late 14th to early 15th century)[6] from Brahmanda Purana英语Brahmanda Purana and Tulsidas's 16th century work Ramacharitamanas.

Early life and curse编辑

 
迦槃陀起初是一位乾闼婆。图中右侧为乾闼婆,左侧为飛天女神,即天庭舞者(10世纪)

在《罗摩衍那》中,迦槃陀本是一位天庭乐师,名叫毗阇婆苏(Vishvavasu)。是乾闼婆 Sri Vishvavasu or Sri之子。迦槃陀另一个名字为陀奴Danu (दनु). Vishvavasu performed penance and got the boon of immortality from the creator-god Brahma. He became arrogant due to his boon and attacked Indra, the god-king of heaven. Indra used his celestial weapon the Vajra (thunderbolt) and drove Vishvavasu's head and thighs into his body. Vishvavasu pleaded that he be given a way to find and eat food. Upon Vishvavasu's beseeching, Indra gave him two long arms and a mouth on his belly. Indra also decreed that Kabandha would regain his original form when Rama severs his arms.[5][7]

The Ramayana further adds: Kabandha spent his days near the hermitage of the sage Matanga in the Krauncha forest. There, he spent his time scaring sages. Once, Kabandha attacked the sage Stulashira, who cursed him to remain in his hideous form for eternity. Upon Kabandha's pleading, the sage reduced his curse and said that Kabandha would be freed of his form, once Rama and Lakshmana sever his arms. So Kabandha waited in that forest for Rama's arrival.[1][5] Growse suspected the tale to be a later interpolation arguing that it does not appear in all versions/translations of the original Ramayana.[8]

The Adhyatma Ramayana tells that Kabandha (the name Vishvavasu is not used) was a Gandharva chief, who was blessed by Brahma with immortality. He was "drunk with the wine of youth and beauty" and used to roam the universe enchanting beautiful maidens. Once, he laughed at the sage Ashtavakra英语Ashtavakra ("one who was eight deformities"), who cursed him to become a Rakshasa, though the sage assured him that Rama would free him of the curse.[9] Still arrogant, Kabandha once chased Indra. The rest of the Indra episode mirrors the Ramayana telling.[6]

The Mahabharata tells that Kabandha was a gandharva named Vishvavasu in his previous life and was cursed by Brahma to be born "from a Rakshasa womb".[3] The Mahavira-charita calls Kabandha's real form Danu, son of Sri.[10] The Bhattikavya does not explicitly name Kabandha. He is introduced as "a dreadful demon that was always hungry and being endowed with long arms". Later, he is identified as Sri's son, who was cursed by an ascetic.[11] The Ramacharitamanas tells that Kabandha was cursed by the sage Durvasa, who is known for his hot temper in Hindu mythology.[8]

Etymology and description of the demonic form编辑

 
Rama (left) and Lakshamana seated on the arms of Kabandha, about to sever his arms, 19th-century painting from Tiruchchirappalli.

The Mahabharata describes him thus: Kabandha was "as big as a mountain, dark as a black cloud, with pointed hairs all over his body and looked fierce with a voice as loud as thunder. He had an eye on his stomach, round and yellow, emitting a glare like a fire-name. Looking wicked he thrust his big tongue out of his huge mouth licking the sides."[5] The Ramayana presents a similar description of Kabandha. Kabandha had a broad chest and was without a head or neck. He had only one eye on his chest and a mouth on his belly. He used his long arms to draw his prey closer.[1] Kabandha is often depicted as a tree.[7]

Since Vishvavasu now did not have a head, but just two arms and a mouth on his stomach, he came to be known as the Rakshasa (demon) Kabandha, the "headless torso".[5] The word Kabandha is often used to describe a large big-bellied barrel or a headless trunk, shaped like a barrel, which retains its vitality.[4]

Adhyatma Ramayana tells that Kabandha was a fierce cannibal and his arms were eight miles long. His huge face – which had no eyes or ears – was at his chest. He had no head or legs.[6]

遭遇罗摩编辑

 
流亡的王子罗摩与罗什曼那遭遇迦槃陀,正要砍下它的双臂

据《罗摩衍那》叙述,罗摩偕妻子悉多和弟弟罗什曼那,一同遁入森林,开始了十四年的流亡生活。但在林中,悉多遭罗刹王罗波那绑架。罗摩从濒死的阇吒优私那里获悉了这一消息,后者力图救下悉多,却被罗波那打成重伤。为了寻找悉多,罗摩及罗什曼那二人进入到迦槃陀的藏身之处——羯兰竭森林中[5]

 
迦槃陀询问罗摩与罗什曼那如何来到了其藏身处

就在此时,迦槃陀突然出现在两人面前,挡住了他们的去路。两人本想分路逃跑,却被迦槃陀一一抓住[1]。迦槃陀右手抓住罗摩,左手握着罗什曼那。两人最终意识到他们无法与之抗衡,罗什曼那哀求罗摩设法离去寻找悉多,将他自己留在这里应对,但被罗摩拒绝。迦槃陀又询问他们是什么人,来此供其饕餮。这时候,罗什曼那意识到这只怪物的力量都集中在其手上,于是建议砍断其双臂。迦槃陀为两人的谈话所激怒,决定当即吃掉他们,并把他们伸向嘴边。罗摩与罗什曼那拔出剑,迅速砍断了其双臂,迦槃陀发出一声巨吼,倒在地上[1][5]

The fallen Kabandha again asked for the names of his vanquishers. Lakshmana introduced himself and Rama and asked the demon who he was. Kabandha narrated his story to the brothers and declared that he recognized Rama by the very fact that Rama had severed his arms. Kabandha requested that Rama perform his cremation rites, offered him what information he could, and died.[1][5]

While other adaptations tell a tale about the encounter similar to Ramayana, Mahavira-charita is a notable exception. A woman called Shramana is caught in the clutches of Kabandha and calls for help. While roaming in the Dandaka forest, Rama hears her call and sends Lakshmana to check. Lakshmana kills Kabandha and leads Shramana to Rama. Shramana turns out to be a messenger of Vibhishana (Bibhishana) – brother of Ravana – who has joined forces with Sugriva against Ravana.[10] Anargharaghava mirrors the Mahavira-charita, replacing Shramana with Guha, a forest chief who leads them to Sugriva.[12]

Counsel to Rama编辑

The Ramayana narrates: the brothers burnt Kabandha's corpse on a funeral pyre. As the pyre was lit, Kabandha's demon form melted and from the flames Vishvavasu rose up in the air in his celestial form, dressed in spotless garments and finery as a chariot from heaven appears to get him. Vishvavasu told the brothers that to fight calamity there are six ways, one of which to nurture a friendship with someone, who is in trouble. He advised the brothers to find the monkey (vanara英语vanara) king Sugriva, who would guide them in the quest for Sita. Vishvavasu informed Rama that Sugriva was driven out of his kingdom by his own brother Vali and that Rama should help Sugriva regain his kingdom. The deposed Sugriva dwelt at Rsyamukha hill. Vishvavasu then described in detail the route to Rsyamukha hill. He instructed Rama to travel in the western direction till he reached the Pampa lake in the region called Matangavana where sage Matanga's hermitage once stood. Ram would meet vanaras at this lake and also sage Matanga's aged female disciple Shabari英语Shabari, who is waiting for him and after Rama's visit, would ascend to heaven. To east of Matangavana is the Rsyamukha hill, which has an arduous path up. Kabandha revealed that one who ascends to the top of this hill, his dreams come true. Kabandha also assured Rama that his sorrows would end after reaching this hill, where Sugriva dwelt in a cave on the side on the hill. Kabandha then disappears.[1][5]

 
As per the advice of Kabandha, Rama forms an alliance with Sugriva. Rama seated with Sugriva as the vanaras look for Sita in all directions. (17th-century painting from manuscripts commissioned by Rana Jagat Singh.)

The Mahabharata corroborates the Ramayana account. Vishvavasu tells Rama to seek the help of Sugriva, who would know where Ravana stays. Kabandha also assured Rama that he would definitely meet Sita again.[3] In the Mahavira-charita, the divine person that leaves the funeral pyre informs Rama that he is Danu and a curse had turned him in a demon, who was manipulated by Malyavan英语Malyavan – Ravana's chief adviser – to create havoc in the region. He expresses his gratitude to Rama and cautions him that Malyavan has also set Vali against him.[10]

In Bhattikavya, Jatayu dies in the arms of Rama without revealing that Sita is in the clutches of Ravana. After his arms are chopped, the unnamed demon – identified with Kabandha – falls and starts his counsel. The funeral pyre scene is dropped here. The demon tells Rama that Ravana abducted Sita and has taken her to Lanka. He advises Rama to form an alliance with Sugriva, without which Ravana will not be overcome. He instructs Rama to negotiate a deal with Sugriva as per which Rama will kill Vali and end Sugriva's sorrows and in return, Sugriva would mobilize his forces to defeat Ravana. The demon praises Rama, who purified the demon by his sword. The demon urges Rama to believe him as he is telling the truth. At last, the demon transforms into a radiant divine being as he was telling the truth and plunges into the sky.[11]

Kamba Ramayana concurs with the Ramayana account about the counsel, but adds a panegyric on Rama by the celestial Danu. Danu exalts Rama as an incarnation of Vishnu and even compares him to baby Krishna, another incarnation of Vishnu.[13] Raghuvamsa, which is a summary of the lives of ancestors of Rama and his own, does not mention the details of the killing of Kabandha, however it acknowledges the counsel. In a passing reference, it notes: "At the advice of Kabandha, who by death escaped from curse, there grew up friendship between Rama and the monkey-chief (Sugriva)".[14]

Rama and Lakshmana followed Kabandha's instructions and reached Pampa Lake.[1] There, as per Kabandha's prophecy, they met Shabari and then Sugriva. An alliance with Sugriva would finally help Rama defeat Ravana and save Sita.

The Adhyatma Ramayana, the Mahavira-charita, the Anargharaghava and the Ramacharitamanas do not discuss the counsel at all and credit Shabari or Shramana or Guha as the one who leads Rama to Sugriva.[6][8][10][12] In the Adhyatma Ramayana, Kabandha appears from the pyre as a divine being and reveals his true identity as a cursed gandharva. He further extols Rama in a hymn stating that various worlds and deities are embedded in parts of his body and Rama is the Supreme being and then disappears.[6]

See also编辑

References编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Valmiki, Swami Venkatesananda. Aranya Kanda 69 – 73. The concise Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki. SUNY Press. 1988: 170–2. ISBN 0-88706-863-4. 
  2. ^ Goldman, Robert P. The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India: Balakanda. Princeton University Press. 1990: 34–37, also p. 124. ISBN 978-0-691-01485-2. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Peter M. Scharf. Mahabharata 3.263.25 – 3.263.42. Rāmopākhyāna: the story of Rāma in the Mahābhārata. Routledge. 2003: 313–333. ISBN 0-7007-1391-3. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Monier-Williams. Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary: 251. 2008 [1899] [2010-04-19]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Mani, Vettam. Puranic Encyclopaedia: A Comprehensive Dictionary With Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1975: 361–2. ISBN 0-8426-0822-2. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Chandan Lal Dhody. Redemption of Kabandha. The Adhyātma Rāmāyaṇa: concise English version. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. 1995: 99–101. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Williams, George Mason. Kabandha. Handbook of Hindu mythology. ABC-CLIO. 2003: 166–7. ISBN 978-1-57607-106-9. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Tulasīdāsa, Frederic Salmon Growse. Caupai 31. The Rāmāyaṇa of Tulasīdāsa 2. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1998: 451, 453. 
  9. ^ Munilal. अध्यात्मरामायण - हिन्दी अनुवादसहित [Adhyatma Ramayana, with Hindi translation]. Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: Gita Press英语Gita Press. 2008: 136. ISBN 81-293-0014-1 (Sanskrit及Hindi). 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi. The Mahavira-charita. Bhavabhūti: his date, life, and works. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1996: 139. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Bhaṭṭi, G. G. Leonardi. Canto 1: 45-58. Bhaṭṭikāvyam. BRILL. 1972: 46–8. 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Arthur Berriedale Keith. Anargharaghava. The Sanskrit drama in its origin, development, theory & practice. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1992: 228. 
  13. ^ K. S. Srinivasan. Rāmāyaṇam as told by Vālmīki and Kamban. Abhinav Publications. 1994: 135–137. 
  14. ^ Kālidāsa, C.R. Devadhar. Verse 57, Canto 12. Raghuvamśa of Kālidāsa. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1997: 229. 

External links编辑