User:Vikarna/沙盒/3

波希米亚互动工作室
Bohemia Interactive a.s.
公司類型 私人公司
成立 1999年,​21年前​(1999
創辦人 Marek Španěl
代表人物 Marek Španěl (CEO)
Ondřej Španěl
總部 捷克布拉格
产业 电子游戏产业
互動式多媒體
產品 闪点行动:雷霆救兵
武装突袭系列英语ARMA (series)
DayZ英语DayZ (video game)
員工人數 300+[1](2016)
主要部門 波希米亚互动模拟英语Bohemia Interactive Simulations
主要子公司 ALTAR games
Black Element Software英语Black Element Software
Centauri Production英语Centauri Production
网站 www.bohemia.net

波希米亚互动工作室(英語:Bohemia Interactive)是一家游戏制作商電子遊戲發行商,总部位于捷克布拉格。波希米亚主要开发军事模擬遊戲,例如《闪点行动:雷霆救兵》、《武装突袭英语ARMA (series)》系列等。它还以将《武装突袭2》的遊戲模組移植到《DayZ英语DayZ (video game)》中而著称。

Marek Španěl于1999年创办了波希米亚互动工作室。2001年,工作室发布了首款作品——军事射击主题的《闪点行动:雷霆救兵》,游戏获得了广泛好评,也使得工作室开始为人认可。但后续作品却遭遇了持续低迷,例如因游戏移植到Xbox而产生亏损,发行商Codemasters随后也放弃了续作开发。公司资金紧张的问题,直至美国海军陆战队雇佣其开发模拟游戏以训练士兵才得以解决。公司为此成立了新的分部——波希米亚互动模拟英语Bohemia Interactive Simulations,随后其独立成为一个商业实体。Codemasters停止对波希米亚提供支持后,工作室决定开发一款《闪点行动:雷霆救兵》的精神续作,是为《武装突袭》。该游戏在评论及商业上皆获成功,故开发了多款续作。此外,工作室还打造了一些小的项目,例如《驾乘直升机英语Take On Helicopters》。

2012年,迪恩·霍尔英语Dean Hall (game designer)为《武装突袭2》开发了DayZ模组英语DayZ (mod),工作室以其开发出了同名独立游戏英语DayZ (video game)。同年,两位雇员被指控为间谍,遭到希腊逮捕,使得团队士气颇受打击,也迫使《武裝行動3》更改为虚构设定。此外,工作室还在开展一些新的项目,例如《DayZ》的最终发布以及沙盒游戏艾兰岛》的开发。

历史编辑

早期历史编辑

波希米亚互动由Marek Španěl创建,早在1980年代,其兄长被说服放弃购买五块不同手表,而选择了一台德州仪器TI-99/4A英语Texas Instruments TI-99/4A电脑之后,Marek便渴望成为游戏开发者。Španěl曾做过游戏分发公司销售员。1977年,他以先前所得资金,与其兄长及另一位伙伴一同开始开发游戏。1999年,正式创建波希米亚互动。[2]

他们的首款游戏代号“波塞冬(Poseidon)”,这是一款第一人称射击游戏,非常偏重真实性。与此同时,开发阵容迅速扩大,起初只有一位全职程序员,到最后则有12位员工。据Španěl所说,开发团队上下都积极热情,专注于打造一个他们“想玩”的世界,因而成员们选择放弃在其他团队的工作。波塞冬开发周期长达三年多,其部分技术已经落伍,发行商的不断变更也为游戏的资金筹措带来了变数。尽管如此,游戏最终于2001年6月由Codemasters正式发行,正式名称为《闪点行动:雷霆救兵》,其获得了广泛好评[3]。且游戏全无任何导致运行崩溃的漏洞。游戏发售后的前三个月即在世界范围内售出500,000多份,并登顶英美德澳零售榜[2][4]。此外,该作击败綠美迪娛樂的《英雄本色》,为工作室赢得游戏开发者选择奖的最佳处女作品奖[2]

雷霆救兵发售后,团队计划继续发布更新,并将游戏移植Xbox平台上,还准备开发续作[2]。原计划准备在九个月内完成, 但是Xbox版的《闪点行动:精英》直到2005年,即首发四年之后方才发布[5]。开发周期之漫长凸显出团队对Xbox平台的生疏。该版本并未获得广泛关注,销量乏善可陈,经济损失惨重[2]。同年,波希米亚与Black Element Software英语Black Element SoftwareAltar Games两家工作室成立了独立游戏开发者联盟,旨在为独立游戏开发工作室提供市场支持及与发行商谈判等服务[6]

游戏团队所开发的闪点行动续作代号「游戏2」(Game 2)。在此之前,他们取消了一个西部主题开放世界项目,其被Španěl视为「闪电行动西部版」。游戏团队抛弃了太具野心的部分,只期望新作尽善尽美。因此游戏团队花费了大量时间来打磨细节,例如3D扫描现实枪械进行建模,来模拟游戏角色眼球。然而,一些基本内容却被忽视,受团队能力及技术所限,许多目标都未实现。故游戏团队不断错过发布商Codemasters设定的日期。这使得后者感到不满,开始寻求外部帮助,但被波希米亚拒绝。其后二者决定终止合作。Codemasters停止经济支持后,波希米亚陷入财务困难。Codemasters亦保留了《闪点行动》所有权,使得波希米亚无法继续使用这一名称[2]

武装突袭系列编辑

2000年代早期,美国陆军开始使用《闪点行动》一套名为《DARWARS Ambush!》的模组训练士兵。波西米亚借此得到一小笔资金,将工作室自破产边缘拯救出来。另外还成立了一家名为波西米亚互动模拟英语Bohemia Interactive Simulations的分公司,专门开发军事模拟游戏以供各国军方使用。与此同时,工作室意识到应当尽快发售一款游戏,于是重新改造Elite引擎,并开发了《闪点行动:雷霆救兵》的精神续作,称之为《装甲突袭》,后更名为《武装突袭》。据Španěl所言,开发团队厌恶这一游戏名。波西米亚决定自行发布游戏,并在早期阶段便将其放出。游戏受到广泛好评,且销量颇丰,足以将公司挽救出来[2]

"We can't stop Codemasters from releasing a game using the words 'Operation Flashpoint'. But it is not right to promote this game as the ‘official sequel to the multi-award winning Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis or the ‘return' of Bohemia Interactive's ‘genre-defining military conflict simulator.' The awards were given for the game created by Bohemia Interactive – not to a name."

— Marek Španěl on the promotion of Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising

工作室随后着手开发续作。 The team decided to reuse some of its assets of Game 2 for ARMA 2, and did not hold unrealistic ambitions for the game. A Xbox 360 version was planned but was later scrapped after the team thought that its power was inferior to that of personal computers.[2] During this period, Codemasters announced Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising, a game falling into competition with Bohemia's own ARMA titles, as it was marketed as the true successor to Cold War Crisis.[7] Španěl was not happy with how Dragon Rising is being marketed as a return to the Operation Flashpoint series despite being created without the involvement of Bohemia.[8] The team became anxious, but found relief after viewing gameplay footage Dragon Rising', which they considered to be subpar and "[did] not come even close to what they promised".[2] ARMA 2 was released in mid-2009 to high critical praise and high sales. The development team soon began work on an expansion titled Operation Arrowhead英语ARMA 2: Operation Arrowhead, though Codemasters took legal actions to force Bohemia to change its name due to its similarity with Operation Flashpoint.[2] In early 2010s, the company continued to develop expansions for ARMA 2, and released smaller titles such as Take On Helicopters英语Take On Helicopters.[9]

Following the release of Operation Arrowhead, the company started development of a new ARMA game, this time set in the future. Titled Arma Futura, it was developed in conjunction with Bohemia's newly acquired company, Altar Games. In the game, players were intended to fight aliens, and the game's direction once shifting to role-playing. All of these futuristic elements were later scrapped, and were remade into a more realistic setting with the title eventually became ARMA 3. The Greek media reported in 2012 that two Czechs were arrested on the Greek island Lemnos, the setting for ARMA III after being charged with espionage. This was later confirmed to be Martin Pezlar and Ivan Buchta, both of them employees at Bohemia Interactive. The main reason for their charge is that they took photos of military installations, which under Greek law threatened their national security.[10] Charges were refuted, and both of them insisted that they were traveling the island for entertainment only.[11] If convicted, the duo faced a 20-year sentence. This soon became a diplomatic concern, with Czech President Václav Klaus urging the Greek President to solve this issue with "special attention".[2] Bohemia also made efforts by motivating its ARMA communities to petition to pressure Greece for the pair's release. During this period of time, team morale dropped. Carrier Command: Gaea Mission英语Carrier Command: Gaea Mission was released by the studio, but according to Španěl, "nobody at the studio really cared" because their friends were stranded in a foreign jail. Regardless, Pezlar and Buchta were held in prison for 129 days until the Greek government allowed them to be released on bail.[12] After this incident, the team decided to renamed ARMA 3' setting from Lemnos to a fictional island called "Altis".[13] Arma III was eventually released in August 2013 to positive critical reviews. Two mobile ARMA games, ARMA Tactics英语ARMA Tactics and ARMA Mobile Ops, were released in 2013 and 2016 respectively.[14][15]

Current projects编辑

In 2012, Dean Hall英语Dean Hall (game designer), an employee at Bohemia working on ARMA 3, released a massively popular mod for Arma II named DayZ英语DayZ (mod), which includes zombies as the game's main enemies.[16] Its popularity led to a resurgence in ARMA 2's sales, with registered players count being raised from 500,000 to one million. Impressed with the success of DayZ, Bohemia appointed Hall to fully capitalize on it by leading the development of a standalone DayZ video game英语DayZ (video game), which ensured that he would not be limited by the restraints of Arma 2. While the main goal is to transit the mod into an entirely new game, the team also intended to add more content such as base-building and improved crafting.[17] Hall eventually left Bohemia in 2014,[18] and the game remained in early access more than four years after its release in December 2013.[19]

In November 2016, the company announced Bohemia Incubator, a platform for the development of experimental games. According to Bohemia Interactive, the incubator aimed at testing designs and concepts and getting the community involved in game development, as well as being the guidance of Bohemia's other technologies including its Enfusion engine and supporting services. Two titles were announced as part of the incubator.[20] This includes Ylands英语Ylands, a sandbox game, and Argo英语Argo (video game), a free-to-play shooter without microtransaction英语microtransactions released in June 2017.[21]

Philosophy编辑

 
Bohemia Interactive announced their acquisition of a T-72 tank in October 2015.

Bohemia Interactive prides themselves on open communication with players.[22] The company laid out road maps in an effort to offer details on some of their post-release content, such as in the case of ARMA 3 and DayZ.[23] The company also sometimes let players to help out with game design process. It invited players to the Czech studio to help with the design of the first Operation Flashpoint, and released several titles via early access英语early access, a way in which early build of a game is released for the community to test and play.[4][24] Many of Bohemia Interactive games are moddable, a focus since the release of the ARMA: Armed Assault. The company awarded players who create user-generated content with their games in 2009 during the BIS Community Awards[25] and announced a modding competition called "Make Arma Not War", in which modders must create mods that shift ARMATemplate:'s focus from war into anything else.[26] Bohemia Interactive also took a stance against pirating with their DEGRADE technology, which would automatically create technical issues to pirated copies.[27] For instance, in Take On Heliciopters, pirated copies' visuals would be extremely blurry, whereas copies bought legitimately would not suffer from the same issue.[28] The team also bought a T-72 tank in order to express gratitude, stating: "A massive tanks goes out to everyone who has supported the studio and its games throughout the past 16 years".[29][30]

According to Joris-Jan van ‘t Land, the project lead for ARMA 3, Bohemia Interactive gives their employees a lot of freedom and autonomy. Employees can brainstorm ideas and exchange with each other, and some of these ideas may be implemented as official releases, shown through one of ARMA 3's downloadable contents, Zeus.[31] Bohemia Interactive also had a close relationship with International Committee of the Red Cross, in which they partnered together for a special award named Health Care in Danger Special Award at the Make Arma Not War competition, and Bohemia also promised to follow some of Red Cross' suggestions on how video games should handle war crimes.[32][33]

Developed games编辑

Bohemia Interactive specialized in making simulation games with a focus on realism. They had created the military simulation game Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis as their debut game, and followed it with an expansion called Operation Flashpoint: Resistance英语Operation Flashpoint: Resistance.[34] While Codemasters developed two Operation Flashpoint sequels, Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising and Operation Flashpoint: Red River英语Operation Flashpoint: Red River, the series was put on hiatus when Codemasters announced their plans to refocus on racing games.[35] Meanwhile, Bohemia followed up their first game, Cold War Crisis with a spiritual successor[36] called Arma: Armed Assault, which was followed up by two sequels, Arma 2 and Arma 3, both of which have been critically acclaimed.[2] The developer also had another simulation franchise called Take On, which includes Take On Helicopters英语Take On Helicopters, which allows players to play as a helicopter pilot, and Take On Mars英语Take On Mars, in which players explore Mars.[37] However, both titles are smaller in scope when compared with the ARMA franchise.[2]

年份 游戏 系统
2001 闪点行动:雷霆救兵 Microsoft WindowsLinux
2002 闪点行动:抵抗英语Operation Flashpoint: Resistance Microsoft Windows
2005 闪点行动:雷霆救兵 Xbox
2006 武装突袭 Microsoft Windows
2007 武装突袭:女王的开场白英语ARMA: Queen's Gambit Microsoft Windows
2009 武装突袭2 Microsoft Windows
2010 武装突袭2:箭头行动英语ARMA 2: Operation Arrowhead Microsoft Windows
2011 驾乘直升机英语Take On Helicopters Microsoft Windows
2012 航母指挥官:盖亚行动英语Carrier Command: Gaea Mission Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360
2013 Arma Tactics英语ARMA Tactics Microsoft WindowsShield Portable
武裝行動3 Microsoft Windows
2016 Arma Mobile Ops iOSAndroid
2017 Take On Mars英语Take On Mars Microsoft Windows
Mini DayZ iOSAndroid
Argo Microsoft Windows
TBA DayZ英语DayZ (video game) (currently in early access) Microsoft WindowsPlayStation 4Xbox One
TBA Ylands英语Ylands

(currently in early access)

Microsoft WindowsPlayStation 4Xbox One
TBA Vigor

(currently in early access)

Xbox One

Sources编辑

  1. ^ Smutný, Aleš. Bohemia Interactive spouští Incubator – nabízí zdarma prototypy her, aby otestovala jejich potenciál – Games.cz. Games.cz. [2016-11-02]. (原始内容存档于2016-11-04). 
  2. ^ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Purchese, Robert. Bohemia's war: the story of the company behind Arma and DayZ. Eurogamer. 2014-04-30 [2017-07-10]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-12). 
  3. ^ Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis for PC reviews. Metacritic. CBS Interactive. [2017-08-09]. (原始内容存档于2014-09-04). 
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  16. ^ Campbell, Colin. How DayZ Came To Life. IGN. 2012-08-01 [2017-07-10]. (原始内容存档于2012-08-04). 
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  23. ^ Smith, Graham. DayZ’s 2015 Dev Road Map Begins With A Price Increase. Rock, Paper, Shotgun. 2014-11-27 [2017-07-12]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-09). 
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  25. ^ Rossignol, Jim. BIS Community Awards Winners. Rock, Paper, Shotgun. 2010-02-15 [2017-07-12]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-09). 
  26. ^ Lathi, Evan. "Make Arma Not War" modding competition launched with $680,000 up for grabs. PC Gamer. 2013-12-05 [2017-07-12]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-09). 
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  29. ^ Hanson, Steven. Arma, DayZ developer bought a tank. Destructoid. 2015-10-16 [2017-07-12]. [永久失效連結]
  30. ^ Bohemia Interactive's Latest Acquisition: T-72 Main Battle Tank | Blog | Bohemia Interactive. Bohemia Interactive. [2017-08-24]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-24) (英语). 
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  32. ^ Stuart, Keith. Should gamers be accountable for in-game war crimes?. The Guardian. 2013-10-03 [2017-07-12]. (原始内容存档于2017-11-17). 
  33. ^ Sarker, Samit. Arma 3 wants to send you into a war zone with the Red Cross. Polygon. 2014-05-28 [2017-07-12]. (原始内容存档于2017-11-17). 
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  36. ^ Li, Kuo. Armed Assault: Combat Operations. GameSpy. 2007-04-19 [2017-07-12]. (原始内容存档于2013-10-08). 
  37. ^ Arid, Sharif. Take on Mars lands on the Steam Store after three years in Early Access. VG 247. 2017-02-13 [2017-07-12]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-09). 

External links编辑

Category:1999年開業電子遊戲公司 Category:捷克電子遊戲公司 Category:電子遊戲開發公司