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各类三和弦:关于这个音频文件 I, 关于这个音频文件 i, 关于这个音频文件 io, 关于这个音频文件 I+

三和弦是以三度关系叠加的三个音构成的和弦[1]。这三个音分别称为根音、三音和五音。一些现代音乐家如霍华德·汉森[2]卡尔顿·盖默[3]用“三和弦”来指任何三个音(无关其音程关系)构成的和弦[4]阿伦·福特还提出了“四度叠加的三和弦”(quartal triad)这样的概念[5]。它是西方音乐中最常使用的一种和弦,功能和声也主要依赖正三和弦[6][7]

类别编辑

三和弦可以再分为大三和弦小三和弦增三和弦减三和弦

組成音程 和弦名(流行) 和弦名(古典) 音符 音訊
三度 五度
大三和弦 大三度(4半音) 纯五度(7半音) C、CM、Cmaj、CΔ I C-E-G   播放
小三和弦 小三度(3半音) 纯五度(7半音) Cm、Cmin、C-、C-Δ i C-E-G   播放
增三和弦 大三度(4半音) 增五度(8半音) Caug、C+、C+5、C(5)、C+Δ、CΔ+5、CΔ(5) I+ C-E-G   播放
减三和弦 小三度(3半音) 減五度(6半音) Cdim、Co、CoΔ、Cm−5、Cm(5) io C-E-G   播放

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Ronald Pen, Introduction to Music (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992): 81. ISBN 0-07-038068-6. "A triad is a set of notes consisting of three notes built on successive intervals of a third. A triad can be constructed upon any note by adding alternating notes drawn from the scale. ... In each case the note that forms the foundation pitch is called the root, the middle tone of the triad is designated the third (because it is separated by the interval of a third from the root), and the top tone is referred to as the fifth (because it is a fifth away from the root)."
  2. ^ Howard Hanson, Harmonic Materials of Modern Music: Resources of the Tempered Scale (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1960).
  3. ^ Carlton Gamer, "Some Combinational Resources of Equal-Tempered Systems", Journal of Music Theory 11, no. 1 (1967): 37, 46, 50–52.
  4. ^ Julien Rushton, "Triad", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
  5. ^ Allen Forte, The Structure of Atonal Music (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973)ISBN 0-300-02120-8.
  6. ^ Allen Forte, Tonal Harmony in Concept and Practice, third edition (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979): 136. ISBN 0-03-020756-8.
  7. ^ Daniel Harrison, Harmonic Function in Chromatic Music: A Renewed Dualist Theory and an Account of its Precedents (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994): 45. ISBN 0-226-31808-7. Cited on p. 274 of Deborah Rifkin, "A Theory of Motives for Prokofiev's Music", Music Theory Spectrum 26, no. 2 (2004): 265–289.