冬大蚊科

双翅目的一科昆虫

冬大蚊科学名Trichoceridae),又名毫蚊科,为双翅目長角亞目大蚊下目[3]冬大蚊總科(學名:Trichoceroidea)唯一一个現存的模式屬冬大蚊屬英语Trichocera。該科成員主要分布於全北界[4],另在澳大拉西亞南美洲等地也有物種分布[5],外貌與其姊妹群大蚊總科英语Tipuloidea相近,兩者的主要差異在於冬大蚊科具有單眼(Ocelli英语Ocelli),大蚊總科則否[6]

冬大蚊科Infobox info icon2.svg
化石时期:侏羅紀早期至今,>191–0 Ma[1]
分子鐘推定最近共祖出現於三疊紀中後期[2]
Trichocera spec. (Trichoceridae) - (imago), Elst (Gld), the Netherlands.jpg
冬大蚊屬未定種 Trichocera sp.
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 节肢动物门 Arthropoda
纲: 昆虫纲 Insecta
目: 雙翅目 Diptera
亚目: 長角亞目 Nematocera
下目: 大蚊下目 Tipulomorpha
总科: 冬大蚊总科 Trichoceroidea
Hennig, 1973
科: 冬大蚊科 Trichoceridae
Rondani英语Camillo Rondani, 1841
模式属
冬大蚊属
Trichocera
Meigen英语Johann Wilhelm Meigen, 1803
Trichoceridae distribution.png
冬大蚊科物種的大略分布範圍

冬大蚊科得名自其英文名稱「winter crane flies」,因為許多物種的成蟲常會在春、秋二季,乃至嚴冬時節活動,或是集結飛行[7][8],少數冬大蚊屬物種甚至已知可活躍於0°C以下的環境[9][10]

下级分类编辑

  • Diazosoma
  • 冬大蚊亞科 Trichocerinae
    • 冬大蚊族 Trichocerini
      • Cladoneura
      • 冬大蚊屬英语Trichocera Trichocera
      • Eotrichocera
      • Karatina
      • Mailotrichocera
      • Paleotrichocera
      • Rasnitsynina
    • 族 Nothotrichocerini
      • Nothotrichocera
      • Tanyochoreta
      • Undaya
      • Zherikhinina
  • 分枝冬大蚊亞科 Paracladurinae
  • 亞科 Kovalevinae
    • Kovaleva
  • 亞科 Ewauristinae
    • Ewaurista

譜系關係编辑

以下節錄Ci與Kang於2021年基於粒線體DNA,利用最大概似估計法所得出冬大蚊科與其近親的譜系關係[11]

搖蚊科

蚊科

大蚊下目

冬大蚊科

平大蚊科英语Pediciidae

亮大蚊科英语Limoniidae

錐大蚊科英语Cylindrotomidae

大蚊科

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Krzemińska, E.; Lukashevich, E. The oldest Trichoceridae (Diptera) from the Lower Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan: implications of the biomechanical properties of their wings. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh. 2018, 107 (2-3): 173–176. ISSN 1755-6929. doi:10.1017/S1755691017000317. 
  2. ^ Krzemińska, E.; Krzemiński, W.; Dahl, C. Monograph of Fossil Trichoceridae (Diptera): Over 180 Million Years of Evolution. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals. Polish Academy of Sciences. 2009 [2021-10-08]. ISBN 978-83-61358-20-6. (原始内容存档于2021-10-08). 
  3. ^ Kang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Ding, S.; Tang, C.; Wang, Y.; de Jong, H.; Cameron, S. L.; Wang, M.; Yang, D. Transcriptomes of three species of Tipuloidea (Diptera, Tipulomorpha) and implications for phylogeny of Tipulomorpha. PLOS ONE. 2017, 12 (3): e0173207 [2022-04-05]. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5338816 . PMID 28264066. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173207. (原始内容存档于2021-10-08). 
  4. ^ Salmela, J.; Petrašiūnas, A. Checklist of the infraorder Tipulomorpha (Trichoceridae, Tipuloidea) (Diptera) of Finland. ZooKeys. 2014, 441: 21–36 [2021-10-08]. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 4200445 . PMID 25337005. doi:10.3897/zookeys.441.7533. (原始内容存档于2021-10-08). 
  5. ^ Krzemińska, E. Subfamily Paracladurinae. III. Phylogenetic biogeography: Two new genera and three species described (Diptera, Trichoceridae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 2005, 32 (4): 317–352 [2021-10-08]. ISSN 0301-4223. doi:10.1080/03014223.2005.9518422. (原始内容存档于2021-10-08). 
  6. ^ Petersen, M. J.; Bertone, M. A.; Wiegmann, B. M.; Courtney, G. W. Phylogenetic synthesis of morphological and molecular data reveals new insights into the higher‐level classification of Tipuloidea (Diptera). Systematic Entomology. 2010, 35 (3): 526–545 [2021-10-08]. ISSN 0307-6970. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2010.00524.x. (原始内容存档于2021-10-08). 
  7. ^ Dahl, C. The Influence of Light, Humidity and Temperature on Trichoceridae (Diptera). Oikos. 1969, 20 (2): 409–430. ISSN 0030-1299. doi:10.2307/3543206. 
  8. ^ Hågvar, S.; Krzemińska, E. Contribution to the winter phenology of Trichoceridae (Diptera) in snow-covered southern Norway. Studia Dipterologica. 2007, 14 (2): 271–283 [2021-10-08]. ISSN 0945-3954. (原始内容存档于2021-10-08). 
  9. ^ Dahl, C. Distribution, phenology and adaptation to arctic environment in Trichoceridae (Diptera). Oikos. 1970, 21 (2): 185–202. ISSN 0030-1299. doi:10.2307/3543674. 
  10. ^ Pertierra, L. R.; Escribano-Álvarez, P.; Olalla-Tárraga, M. Á. Cold tolerance is similar but heat tolerance is higher in the alien insect Trichocera maculipennis than in the native Parochlus steinenii in Antarctica. Polar Biology. 2021, 44 (6): 1203–1208. ISSN 1432-2056. doi:10.1007/s00300-021-02865-w. 
  11. ^ Ci, T.; Kang, Z. New data on the mitochondrial genome of the winter crane fly (Diptera: Trichoceridae) with phylogenetic analysis. Mitochondrial DNA Part B: Resources. 2021, 6 (2): 674–677. ISSN 2380-2359. doi:10.1080/23802359.2021.1881839.