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基本英语

基于英文的人工语言
英語種類列表

基本英语英语:Basic English)是一種人工語言,它基於英語的一種簡化版本而產生,由查尔斯·凯·奥格登英语Charles Kay Ogden創造。在他於1930年所出版的《基本英语——规则和语法的一般约定》一書中有詳細的介紹。

奥格登说:「学习英语要7年,学习世界语要7个月,而学习基本英语只要7星期。」其認為,商業公司因此會將艱澀難懂但需要全球使用的文書寫成基本英語;而语言学校也會為了讓學生短期內學會簡單的英語,而教授基本英语。

奥格登不使用重复意义的单词,而且需要所有国家都适用这些单词。他利用大规模的测试和调整来得到这些词汇。在语法方面,他也做了简化,但是保留了英语通常的用法。

第二次世界大战後,这种简化开始蕴含「推进世界和平」的理念。但是由于缺乏规划,发展出了不同地方使用的简化版本。今天还存在的基本英语有850个单词作为初学英语者的单词词汇广传世界,特别是在亚洲最流行。[1]

目录

语法规则编辑

奥格登基本英语的语法规则是为了让人们只用850个单词就可以解决一般交流:

  1. 在单词词尾加-s作为复数,那些加-es-ies的保留;
  2. 四个词缀:-er可以变成300多个名词,-ing-ed变成形容词;
  3. 使用-ly变成副词;
  4. 对于数量,使用moremost,保留-er-est
  5. 形容词反义词是加前缀un-, im-
  6. 问句使用相反的词序,加上do
  7. 人称代名词使用和一般英语相同;
  8. 可以使用两个名词组合成新词,比如milkmanwordend;还可以是名词加方位,例如sundown
  9. 单位數字貨幣月份日子年份钟点国际语同一般英语形式;
  10. 使用专业和科技词汇。一些特殊词汇不属于基本英语,词性、复数等变化不遵守这个规范。

历史编辑

1944年,温斯顿·丘吉尔哈佛大学的一个演讲裡,起初支持用基本英语作为世界语言,但是由于一个故事他放弃了,就是那句“blood, toil, tears and sweat”(热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水)写成基本英语就是“blood, hard work, eyewash and body water”(血液、努力、淚液和体液)[2]喬治·奧威爾的作品《一九八四》中可能有对基本英语的模仿。书后对“新话”的注解可以认为暗含着对构造语言的批评,尽管那在这本书的著作期间(1948年)呼声很高。

奥威尔的新话实际上更像是专为机器或网络设计的语言,不知晓网络的人士看不懂的。与之相比,奥格登的基本英语任何一个懂英语的人都能读懂,但它只能用作第二語言

单词表编辑

基本英语有850个核心词汇。

动作 - 100 个单词编辑

come, get, give, go, keep, let, make, put, seem, take, be, do, have, say, see, send, may, will, about, across, after, against, among, at, before, between, by, down, from, in, off, on, over, through, to, under, up, with, as, for, of, till, than, a, the, all, any, every, no, other, some, such, that, this, I, he, you, who, and, because, but, or, if, though, while, how, when, where, why, again, ever, far, forward, here, near, now, out, still, then, there, together, well, almost, enough, even, little, much, not, only, quite, so, very, tomorrow, yesterday, north, south, east, west, please, yes.

事物 - 400 个常用单词编辑

account, act, addition, adjustment, advertisement, agreement, air, amount, amusement, animal, answer, apparatus, approval, argument, art, attack, attempt, attention, attraction, authority, back, balance, base, behaviour, belief, birth, bit, bite, blood, blow, body, brass, bread, breath, brother, building, burn, burst, business, butter, canvas, care, cause, chalk, chance, change, cloth, coal, colour, comfort, committee, company, comparison, competition, condition, connection, control, cook, copper, copy, cork, cotton, cough, country, cover, crack, credit, crime, crush, cry, current, curve, damage, danger, daughter, day, death, debt, decision, degree, design, desire, destruction, detail, development, digestion, direction, discovery, discussion, disease, disgust, distance, distribution, division, doubt, drink, driving, dust, earth, edge, education, effect, end, error, event, example, exchange, existence, expansion, experience, expert, fact, fall, family, father, fear, feeling, fiction, field, fight, fire, flame, flight, flower, fold, food, force, form, friend, front, fruit, glass, gold, government, grain, grass, grip, group, growth, guide, harbour, harmony, hate, hearing, heat, help, history, hole, hope, hour, humour, ice, idea, impulse, increase, industry, ink, insect, instrument, insurance, interest, invention, iron, jelly, join, journey, judge, jump, kick, kiss, knowledge, land, language, laugh, law, lead, learning, leather, letter, level, lift, light, limit, linen, liquid, list, look, loss, love, machine, man, manager, mark, market, mass, meal, measure, meat, meeting, memory, metal, middle, milk, mind, mine, minute, mist, money, month, morning, mother, motion, mountain, move, music, name, nation, need, news, night, noise, note, number, observation, offer, oil, operation, opinion, order, organization, ornament, owner, page, pain, paint, paper, part, paste, payment, peace, person, place, plant, play, pleasure, point, poison, polish, porter, position, powder, power, price, print, process, produce, profit, property, prose, protest, pull, punishment, purpose, push, quality, question, rain, range, rate, ray, reaction, reading, reason, record, regret, relation, religion, representative, request, respect, rest, reward, rhythm, rice, river, road, roll, room, rub, rule, run, salt, sand, scale, science, sea, seat, secretary, selection, self, sense, servant, sex, shade, shake, shame, shock, side, sign, silk, silver, sister, size, sky, sleep, slip, slope, smash, smell, smile, smoke, sneeze, snow, soap, society, son, song, sort, sound, soup, space, stage, start, statement, steam, steel, step, stitch, stone, stop, story, stretch, structure, substance, sugar, suggestion, summer, support, surprise, swim, system, talk, taste, tax, teaching, tendency, test, theory, thing, thought, thunder, time, tin, top, touch, trade, transport, trick, trouble, turn, twist, unit, use, value, verse, vessel, view, voice, walk, war, wash, waste, water, wave, wax, way, weather, week, weight, wind, wine, winter, woman, wood, wool, word, work, wound, writing, year.

事物 - 200个可用图表示的单词编辑

angle, ant, apple, arch, arm, army, baby, bag, ball, band, basin, basket, bath, bed, bee, bell, berry, bird, blade, board, boat, bone, book, boot, bottle, box, boy, brain, brake, branch, brick, bridge, brush, bucket, bulb, button, cake, camera, card, cart, carriage, cat, chain, cheese, chest, chin, church, circle, clock, cloud, coat, collar, comb, cord, cow, cup, curtain, cushion, dog, door, drain, drawer, dress, drop, ear, egg, engine, eye, face, farm, feather, finger, fish, flag, floor, fly, foot, fork, fowl, frame, garden, girl, glove, goat, gun, hair, hammer, hand, hat, head, heart, hook, horn, horse, hospital, house, island, jewel, kettle, key, knee, knife, knot, leaf, leg, library, line, lip, lock, map, match, monkey, moon, mouth, muscle, nail, neck, needle, nerve, net, nose, nut, office, orange, oven, parcel, pen, pencil, picture, pig, pin, pipe, plane, plate, plough, pocket, pot, potato, prison, pump, rail, rat, receipt, ring, rod, roof, root, sail, school, scissors, screw, seed, sheep, shelf, ship, shirt, shoe, skin, skirt, snake, sock, spade, sponge, spoon, spring, square, stamp, star, station, stem, stick, stocking, stomach, store, street, sun, table, tail, thread, throat, thumb, ticket, toe, tongue, tooth, town, train, tray, tree, trousers, umbrella, wall, watch, wheel, whip, whistle, window, wing, wire, worm.

状态 - 100个常用单词编辑

able, acid, angry, automatic, beautiful, black, boiling, bright, broken, brown, cheap, chemical, chief, clean, clear, common, complex, conscious, cut, deep, dependent, early, elastic, electric, equal, fat, fertile, first, fixed, flat, free, frequent, full, general, good, great, grey, hanging, happy, hard, healthy, high, hollow, important, kind, like, living, long, male, married, material, medical, military, natural, necessary, new, normal, open, parallel, past, physical, political, poor, possible, present, private, probable, quick, quiet, ready, red, regular, responsible, right, round, same, second, separate, serious, sharp, smooth, sticky, stiff, straight, strong, sudden, sweet, tall, thick, tight, tired, true, violent, waiting, warm, wet, wide, wise, yellow, young.

状态 - 50 个有反义词的单词编辑

awake, bad, bent, bitter, blue, certain, cold, complete, cruel, dark, dead, dear, delicate, different, dirty, dry, false, feeble, female, foolish, future, green, ill, last, late, left, loose, loud, low, mixed, narrow, old, opposite, public, rough, sad, safe, secret, short, shut, simple, slow, small, soft, solid, special, strange, thin, white, wrong.

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Edmond H Weiss The Elements of International English Style, pp. 17-18, M. E. Sharpe, 2005 ISBN 978-0-7656-1572-5(英文)
  2. ^ 来自于时代教育副刊名言集 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆

外部链接编辑