- ^ List of localities, in Alphabetical order (PDF). 以色列中央统计局. [2016-10-16].
- ^ TIBERIAS - JewishEncyclopedia.com. [2008-03-28]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-10）.
- ^ 約書亞記19:35 "堅固的城就是：西丁、側耳、哈末、拉甲、基尼烈"
- ^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. XVIII.2.3.
- ^ Wigoder, Geoffrey (编). The Encyclopedia of Judaism. Macmillan: 768. 1989.
Term applied to the Erets Israel cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and Tiberias. These were the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of 1516. The concept of the holy cities dates only from the 1640s, when the Jewish communities of Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed organized an association to improve the system of fundraising in the Diaspora. Previously, such fundraising had been undertaken by individual institutions; now it was agreed that the emissaries would be sent on behalf of each urban Jewish community as a whole, with not more than one emissary per town. After Tiberias was refounded in 1740, it also joined the association. This arrangement did not last long, however, and by the mid-19th century there was no authority strong enough to enforce a centralized collection of ḥalukkah funds. The term "Four Holy Cities" became a convenient designation by historians rather than the title of an actual functioning body. In Jewish tradition, going back to ancient times, the only city regarded as holy is Jerusalem