欧洲经济共同体

由1957年羅馬條約創立的國際組織

欧洲经济共同体(英語:European Economic Community;簡稱:EEC),欧洲共同体中最重要的组成部分;法国联邦德国意大利荷兰比利时卢森堡六国于1957年3月在罗马签订了《建立欧洲经济共同体条约》,1958年1月1日成立,总部设在布鲁塞尔

到1968年7月,六国间工业品关税通过分期削减后,比原定计划提前一年半全部取消,农产品方面除实现关税同盟外,还实行共同的农业政策,统一价格,设立农业基金。

1973年1月1日英国爱尔兰丹麦正式加入后,共同体由六国扩大为九国,领土扩大到153万平方公里。1972年7月22日起,同挪威奥地利瑞士瑞典冰岛葡萄牙芬兰分别签定自由贸易协定,建立西欧十六国自由贸易区;还与非洲中东及其他地区的数十个国家签定了联系国协定或优惠关税协定。

根据1992年建立欧洲联盟的《马斯特里赫特条约》,欧洲经济共同体更名为“欧洲共同体”(《欧共体条约》第一条)。

第二次世界大战结束后,欧洲主权国家在越来越多的领域缔结了条约,从而在所谓的欧洲一体化项目或欧洲重建 (法語:la construction européenne) 中合作和协调政策(或共同主权)。下列时间表概括了欧洲联盟 (EU) 的成立过程和联合的主体框架。20世纪50年代根据舒曼计划成立了欧洲各共同体(EC),而在欧洲各共同体实际上停止运作后欧盟从中继承了其许多责任。

注释:
  S: 签名
  F: 生效
  T: 终止
  E: 过期
    事实上废弃
  关于欧共体/欧盟框架:
   事实上在其中
   在外边
                  Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲联盟 (EU) [欧洲联盟历史]  
Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲各共同体 (EC) 欧盟三支柱
歐洲原子能共同體 [继续]      
Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 6 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 9 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 10 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 12 Star Version.svg 欧洲煤钢共同体 (ECSC)  
    欧洲经济共同体 (EEC)    
            申根区 欧洲经济共同体
TREVI英语TREVI 刑事領域警務與司法合作 (JHA, 欧盟三支柱  
  Flag of NATO.svg 北大西洋公约组织 (NATO) [History of NATO英语History of NATO] 刑事領域警務與司法合作 (PJCC, 欧盟三支柱)
Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
英法關係
[Western Union Defence Organisation英语Western Union Defence Organisation Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation英语Western_Union_(alliance)#Cannibalisation_and_marginalisation to 北大西洋公约组织] European Political Co-operation英语European Political Co-operation (EPC)   共同外交与安全政策
(CFSP, 欧盟三支柱)
Flag of the Western Union.svg Western Union (alliance)英语Western Union (alliance) (WU) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg / Flag of the Western European Union.svg 西歐聯盟 (WEU) [西歐聯盟 defined following the WEU's 1984 Rome Declaration英语Rome Declaration 西歐聯盟 to the 欧洲联盟]
     
[Social, cultural tasks History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy#1954 – 1970: A dormant WEU is established to 欧洲委员会] [欧洲委员会]                
    Flag of Europe.svg 欧洲委员会 (CoE)
Treaty of Dunkirk英语Treaty of Dunkirk¹
S: 4 March 1947
F: 8 September 1947
E: 8 September 1997
布魯塞爾條約 (1948年)¹
S: 17 March 1948
F: 25 August 1948
T: 30 June 2011
歐洲委員會法規 and 北大西洋公约 treaties¹
S: 5 May/4 April 1949
F: 3 August/24 August 1949
Paris treaties: 巴黎条约 (1951年) and 欧洲防务共同体
S: 18 April 1951/27 May 1952
F: 23 July 1952/—
E: 23 July 2002/—
布魯塞爾條約 (1948年)¹
S: 23 October 1954
F: 6 May 1955
Rome treaties: 羅馬條約² and Euratom Treaty英语Euratom Treaty
S: 25 March 1957
F: 1 January 1958
合并条约³
S: 8 April 1965
F: 1 July 1967
Davignon report英语Davignon report
S: 27 October 1970
TREVI英语TREVI
S: 2 December 1975
單一歐洲法案 (SEA)
S: 17/28 February 1986
F: 1 July 1987
申根公约 and 申根区
S: 14 June 1985/19 June 1990
F: 26 March 1995
马斯特里赫特条约²,
S: 7 February 1992
F: 1 November 1993
阿姆斯特丹条约
S: 2 October 1997
F: 1 May 1999
尼斯条约
S: 26 February 2001
F: 1 February 2003
里斯本条约
S: 13 December 2007
F: 1 December 2009
¹Although not EU treaties per se, these treaties affected the History of the Common Security and Defence Policy英语History of the Common Security and Defence Policy of the 共同安全与防务政策, a main part of the CFSP. The Franco-British alliance established by the Dunkirk Treaty was de facto superseded by WU. The CFSP pillar was bolstered by some of the security structures that had been established within the remit of the 1955 布魯塞爾條約 (1948年) (MBT). The Brussels Treaty was 西歐聯盟 in 2011, consequently dissolving the WEU, as the mutual defence clause that the Lisbon Treaty provided for EU was considered to render the WEU superfluous. The EU thus de facto superseded the WEU.
²The treaties of Maastricht and Rome form the EU's 歐洲聯盟基本條約, and are also referred to as the Treaty on European Union英语Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union英语Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), respectively. They are amended by secondary treaties.
³The 欧洲各共同体 obtained common institutions and a shared 法律主體 (i.e. ability to e.g. sign treaties in their own right).
⁴Between the EU's founding in 1993 and consolidation in 2009, the union consisted of 欧盟三支柱, the first of which were the European Communities. The other two pillars consisted of additional areas of cooperation that had been added to the EU's remit.
⁵The consolidation meant that the EU inherited the European Communities' 法律主體 and that the 欧盟三支柱, resulting in the EU framework as such covering all policy areas. Executive/legislative power in each area was instead determined by a distribution of competencies between 歐洲聯盟機構 and 欧洲联盟成员国. This distribution, as well as treaty provisions for policy areas in which unanimity is required and Double majority#European Union英语Double majority#European Union is possible, reflects the depth of EU integration as well as the EU's partly 超國家主義 (國際關係) and partly 政府間主義 nature.
⁶Plans to establish a Treaty establishing the European Political Community英语Treaty establishing the European Political Community (EPC) were shelved following the French failure to ratify the 欧洲防务共同体 (EDC). The EPC would have combined the ECSC and the EDC.

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