細胞內寄生物

細胞內寄生物(英語:Intracellular parasite)是指一類寄生於宿主細胞中生長、繁殖的生物,可分為兼性(Facultative)和專性(Obligate)寄生物。部分細胞內寄生物會導致相關疾病的發生。

兼性寄生物编辑

兼性寄生物可以在胞內寄生,於胞外也可以存活[1]

屬於兼性寄生物的細菌舉例如下:

屬於兼性寄生物的真菌舉例如下:

專性寄生物编辑

 
掃描電鏡下拍攝的肺部寄生的刚地弓形虫Toxoplasma gondii

專性寄生物只能在寄生細胞內存活,生活完全依賴於宿主細胞內的資源。

專性寄生物有:

對專性寄生物的研究難度較高,因為他們通常不能在宿主外增殖。2009年,研究人員發現Q型流感的病原體贝氏柯克斯体英语Coxiella burnetiiCoxiella burnetii)可以在一種無菌培養基上培養。他們在論文中提出,這種技術也許亦可以應用在其他病原體上[18]

值得一提的是,內共生理論認為,線粒體最初也是寄生於細胞內的專性寄生物,但最後發展成了共生關係乃至成為細胞器[19]

營養编辑

細胞內寄生物主要依靠宿主細胞的能量生長繁殖,他們尤其需要在脫離宿主細胞時難以獲取的營養物質。兼性細胞內寄生物嗜肺军团菌Legionella pneumophila)目前是研究細胞內寄生物獲取宿主細胞營養的標準研究模型。目前的研究表明,嗜肺军团菌通過促進宿主細胞蛋白自我分解或通過蛋白酶體分解,將這些蛋白質變為氨基酸。嗜肺军团菌可以用這些氨基酸作為碳源和主要的能量來源[20]

敏感性编辑

T細胞功能受損的人群(如AIDS患者)較難清除侵入體內的病原性細胞內寄生物[21]

參見编辑

參考编辑

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