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右旋安非他命

(重定向自Dextroamphetamine

右旋安非他命英语: Dextroamphetamine[注 1]是强力中樞神經兴奋剂,也是苯丙胺(“安非他命”) 的对映异构体,是注意力不足過動症(ADHD)和發作性嗜睡病的处方药。[10]此外,它也被用作提升运动员能力的兴奋剂,也是一种益智药,同时人们在享乐时也将其用作春药产生欣快感的药。此外,空军也将右旋安非他命广泛用作“抗睡丸”,在诸如夜间轰炸之类的容易疲倦的任务中使用。第二次世界大战期间,该药物也被用来治疗疲倦。

右旋安非他命
INN Dexamfetamine
D-amphetamine.svg
系统(IUPAC)命名名称
(2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
临床数据
Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a605027
医疗法规
妊娠分级
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (不排除有风险的可能)
依赖性 生理依赖:无
精神依赖:中
成瘾性
给药途径 口服
合法狀態
合法状态
药代动力学数据
生物利用度 Oral 75–100%[1]
蛋白结合度 15–40%
代谢 CYP2D6多巴胺β羟化酶[2] FMO3英语Flavin-containing monooxygenase
起效 IR服用:0.5至1.5小时[3][4]
XR服用:1.5至2小时[5][6]
生物半衰期 9至11小时[7]
不同的PH值:8至31小时
作用时间 IR服用:3至7小时[5][8]
XR服用:12小时[5][6][8]
排泄 肾(45%);[9]取决于尿液的pH值
识别信息
CAS注册号 51-64-9 ✓
ATC代码 N06BA02
PubChem CID 5826
IUPHAR/BPS英语IUPHAR/BPS 2147
DrugBank DB01576 ✓
ChemSpider 5621 ✓
UNII TZ47U051FI ✓
KEGG D03740 ✓
ChEBI CHEBI:4469 ✓
ChEMBL英语ChEMBL CHEMBL612 ✓
化学信息
化学式 C9H13N
摩尔质量 135.20622
物理性质
密度 0.913 g/cm3
沸点 201.5 °C(394.7 °F)
水溶液 20 mg/mL (20 °C)
 ✗✓ (what is this?)英语Wikipedia:WikiProject_Chemicals/Chembox_validation  (verify)

脚注编辑

  1. ^ 其他英文名称:dexamphetamineAAN英语Australian Approved Name)、dexamfetamine国际非专利药品名称BAN英语British Approved Name)、(S)-amphetamine(+)-amphetamineD-amphetamine

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ Pharmacology. Dextromphetamine. DrugBank. [2013-11-05]. 
  2. ^ Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W. Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry 7th. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2013: 648. ISBN 1609133455. Alternatively, direct oxidation of amphetamine by DA β-hydroxylase can afford norephedrine. 
  3. ^ Green-Hernandez, Carol; Singleton, Joanne K.; Aronzon, Daniel Z. Primary Care Pediatrics. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2001-01-01: 243. ISBN 9780781720083. |quote = Table 21.2 Medications for ADHD ... D-amphetamine ... Onset: 30 min.
  4. ^ Dexedrine, ProCentra(dextroamphetamine) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more. reference.medscape.com. [2015-10-04]. Onset of action: 1–1.5 hr 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Millichap JG. Chapter 9: Medications for ADHD. (编) Millichap JG. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD 2nd. New York, USA: Springer. 2010: 112. ISBN 9781441913968.
    Table 9.2 Dextroamphetamine formulations of stimulant medication
    Dexedrine [Peak:2–3 h] [Duration:5–6 h] ...
    Adderall [Peak:2–3 h] [Duration:5–7 h]
    Dexedrine spansules [Peak:7–8 h] [Duration:12 h] ...
    Adderall XR [Peak:7–8 h] [Duration:12 h]
    Vyvanse [Peak:3–4 h] [Duration:12 h]
     
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Brams M, Mao AR, Doyle RL. Onset of efficacy of long-acting psychostimulants in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Postgrad. Med. September 2008, 120 (3): 69–88. PMID 18824827. doi:10.3810/pgm.2008.09.1909. Onset of efficacy was earliest for d-MPH-ER at 0.5 hours, followed by d, l-MPH-LA at 1 to 2 hours, MCD at 1.5 hours, d, l-MPH-OR at 1 to 2 hours, MAS-XR at 1.5 to 2 hours, MTS at 2 hours, and LDX at approximately 2 hours. ... MAS-XR, and LDX have a long duration of action at 12 hours postdose 
  7. ^ Adderall IR Prescribing Information (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.: 1–6. October 2015 [2016-05-18]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Mignot EJ. A practical guide to the therapy of narcolepsy and hypersomnia syndromes. Neurotherapeutics. October 2012, 9 (4): 739–752. PMC 3480574. PMID 23065655. doi:10.1007/s13311-012-0150-9. 
  9. ^ dextrostat (dextroamphetamine sulfate) tablet [Shire US Inc.]. DailyMed. Wayne, PA: Shire US Inc. August 2006 [2013-11-08]. 
  10. ^ Dexedrine Prescribing Information (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Amedra Pharmaceuticals LLC: 1–7. February 2015 [2015-09-04].