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^Sibley, Margaret H.; Swanson, James M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily T.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Stehli, Annamarie; Abikoff, Howard; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Mitchell, John T.; Jensen, Peter S.; Howard, Andrea L.; Lakes, Kimberley D.; Pelham, William E. Defining ADHD symptom persistence in adulthood: optimizing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12620.
^ 15.015.1Margaret H. Sibley, James M. Swanson, L. Eugene Arnold, Lily T. Hechtman, Elizabeth B. Owens, Annamarie Stehli, Howard Abikoff, Stephen P. Hinshaw, Brooke S. G. Molina, John T. Mitchell, Peter S. Jensen, Andrea L. Howard, Kimberley D. Lakes & William E. Pelham. Defining ADHD symptom persistence in adulthood: optimizing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2016-09. PMID 27642116. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12620. CONCLUSION:The interview format optimizes young adult self-reporting when parent reports are not available. However, the combination of parent and self-reports from rating scales, using an 'or' rule and a NB threshold optimized the balance between sensitivity and specificity. With this definition, 60% of the ADHD group demonstrated symptom persistence and 41% met both symptom and impairment criteria in adulthood.
^Signs and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, National Institute of Mental Health.. nimh.nih.gov. National Institute of mental health. 2013-03 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2016-12-29） （英语）. Many adolescents with ADHD also struggle with relationships and antisocial behaviors. Inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems or missed entirely in quiet, well-behaved children, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Adults with undiagnosed ADHD may have a history of poor academic performance, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships.
^Hyperactivity: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus (tertiary source). 2017-07-05 [2017-07-07]. （原始内容存档于2017-07-15）. Hyperactivity means having increased movement, impulsive actions, and a shorter attention span, and being easily distracted...... Hyperactivity is not easily defined. It often depends on the observer. Behavior that seems excessive to one person may not seem excessive to another. But certain children, when compared to others, are clearly far more active. This can become a problem if it interferes with school work or making friends.
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^Philipsen, Alexandra. Differential diagnosis and comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience (Springer Nature). 2006, 256 (S1): i42–i46. ISSN 0940-1334. PMID 16977551. doi:10.1007/s00406-006-1006-2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and borderline personality Disorder (BPD) share some similar clinical features (e. g. impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, cognitive impairment). ADHD in childhood has been reported to be highly associated with the diagnosis of BPD in adulthood and adult ADHD often co-occurs with BPD.
^Asherson, Philip; Young, Allan H.; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Moran, Paul; Porsdal, Vibeke; Deberdt, Walter. Differential diagnosis, comorbidity, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in relation to bipolar disorder or borderline personality disorder in adults. Current Medical Research and Opinion (Informa Healthcare). 2014-05-07, 30 (8): 1657–1672. ISSN 0300-7995. doi:10.1185/03007995.2014.915800. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults can resemble, and often co-occurs with, bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD).
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^Berry, MD. The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials. January 2007, 2 (1): 3–19. PMID 18473983. doi:10.2174/157488707779318107. （原始内容存档于1 February 2017）. Although there is little direct evidence, changes in trace amines, in particular PE, have been identified as a possible factor for the onset of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). … Further, amphetamines, which have clinical utility in ADHD, are good ligands at trace amine receptors. Of possible relevance in this aspect is modafanil, which has shown beneficial effects in ADHD patients and has been reported to enhance the activity of PE at TAAR1. Conversely, methylphenidate, …showed poor efficacy at the TAAR1 receptor. In this respect it is worth noting that the enhancement of functioning at TAAR1 seen with modafanil was not a result of a direct interaction with TAAR1.已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
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^Murphy, Kevin. Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology (Wiley-Blackwell). 2005, 61 (5): 607–619. ISSN 0021-9762. doi:10.1002/jclp.20123. … therapy. Ado- lescents and adults who have ADHD frequently are disorganized, forgetful, and tardy; lose things; and have difficulty in planning. Generally, the more structure and routine incorporated into one's life, the better …
^ADHD couple and family relationships: Enhancing communication and understanding through Imago Relationship Therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology (Wiley-Blackwell). 2005, 61 (5): 565–577. ISSN 0021-9762. doi:10.1002/jclp.20120. … stressful overscheduling. These overcommitments can intensify ADHD difficulties with time management, lateness, and forgetfulness, as well as leave no down time to recuperate from life's daily stresses. These issues illustrate …
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^Nadeau, Kathleen G. Career choices and workplace challenges for individuals with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Psychology (Wiley-Blackwell). 2005, 61 (5): 549–563. ISSN 0021-9762. doi:10.1002/jclp.20119. … ADHD traits that may lead to interpersonal difficulties include missing nonverbal cues, interrupting, and overreactioning emotionally. Other ADHD traits can be misinterpreted by coworkers or supervisors as poor motivation, for example, chronic lateness or missing deadlines …
^Gau, SS; Huang, WL. Rapid visual information processing as a cognitive endophenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (快速視覺訊息歷程為注意力不足過動症的內表現型). Psychological medicine. 2014, 44 (2): 435–46. ISSN 0033-2917. PMID 23561037. doi:10.1017/S0033291713000640. Compared with the controls, probands with ADHD and unaffected siblings had significantly higher total misses, lower probability of hits in the RVP task...
^Lin, HY; Hwang-Gu, SL; Gau, SS. Intra-individual reaction time variability based on ex-Gaussian distribution as a potential endophenotype for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (個體内反應時間差異做為注意力不足過動症之內表現型：ex-Gaussian研究). Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2015, 132 (1): 39–50. ISSN 0001-690X. PMID 25612058. doi:10.1111/acps.12393. Compared with unaffected siblings and controls, ADHD probands had elevated sigma value, omissions, commissions, and mean RT. Unaffected siblings formed an intermediate group in-between probands and controls in terms of tau value and RTSD...Conforming to a context-dependent nature, unaffected siblings still had an intermediate tau value in-between probands and controls across different interstimulus intervals.
^Yang, LK; Shang, CY; Gau, SS. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their siblings. ( 患有注意力不足過動症之青少年及其手足之精神共病現象). Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. 2011, 56 (5): 281–92. ISSN 0706-7437. PMID 21586194. doi:10.1177/070674371105600507. Compared with the controls, adolescents with ADHD and unaffected siblings had a significantly shorter backward digit span, more extra-dimensional shift errors in the IED, shorter spatial span length in the SSP, more total errors and poorer strategy use in the SWM, and fewer problems solved in the minimum number of moves and shorter initial thinking time in the SOC.
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^What Causes ADHD. WebMD. 2017-10-04 [2017-10-12]. （原始内容存档于2017-10-26）. If a parent has ADHD, a child has more than a 50% chance of having it. If an older sibling has it, a child has more than a 30% chance.
^ADDISS Common Questions. ADDISS. [2017-10-12]. （原始内容存档于2017-05-05）. ADHD has a significant genetic component: most differences in severity of symptoms are due to genetic factors. For example, if a family has one ADHD child, there is a 30-40% chance that another brother/sister will also have the condition and a 45% chance (or greater) that at least one parent has the condition1. If the child with ADHD has an identical twin, the likelihood that the twin will also have the disorder is about 90%.
^Barkley, Russell. Taking charge of ADHD : the complete, authoritative guide for parents. New York: The Guilford Press. 2013: 83. ISBN 978-1-4625-0789-4. The risk is two to three times greater than the risk to one sibling if another one has the disorder (25%-35%)
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^ 194.00194.01194.02194.03194.04194.05194.06194.07194.08194.09194.10Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapters 10 and 13. (编) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 266, 315, 318–323. ISBN 9780071481274. Early results with structural MRI show thinning of the cerebral cortex in ADHD subjects compared with age-matched controls in prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, areas involved in working memory and attention.
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^Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang. Suicidality and its relationships with individual, family, peer, and psychopathology factors among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities (Elsevier BV). 2016, 53–54: 86–94. ISSN 0891-4222. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2016.02.001.
^Barkley, RA; Edwards, G; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L, The efficacy of problem-solving communication training alone, behavior management training alone, and their combination for parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD., Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 2001, 69 (6): 926–41, ISSN 0022-006X, PMID 11777120
^Chronis, Andrea M.; Chacko, Anil; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, Jr., William E. Enhancements to the Behavioral Parent Training Paradigm for Families of Children with ADHD: Review and Future Directions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review (Springer Nature). 2004, 7 (1): 1–27. ISSN 1096-4037. doi:10.1023/b:ccfp.0000020190.60808.a4.
^Fabiano GA, Pelham WE, Coles EK, Gnagy EM, Chronis-Tuscano A, O'Connor BC. "A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder".. Clincal Psychology Rev. (systematic review). 2009-03, 29 (2): 129–140. PMID 19131150. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.11.001.
^Kratochvil CJ, Vaughan BS, Barker A, Corr L, Wheeler A, Madaan V. Review of pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder for the general psychiatrist. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 2009-03, 32 (1): 39–56. PMID 19248915. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.10.001.
^Guidelines May Have Helped Curb ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers. MedlinePlus.gov (tertiary source). HealthDay. 2016-11-15 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2016-12-25）. The guidelines, issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), called for a standardized approach to diagnosis, and recommended behavior therapy -- not drugs -- as the first-line therapy for preschoolers.
^Bjornstad G, Montgomery P. Bjornstad GJ, 编. Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005, (2): CD005042. PMID 15846741. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005042.pub2.
^Daley, D; Van Der Oord, S; Ferrin, M; Cortese, S; Danckaerts, M; Doepfner, M; Van den Hoofdakker, BJ; Coghill, D; Thompson, M; Asherson, P; Banaschewski, T; Brandeis, D; Buitelaar, J; Dittmann, RW; Hollis, C; Holtmann, M; Konofal, E; Lecendreux, M; Rothenberger, A; Santosh, P; Simonoff, E; Soutullo, C; Steinhausen, HC; Stringaris, A; Taylor, E; Wong, ICK; Zuddas, A; Sonuga-Barke, EJ. Practitioner Review: Current best practice in the use of parent training and other behavioural interventions in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2017-10-30. PMID 29083042. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12825.
^Fabiano, Gregory A. Father participation in behavioral parent training for ADHD: Review and recommendations for increasing inclusion and engagement.. Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) (American Psychological Association (APA)). 2007, 21 (4): 683–693. ISSN 1939-1293. PMID 18179340. doi:10.1037/0893-318.104.22.1683.
^Cortese, S; Ferrin, M; Brandeis, D; Holtmann, M; Aggensteiner, P; Daley, D; Santosh, P; Simonoff, E; Stevenson, J; Stringaris, A; Sonuga-Barke, EJ; European ADHD Guidelines Group, (EAGG). Neurofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Clinical and Neuropsychological Outcomes From Randomized Controlled Trials.. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016-06, 55 (6): 444–55. PMID 27238063. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.03.007.
^See also footnote number "(1)" of [and the whole "What is ABA?" section of] «Olive, Dr. Melissa. What is ABA?. Applied Behavioral Strategies. [2015-10-06]. （原始内容存档于2015-10-06）. », where the same definition is given, (or quoted), and it credits (or mentions) both [i] the source "Baer, Wolf & Risley, 1968" and [ii] another source, called "Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991"
^ADHD-treatment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-04-11 [2017-04-23]. （原始内容存档于2017-04-23）.
^高淑芬. 家有過動兒：幫助ADHD孩子快樂成長. 台北: 心靈工坊. 2013-08-28. ISBN 9789866112805."家庭是ADHD孩子最重要的行為治療場域，更是支撐他們好好長大的關鍵。父母的支持能幫助孩子有勇氣面對困難，度過辛苦的學習過程。 身為父母，全心全意愛孩子是最基本的態度，一定要打從心裡認定：「我無條件愛我的孩子，如果連我都不願意幫助他，還有誰能幫他？我絕對不會放棄他，也不會放棄希望。我願意陪孩子一起努力！」 唯有讓孩子們在充滿安全感和接納的環境中長大，他們才能夠好好接受治療。"
^高淑芬. 家有過動兒：幫助ADHD孩子快樂成長. 台北: 心靈工坊. 2013-08-28. ISBN 9789866112805."無論如何，父母必須用「愛心、同理心」對待孩子並理解孩子在面對日常生活小事時所遇到的困難。多與孩子溝通，不要自以為知道孩子們在想什麼。願意把時間投資在促進親子關係上。不應該罵人，更不應該見到孩子劈頭就罵。這些種種將阻斷與孩子溝通的路。放下責備與自以為是後，父母和孩子往往將明白彼此之間有很多的誤會與淚水，需要釐清，更需要彼此的擁抱。"
^Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014, 55 (8): 878–885. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12164. Results_ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse.
^Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014, 55 (8): 878–885. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12164. Conclusions：We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients.
^Soren Dalsgaard, James F. Leckman, Preben Bo Mortensen, Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen. Effect of drugs on the risk of injuries in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study. The lancet. Psychiatry. 2015-08, 2 (8): 702–709. PMID 26249301. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00271-0. INTERPRETATION: Children with ADHD had an increased risk of injuries compared with other children. Treatment with ADHD drugs reduced the risk of injuries by up to 43% and emergency ward visits by up to 45% in children with ADHD. Taken together with previous findings of accidents being the most common cause of death in individuals with ADHD, these results are of major public health importance.
^Rafael Mikolajczyk, Johannes Horn, Niklas Schmedt, Ingo Langner, Christina Lindemann & Edeltraut Garbe. Injury prevention by medication among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-only study. JAMA pediatrics. 2015-04, 169 (4): 391–395. PMID 25686215. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3275. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: No significant risk reduction for hospitalizations with injury diagnoses was observed during periods of ADHD medication, but there was a preventive effect on the risk of brain injuries (34% risk reduction). The effects were controlled for time-invariant characteristics of the patients by the study design.
^Helen Briggs; the journal JAMA Psychiatry. Vitamins ‘effective in treating ADHD symptoms’. BBC News. 2014-01-30 [2017-04-13]. （原始内容存档于2017-04-14）. Scientists from the Karolinska Institute studied 17,000 individuals with ADHD over a period of four years using data from health registers. They found individuals with ADHD had a higher risk of being involved in serious transport accidents, such as car or motorcycle crashes, compared with those without ADHD. Transport accidents were lower among men with ADHD who were on medication than among men with ADHD who did not take medication. Calculations showed 41% of transport accidents involving men with ADHD could have been avoided if they had received medication and carried on taking it during the course of the study.
^Label of Ritalin LA. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. 2017-01-05 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2017-03-26）. Ritalin LA 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg capsules provide in a single dose the same amount of methylphenidate as dosages of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 mg of Ritalin tablets given b.i.d.
^Lopez, F; Silva, R; Pestreich, L; Muniz, R, Comparative efficacy of two once daily methylphenidate formulations (Ritalin LA and Concerta) and placebo in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the school day., Paediatric drugs, 2003, 5 (8): 545–55, ISSN 1174-5878, PMID 12895137, While both Ritalin LA and Concerta were shown to be effective, the different release profiles of each formulation can result in distinct differences between the effects on measures of attention and deportment.
^ 298.0298.1Wender, PH. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 1998,. 59 Suppl 7: 76–9. ISSN 0160-6689. PMID 9680056.
^Wilens, TE; Hammerness, PG; Biederman, J; Kwon, A; Spencer, TJ; Clark, S; Scott, M; Podolski, A; Ditterline, JW; Morris, MC; Moore, H, Blood pressure changes associated with medication treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder., The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 2005, 66 (2): 253–9, ISSN 0160-6689, PMID 15705013
^Hypoglycemia: MedlinePlus. MedlinePlus. 2017-11-07 [2017-12-23]. （原始内容存档于2017-12-22）. You can also have low blood sugar without having diabetes. Causes include certain medicines or diseases, hormone or enzyme deficiencies, and tumors. Laboratory tests can help find the cause. The kind of treatment depends on why you have low blood sugar.
^Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 2016-08-11 [2017-12-23]. （原始内容存档于2017-07-28）. Fast or irregular heart beat
^Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review Update of Medications used to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and young adults. Food and Drug Administration; November 1, 2011.
^Biederman J, Mick E, Surman C, et al. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of OROS Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Biol Psychiatry2006; 59: 829-835.
^Hammerness P, Wilens T, Mick E, et al. Cardiovascular Effects of Longer-Term, High-Dose OROS Methylphenidate in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Pediatr 2009; 155: 84-9.
^Adler L, Orman C, Starr L, et al. Long-term Safety of OROS Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2011; 31: 108-114.
^Weisler RH, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, et al. Long-term cardiovascular effects of mixed amphetamine salts extended release in adults with ADHD. CNS Spectr 2005; 10(12 Suppl 20): 35-43.
^Simpson D, Plosker G. Atomoxetine: A Review of its Use in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Drugs 2004; 64(2): 205-222.
^Wernicke J, Faries D, Girod D, et al. Cardiovascular Effects of Atomoxetine in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Drug Safety 2003; 26(10): 729-740.
^Adler L, Spencer T, Williams D, et al. Long-Term, Open-Label Safety and Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Adults With ADHD. J. of Att. Dis. 2008; 12(3): 248-253.
^Habel L, Cooper W, Sox C, et al. ADHD Medications and Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Events in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. JAMA 2011; 306(24): 2673-2683.
^Kelly, Aaron S.; Rudser, Kyle D.; Dengel, Donald R.; Kaufman, Christopher L.; Reiff, Michael I.; Norris, Anne L.; Metzig, Andrea M.; Steinberger, Julia. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction and Arterial Stiffness among Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulants. The Journal of pediatrics (Elsevier BV). 2014, 165 (4): 755–759. ISSN 0022-3476. PMID 25015574. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.05.043.
^Pharmacotherapy-for-Adult-Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder. UpToDate. [2018-02-26]. （原始内容存档于2018-02-27）. An uncontrolled follow-up of 96 adults with ADHD who experienced improvement while taking extended release methylphenidate in a randomized trial found that improvement in ADHD symptoms was sustained at 30 weeks on the medication. Only 39 subjects (40.6 percent) completed the long-term follow-up period. Participants continued to experience decreased appetite, insomnia, and jitteriness
^Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig; Doyle, Robert; Hammerness, Paul; Kotarski, Meghan; Spencer, Thomas. A Randomized, 3-Phase, 34-Week, Double-Blind, Long-Term Efficacy Study of Osmotic-Release Oral System-Methylphenidate in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)). 2010, 30 (5): 549–553. ISSN 0271-0749. PMID 20814332. doi:10.1097/jcp.0b013e3181ee84a7.
^Shoptaw, SJ; Kao, U; Ling, W. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis.. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2009-01-21, (1): CD003026. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 19160215. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3. A minority of individuals who use amphetamines develop full-blown psychosis requiring care at emergency departments or psychiatric hospitals. In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation. More common (about 18%) is for frequent amphetamine users to report psychotic symptoms that are sub-clinical and that do not require high-intensity intervention ... About 5–15% of the users who develop an amphetamine psychosis fail to recover completely (Hofmann 1983) ... Findings from one trial indicate use of antipsychotic medications effectively resolves symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.参数|quote=值左起第492位存在換行符 (帮助)
^ 325.0325.1Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B.; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Skoog, Maria; Holmskov, Mathilde; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Magnusson, Frederik L; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Gillies, Donna; Buch Rasmussen, Kirsten; Gauci, Dorothy; Zwi, Morris; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian, Storebø, Ole Jakob, 编, Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (systematic review) (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd), 2015-11-25, (11), PMID 26599576, doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009885.pub2, Within the short follow-up periods typical of the included trials, there is some evidence that methylphenidate is associated with increased risk of non-serious adverse events, such as sleep problems and decreased appetite, but no evidence that it increases risk of serious adverse events.Better designed trials are needed to assess the benefits of methylphenidate. Given the frequency of non-serious adverse events associated with methylphenidate, the particular difficulties for blinding of participants and outcome assessors point to the advantage of large, 'nocebo tablet' controlled trials.
^Methylphenidate. Home of MedlinePlus → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Methylphenidate Methylphenidate pronounced as (meth il fen' i date). 2016-02-15 [2017-02-27]. （原始内容存档于2017-07-04）.
^ 328.0328.1328.2Combining medications could offer better results for ADHD patients. Science News. Elsevier. 2016-08-01 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-02）. "Three studies to be published in the August 2016 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) report that combining two standard medications could lead to greater clinical improvements for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than either ADHD therapy alone.", August, 2016
^Adults with ADHD. MedlinePlus the Magazine 9. 8600 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, MD 20894, United States of America: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. 2014: 19. ISSN 1937-4712. （原始内容存档于2017-07-15） （美国英语）.
^Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. 2016-05-25 [2017-02-27]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-26）.
^All Disorders. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. [February twenty seventh, 2017]. （原始内容存档于2016-12-02）.请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Label of Strattera consisting of atomoxetine. DailyMed.gov. Eli Lilly Company. 2015-06 [2017-02]. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Acute Treatment Dosing of children and adolescents up to 70 kg body weight......No additional benefit has been demonstrated for doses higher than 1.2 mg/kg/day [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 'The total daily dose in children and adolescents should not exceed 1.4 mg/kg or 100 mg, whichever is less'. Dosing of children and adolescents over 70 kg body weight and adults......The maximum recommended total daily dose in children and adolescents over 70 kg and adults is 100 mg.
^How long for Strattera to start working?(PDF). Minnesota National Allianceof Mental Illness. [2017-02]. （原始内容存档(PDF)于2015-12-24）. It may take 4 - 8 weeks after an effective dose is reached for atomoxetine to reach maximum effectiveness. However, improvements in some symptoms may occur sooner.
^Frequently Asked Questions. Official website for Strattera. Strattera-Eli Lilly. 2016-09 [2017-02]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-09）. Strattera works gradually, so improvements are seen over time. When your child starts treatment with Strattera, it's important to set some small goals. Remember to be patient—some people notice small changes within 2 weeks, and by 4 to 6 weeks at target dose you should see significant improvement in your child's symptoms.
^Chi-Yung Shang, Yi-Lei Pan, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Lin-Wan Huang & Susan Shur-Fen Gau. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2015-09, 25 (7): 566–573. PMID 26222447. doi:10.1089/cap.2015.0035. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine.
^Myriam Harfterkamp, Jan K. Buitelaar, Ruud B. Minderaa, Gigi van de Loo-Neus, Rutger-Jan van der Gaag & Pieter J. Hoekstra. Long-term treatment with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: an open-label extension study. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2013-04, 23 (3): 194–199. PMID 23578015. doi:10.1089/cap.2012.0012.
^L. Eugene Arnold, Michael G. Aman, Amelia M. Cook, Andrea N. Witwer, Kristy L. Hall, Susan Thompson & Yaser Ramadan. Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006-10, 45 (10): 1196–1205. PMID 17003665. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000231976.28719.2a.
^Matthew Siegel, MD.,Craig Erickson, MD., MS, Jean A. Frazier, MD., Toni Ferguson, Autism Society of America., Eric Goepfert, MD., Gagan Joshi, MD., Quentin Humberd, MD., Bryan H. King, MD., Amy Lutz, EASI Foundation: Ending Aggression and Self-Injury in the Developmentally Disabled., Louis Kraus, MD., Alice Mao, MD., Adelaide Robb, MD., Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, MD, PhD., Paul Wang, MD, Autism SpeaksCarmen J. Head, MPH, CHES, Director, Research, Development, & WorkforceEve, Bender, Scientific Editor. Autism_Spectrum_Disorder_Parents_Medication_Guide(PDF). 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3007: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016: 13. （原始内容存档(PDF)于2017-04-11） （英语）. Atomoxetine (Strattera) has also been researched in controlled studies for treatment of ADHD in children with autism, and showed some improvements,particularly for hyperactivity and impulsivity.
^Parent's Medication Guide: ADHD. American Psychiatric Association (Guidelines (Tertiary source)). American Psychiatric Association & American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). 2013-06 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2017-02-02）. Though not FDA-approved for combined treatment, atomoxetine (Strattera) is sometimes used in conjunction with stimulants as an off-label combination therapy.
^Medical Encyclopedia → Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. MedlinePlus.gov. 2017-01-05 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-26）. Medicine combined with behavioral treatment often works best. Different ADHD medicines can be used alone or combined with each other. The doctor will decide which medicine is right, based on the person's symptoms and needs.
^Label of Strattera consisting of atomoxetine. DailyMed.gov (Leaflet/label (Tertiary source)). Eli Lilly Company. 2015-06 [2017-02]. 7.7 Methylphenidate\ Coadministration of methylphenidate with STRATTERA did not increase cardiovascular effects beyond those seen with methylphenidate alone.
^ 357.0357.1Parent's Medication Guide: ADHD. American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association & American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). 2013-06 [2017-02]. （原始内容存档于2017-02-02）. Extended release guanfacine (Intuniv) and extended release clonidine (Kapvay) are approved to be added to stimulant treatment when the stimulant doesn’t fully reduce the ADHD symptoms.
^Combining medications could offer better results for ADHD patients. Science News. Elsevier. 2016-08-01 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-02）. Summary:Three studies report that combining two standard medications could lead to greater clinical improvements for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than either ADHD therapy alone. At present, studies show that the use of several ADHD medications result in significant reductions in ADHD symptoms. However, so far there is no conclusive evidence that these standard drug treatments also improve long-term academic, social, and clinical outcomes.
^John-Michael Sauer, Barbara J. Ring & Jennifer W. Witcher. Clinical pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005, 44 (6): 571–590. PMID 15910008. doi:10.2165/00003088-200544060-00002. After single oral dose, atomoxetine reaches maximum plasma concentration within about 1-2 hours of administration. In extensive metabolisers, atomoxetine has a plasma half-life of 5.2 hours, while in poor metabolisers, atomoxetine has a plasma half-life of 21.6 hours.
^CATAPRES® 100 TABLETS(PDF). ABN 52 000 452 308 78 Waterloo Road NORTH RYDE NSW 2113: Boehringer Ingelheim Pty Limited. 2016-11-07 [2014-04-14]. （原始内容存档(PDF)于2015-02-28） （澳大利亚英语）. Pharmacokinetic Studies Absorption and distribution The pharmacokinetics of clonidine is dose-proportional in the range of 75-300 micrograms. Clonidine, the active ingredient of CATAPRES, is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and undergoes a minor first pass effect. Peak plasma concentrations are reached within 1-3 hours after oral administration. The duration of action varies from 6-12 hours, the duration of action being longer in the milder hypertensives. The plasma protein binding is 30-40%. Metabolism and excretion The terminal elimination half-life of clonidine has been found to range from 9-26 hours in patients with normal renal function. With impaired enal function it has been reported to increase to 18-48 hours