ADHD有時可能出現忘記吃藥的情形[註 10]，且短效藥物在血漿內的濃度變化很快，故不易維持穩定的療效，所以中長效型的藥物，對於患者來說是較為適合的。除此之外，中樞神經刺激劑的劑量如果不足，會導致「治療ADHD的療效打折」或「藥效只出現一下下（later loss of effectiveness）」中樞神經刺激劑的劑量不足的情況曾經發生在成人及青少年患者身上且未來也有可能發生，因為美國食品藥物管理局批准的劑量主要是適用於學齡兒童。為此，有些臨床醫師選擇改以體重或臨床療效作為處方藥物的劑量的基準。
^American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013: 59–65. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
^ 3.03.1Symptoms and Diagnosis. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Division of Human Development, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014-09-29 [2014-11-03]. （原始内容存档于2014-11-07）.
^Ferri, Fred F. Ferri's differential diagnosis : a practical guide to the differential diagnosis of symptoms, signs, and clinical disorders 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Mosby. 2010: Chapter A. ISBN 0323076998.引文格式1维护：冗余文本 (link)
^Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P; Schweren, Lizanne S J; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Medland, Sarah E; Shumskaya, Elena; Jahanshad, Neda; Zeeuw, Patrick de; Szekely, Eszter; Sudre, Gustavo; Wolfers, Thomas; Onnink, Alberdingk M H; Dammers, Janneke T; Mostert, Jeanette C; Vives-Gilabert, Yolanda; Kohls, Gregor; Oberwelland, Eileen; Seitz, Jochen; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Ambrosino, Sara; Doyle, Alysa E; Høvik, Marie F; Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Tamm, Leanne; van Erp, Theo G M; Dale, Anders; Schork, Andrew; Conzelmann, Annette; Zierhut, Kathrin; Baur, Ramona; McCarthy, Hazel; Yoncheva, Yuliya N; Cubillo, Ana; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Mehta, Mitul A; Paloyelis, Yannis; Hohmann, Sarah; Baumeister, Sarah; Bramati, Ivanei; Mattos, Paulo; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Douglas, Pamela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Rubia, Katya; Kelly, Clare; Martino, Adriana Di; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, Francisco X; Frodl, Thomas; Zentis, Mariam; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Jernigan, Terry L; Haavik, Jan; Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Astri J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Polier, Georg von; Konrad, Kerstin; Vilarroya, Oscar; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Soliva, Joan Carles; Durston, Sarah; Buitelaar, Jan K; Faraone, Stephen V; Shaw, Philip; Thompson, Paul M; Franke, Barbara. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: a cross-sectional mega-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry (Elsevier BV). 2017, 4 (4): 310–319. ISSN 2215-0366. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(17)30049-4.
^ 12.012.1American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013: 59–65. ISBN 0890425558.
^Symptoms and Diagnosis. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Division of Human Development, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014-09-29 [2014-11-03]. （原始内容存档于2014-11-07）.
^Sibley, Margaret H.; Swanson, James M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily T.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Stehli, Annamarie; Abikoff, Howard; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Mitchell, John T.; Jensen, Peter S.; Howard, Andrea L.; Lakes, Kimberley D.; Pelham, William E. Defining ADHD symptom persistence in adulthood: optimizing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12620.
^ 15.015.1Margaret H. Sibley, James M. Swanson, L. Eugene Arnold, Lily T. Hechtman, Elizabeth B. Owens, Annamarie Stehli, Howard Abikoff, Stephen P. Hinshaw, Brooke S. G. Molina, John T. Mitchell, Peter S. Jensen, Andrea L. Howard, Kimberley D. Lakes & William E. Pelham. Defining ADHD symptom persistence in adulthood: optimizing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2016-09. PMID 27642116. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12620. CONCLUSION:The interview format optimizes young adult self-reporting when parent reports are not available. However, the combination of parent and self-reports from rating scales, using an 'or' rule and a NB threshold optimized the balance between sensitivity and specificity. With this definition, 60% of the ADHD group demonstrated symptom persistence and 41% met both symptom and impairment criteria in adulthood.
^Signs and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, National Institute of Mental Health.. nimh.nih.gov. National Institute of mental health. 2013-03 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2016-12-29） （英语）. Many adolescents with ADHD also struggle with relationships and antisocial behaviors. Inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems or missed entirely in quiet, well-behaved children, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Adults with undiagnosed ADHD may have a history of poor academic performance, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships.
^Hyperactivity: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus (tertiary source). 2017-07-05 [2017-07-07]. （原始内容存档于2017-07-15）. Hyperactivity means having increased movement, impulsive actions, and a shorter attention span, and being easily distracted...... Hyperactivity is not easily defined. It often depends on the observer. Behavior that seems excessive to one person may not seem excessive to another. But certain children, when compared to others, are clearly far more active. This can become a problem if it interferes with school work or making friends.
^Coleman WL (August 2008). "Social competence and friendship formation in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 19 (2): 278–99, x. PMID 18822833.
^"ADHD Anger Management Directory". Webmd.com. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
^"F90 Hyperkinetic disorders", International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision, World Health Organisation, 2010, retrieved 2 November 2014
^Bellani M, Moretti A, Perlini C, Brambilla P (December 2011). "Language disturbances in ADHD". Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 20 (4): 311–315. doi:10.1017/S2045796011000527. PMID 22201208.
^ 59.059.1Walitza, S; Drechsler, R; Ball, J (August 2012). "Das schulkind mit ADHS" [The school child with ADHD]. Ther Umsch (in German). 69 (8): 467–73. doi:10.1024/0040-5930/a000316. PMID 22851461.
^Eveline L. de Zeeuw, Catharina E. M. van Beijsterveldt, Erik A. Ehli, Eco J. C. de Geus & Dorret I. Boomsma. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Low Educational Achievement: Evidence Supporting A Causal Hypothesis. Behavior genetics. 2017-01. PMID 28191586. doi:10.1007/s10519-017-9836-4.
^ 61.061.1Emond, V; Joyal, C; Poissant, H. Neuroanatomie structurelle et fonctionnelle du trouble déficitaire d’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité (TDAH) [Structural and functional neuroanatomy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. Encephale. 2009-04, 35 (2): 107–14. PMID 19393378. doi:10.1016/j.encep.2008.01.005（法语）.
^Frazier, TW; Demaree, HA; Youngstrom, EA (July 2004). "Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.". Neuropsychology. 18 (3): 543–55. doi:10.1037/0894-4220.127.116.113. PMID 15291732.
^Mackenzie, GB; Wonders, E (2016). "Rethinking Intelligence Quotient Exclusion Criteria Practices in the Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.". Frontiers in psychology. 7: 794. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00794. PMC 4886698Freely accessible. PMID 27303350.
^ 72.072.1Hofvander B, Ossowski D, Lundström S, Anckarsäter H. Continuity of aggressive antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood: The question of phenotype definition. International Journal of Law Psychiatry. 2009, 32 (4): 224–234. PMID 19428109. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.04.004.
^ 73.073.1Rubia K. "Cool" inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus "hot" ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review. Biology Psychiatry (review). 2010-09-23, 69 (12): e69–87. PMID 21094938. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.023.使用|accessdate=需要含有|url= (帮助)
^McBurnett, K; Pfiffner, LJ. Treatment of aggressive ADHD in children and adolescents: Conceptualization and treatment of comorbid behavior disorders. Postgrad Med. November 2009, 121 (6): 158–165. PMID 19940426. doi:10.3810/pgm.2009.11.2084.
^Baud P, Perroud N, Aubry JM. [Bipolar disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: differential diagnosis or comorbidity]. Rev Med Suisse. June 2011, 7 (297): 1219–1222. PMID 21717696（法语）.
^Mark Wolraich, Lawrence Brown,Ronald T. Brown, George DuPaul, Marian Earls, Heidi M. Feldman, Theodore G. Ganiats, Beth Kaplanek, Bruce Meyer, James Perrin, Karen Pierce, Michael Reiff, Martin T. Stein & Susanna Visser. ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011-11, 128 (5): 1007–1022. PMID 22003063. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2654.
^Morgenstern M, Wang J, Beatty N, Batemarco T, Sica AL, Greenberg H. Obstructive sleep apnea: an unexpected cause of insulin resistance and diabetes. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2014, 43 (1): 187–204. PMID 24582098. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2013.09.002.
^H Singh; R Pollock; J Uhanova; M Kryger; K Hawkins; GY Minuk. Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2005, 50 (12): 2338–2343. doi:10.1007/s10620-005-3058-y.
^F Tanne; F Gagnadoux; O Chazouilleres; B Fleury; D Wendum; E Lasnier; B Labeau; R Poupon; L Serfaty. Chronic Liver Injury During Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Hepatology. 2005, 41 (6): 1290–1296. doi:10.1002/hep.20725.
^Philipsen, Alexandra. Differential diagnosis and comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience (Springer Nature). 2006, 256 (S1): i42–i46. ISSN 0940-1334. PMID 16977551. doi:10.1007/s00406-006-1006-2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and borderline personality Disorder (BPD) share some similar clinical features (e. g. impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, cognitive impairment). ADHD in childhood has been reported to be highly associated with the diagnosis of BPD in adulthood and adult ADHD often co-occurs with BPD.
^Asherson, Philip; Young, Allan H.; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Moran, Paul; Porsdal, Vibeke; Deberdt, Walter. Differential diagnosis, comorbidity, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in relation to bipolar disorder or borderline personality disorder in adults. Current Medical Research and Opinion (Informa Healthcare). 2014-05-07, 30 (8): 1657–1672. ISSN 0300-7995. doi:10.1185/03007995.2014.915800. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults can resemble, and often co-occurs with, bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD).
^Yewchuk, C. R., & Lupark, J. L. (1993), Gifted handicapped: A desultory duality, In K. A. Heller, F. J. Monks, & A. H. Passow (Eds.), International handbook of research and development of giftedness and talent, pp. 709-725, Oxford: Pergamon
^Edward Hallowell; John J. Ratey. Driven to distraction : recognizing and coping with attention deficit disorder from childhood through adulthood. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1995. ISBN 978-0-684-80128-5.
^ 115.0115.1115.2American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 59–65. ISBN 0890425558.
^Kooij, SJ; Bejerot, S; Blackwell, A; Caci, H; et al. (2010). "European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD". BMC Psychiatry. 10: 67. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-67. PMC 2942810Freely accessible. PMID 20815868.
^Berry, MD. The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials. January 2007, 2 (1): 3–19. PMID 18473983. doi:10.2174/157488707779318107. （原始内容存档于1 February 2017）. Although there is little direct evidence, changes in trace amines, in particular PE, have been identified as a possible factor for the onset of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). … Further, amphetamines, which have clinical utility in ADHD, are good ligands at trace amine receptors. Of possible relevance in this aspect is modafanil, which has shown beneficial effects in ADHD patients and has been reported to enhance the activity of PE at TAAR1. Conversely, methylphenidate, …showed poor efficacy at the TAAR1 receptor. In this respect it is worth noting that the enhancement of functioning at TAAR1 seen with modafanil was not a result of a direct interaction with TAAR1.已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
^Dresel, S; Krause, J; Krause, KH; LaFougere, C; Brinkbäumer, K; Kung, HF; Hahn, K; Tatsch, K. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment.. European journal of nuclear medicine. 2000, 27 (10): 1518–24. ISSN 0340-6997. PMID 11083541.
^Krause, KH; Dresel, SH; Krause, J; la Fougere, C; Ackenheil, M. The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2003, 27 (7): 605–13. ISSN 0149-7634. PMID 14624805.
^Murphy, Kevin. Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology (Wiley-Blackwell). 2005, 61 (5): 607–619. ISSN 0021-9762. doi:10.1002/jclp.20123. … therapy. Ado- lescents and adults who have ADHD frequently are disorganized, forgetful, and tardy; lose things; and have difficulty in planning. Generally, the more structure and routine incorporated into one's life, the better …
^ADHD couple and family relationships: Enhancing communication and understanding through Imago Relationship Therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology (Wiley-Blackwell). 2005, 61 (5): 565–577. ISSN 0021-9762. doi:10.1002/jclp.20120. … stressful overscheduling. These overcommitments can intensify ADHD difficulties with time management, lateness, and forgetfulness, as well as leave no down time to recuperate from life's daily stresses. These issues illustrate …
^Gibbins, Christopher; Weiss, Margaret. Clinical recommendations in current practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adults. Current Psychiatry Reports (Springer Nature). 2007, 9 (5): 420–426. ISSN 1523-3812. doi:10.1007/s11920-007-0055-1. … Some of the functional deficits most common in ADHD include poor organization; messiness; missed appointments; lateness; anger outbursts; marital conflict; difficulties with the instrumental tasks of parenting; impaired driving; avoidance of paperwork; and difficul- ties with …
^Nadeau, Kathleen G. Career choices and workplace challenges for individuals with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Psychology (Wiley-Blackwell). 2005, 61 (5): 549–563. ISSN 0021-9762. doi:10.1002/jclp.20119. … ADHD traits that may lead to interpersonal difficulties include missing nonverbal cues, interrupting, and overreactioning emotionally. Other ADHD traits can be misinterpreted by coworkers or supervisors as poor motivation, for example, chronic lateness or missing deadlines …
^Gau, SS; Huang, WL. Rapid visual information processing as a cognitive endophenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (快速視覺訊息歷程為注意力不足過動症的內表現型). Psychological medicine. 2014, 44 (2): 435–46. ISSN 0033-2917. PMID 23561037. doi:10.1017/S0033291713000640. Compared with the controls, probands with ADHD and unaffected siblings had significantly higher total misses, lower probability of hits in the RVP task...
^Lin, HY; Hwang-Gu, SL; Gau, SS. Intra-individual reaction time variability based on ex-Gaussian distribution as a potential endophenotype for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (個體内反應時間差異做為注意力不足過動症之內表現型：ex-Gaussian研究). Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2015, 132 (1): 39–50. ISSN 0001-690X. PMID 25612058. doi:10.1111/acps.12393. Compared with unaffected siblings and controls, ADHD probands had elevated sigma value, omissions, commissions, and mean RT. Unaffected siblings formed an intermediate group in-between probands and controls in terms of tau value and RTSD...Conforming to a context-dependent nature, unaffected siblings still had an intermediate tau value in-between probands and controls across different interstimulus intervals.
^Yang, LK; Shang, CY; Gau, SS. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their siblings. ( 患有注意力不足過動症之青少年及其手足之精神共病現象). Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. 2011, 56 (5): 281–92. ISSN 0706-7437. PMID 21586194. doi:10.1177/070674371105600507. Compared with the controls, adolescents with ADHD and unaffected siblings had a significantly shorter backward digit span, more extra-dimensional shift errors in the IED, shorter spatial span length in the SSP, more total errors and poorer strategy use in the SWM, and fewer problems solved in the minimum number of moves and shorter initial thinking time in the SOC.
^Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung. Executive functions as endophenotypes in ADHD: evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Wiley-Blackwell). 2010-01-18, 51 (7): 838–849. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02215.x.
^What Causes ADHD. WebMD. 2017-10-04 [2017-10-12]. （原始内容存档于2017-10-26）. If a parent has ADHD, a child has more than a 50% chance of having it. If an older sibling has it, a child has more than a 30% chance.
^ADDISS Common Questions. ADDISS. [2017-10-12]. （原始内容存档于2017-05-05）. ADHD has a significant genetic component: most differences in severity of symptoms are due to genetic factors. For example, if a family has one ADHD child, there is a 30-40% chance that another brother/sister will also have the condition and a 45% chance (or greater) that at least one parent has the condition1. If the child with ADHD has an identical twin, the likelihood that the twin will also have the disorder is about 90%.
^Barkley, Russell. Taking charge of ADHD : the complete, authoritative guide for parents. New York: The Guilford Press. 2013: 83. ISBN 978-1-4625-0789-4. The risk is two to three times greater than the risk to one sibling if another one has the disorder (25%-35%)
^Selikowitz, Mark. ADHD (The Facts Series). Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. 2009: 80. ISBN 978-0-19-956503-0. If parents have had a child with ADHD, the chance of each successive child to have ADHD is 5-6 times greater than for the general population, i.e. the risk increases to one in three.
^National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults. British Psychological Society. 2009: 19–27, 38, 130, 133, 317. ISBN 9781854334718.
^Burt SA. Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: a meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychol Bull. 2009-06, 135 (4): 608–637. PMID 19586164. doi:10.1037/a0015702.
^Burger PH, Goecke TW, Fasching PA, Moll G, Heinrich H, Beckmann MW, Kornhuber J. [How does maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy affect the development of attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome in the child]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr (Review). 2011-09, 79 (9): 500–506. PMID 21739408. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1273360（德语）.
^de Cock M, Maas YG, van de Bor M. Does perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors induce autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders? Review. Acta Paediatr. (Review. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't). August 2012, 101 (8): 811–818. PMID 22458970. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02693.x.
^Ystrom, Eivind; Gustavson, Kristin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Magnus, Per; Susser, Ezra; Davey Smith, George; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Surén, Pål; Håberg, Siri E.; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian; Nordeng, Hedvig; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted. Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk of ADHD. Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)). 2017-10-30, 140 (5): e20163840. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 29084830. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-3840.
^Wolraich, Mark L. An Association Between Prenatal Acetaminophen Use and ADHD: The Benefits of Large Data Sets. Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)). 2017-10-30, 140 (5): e20172703. ISSN 0031-4005. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-2703.
^Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Coull, Brent A.; O’Reilly, Éilis J.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G. Association of Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol During Pregnancy With Multigenerational Neurodevelopmental Deficits. JAMA Pediatrics (American Medical Association (AMA)). 2018-05-21. ISSN 2168-6203. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0727.
^Mayes R, Bagwell C, Erkulwater JL. Medicating Children: ADHD and Pediatric Mental Health illustrated. Harvard University Press. 2009: 4–24. ISBN 9780674031630.
^ 180.0180.1180.2180.3180.4180.5Sonuga-Barke EJ, Brandeis D, Cortese S, Daley D, Ferrin M, Holtmann M, Stevenson J, Danckaerts M, van der Oord S, Döpfner M, Dittmann RW, Simonoff E, Zuddas A, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Hollis C, Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Wong IC, Sergeant J. Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. Am J Psychiatry. 2013-03, 170 (3): 275–289. PMID 23360949. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12070991. Free fatty acid supplementation and artificial food color exclusions appear to have beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms, although the effect of the former are small and those of the latter may be limited to ADHD patients with food sensitivities...
^CDC, Facts About ADHD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016-01-06 [2016-03-20], （原始内容存档于2016-03-22）
^Barkley, Russell. ADHD in adults : what the science says. New York: Guilford Press. 2008: 205-244, 245-399. ISBN 978-1-60918-075-1.
^Hartman, Renee R.; Stage, Scott A.; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn. A growth curve analysis of parent training outcomes: examining the influence of child risk factors (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity problems), parental and family risk factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Wiley-Blackwell). 2003, 44 (3): 388–398. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00129.
^Yang, Chia-Feng; Yang, Chen-Chang; Wang, I-Jen. Association between allergic diseases, allergic sensitization and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A large-scale, population-based study. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA (Elsevier BV). 2018, 81 (3): 277–283. ISSN 1726-4901. PMID 29239851. doi:10.1016/j.jcma.2017.07.016.
^ 195.0195.1Lin, Yi-Tsen; Chen, Yang-Ching; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Yeh, Te-Huei; Fan, Hsien-Yu; Hwang, Yu-Ya; Lee, Yungling Leo. Associations between allergic diseases and attention deficit hyperactivity/oppositional defiant disorders in children. Pediatric research (Springer Nature). 2016-06-02, 80 (4): 480–485. ISSN 0031-3998. PMID 27356086. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.111.
^ 198.00198.01198.02198.03198.04198.05198.06198.07198.08198.09198.10Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapters 10 and 13. (编) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 266, 315, 318–323. ISBN 9780071481274. Early results with structural MRI show thinning of the cerebral cortex in ADHD subjects compared with age-matched controls in prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, areas involved in working memory and attention.
^ 199.0199.1199.2199.3199.4199.5199.6Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin. (编) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 148, 154–157. ISBN 9780071481274. NOTE: DA: dopamine, LC: locus coeruleus, VTA: ventral tegmental area, 5HT: serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)
^Cortese S. The neurobiology and genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): what every clinician should know. Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. 2012-09, 16 (5): 422–433. PMID 22306277. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.01.009.
^ 209.0209.1209.2Modesto-Lowe V, Chaplin M, Soovajian V, Meyer A. Are motivation deficits underestimated in patients with ADHD? A review of the literature. Postgrad Med. 2013, 125 (4): 47–52. PMID 23933893. doi:10.3810/pgm.2013.07.2677. Previous studies suggest that a clinical approach using interventions to improve motivational processes in patients with ADHD may improve outcomes as children with ADHD transition into adolescence and adulthood.
^ 221.0221.1Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Yao-Hsu Yang, Yin-To Liao, Ting-Yu Kuo, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuo-You Huang, Yin-Cheng Huang, Yena Lee, Roger S. McIntyre & Tzu-Chin Lin. The association between methylphenidate treatment and the risk for fracture among young ADHD patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. PloS one. 2017, 12 (3): e0173762. PMID 28296941. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173762.
^Liu, Tai-Ling; Guo, Nai-Wen; Hsiao, Ray C.; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang. Relationships of bullying involvement with intelligence, attention, and executive function in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities (Elsevier BV). 2017, 70: 59–66. ISSN 0891-4222. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2017.08.004.
^Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang. Pain, Bullying Involvement, and Mental Health Problems Among Children and Adolescents With ADHD in Taiwan. Journal of attention disorders (SAGE Publications). 2017-08-24: 108705471772451. ISSN 1087-0547. PMID 28836888. doi:10.1177/1087054717724514.
^Hu, Huei-Fan; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Yen, Cheng-Fang. Anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The roles of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder, and bullying involvement. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences (Elsevier BV). 2016, 32 (2): 103–109. ISSN 1607-551X. PMID 26944330. doi:10.1016/j.kjms.2016.01.002.
^Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hu, Huei-Fan. Bullying Victimization and Perpetration and Their Correlates in Adolescents Clinically Diagnosed With ADHD. Journal of attention disorders (SAGE Publications). 2014-11-17, 22 (1): 25–34. ISSN 1087-0547. PMID 25403369. doi:10.1177/1087054714558874.请检查|year= / |date= mismatch中的日期值 (帮助)
^Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status. Research in developmental disabilities (Elsevier BV). 2014, 35 (12): 3543–3553. ISSN 0891-4222. PMID 25241113. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.08.035.
^Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang. Suicidality and its relationships with individual, family, peer, and psychopathology factors among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities (Elsevier BV). 2016, 53–54: 86–94. ISSN 0891-4222. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2016.02.001.
^Barkley, RA; Edwards, G; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L, The efficacy of problem-solving communication training alone, behavior management training alone, and their combination for parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD., Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 2001, 69 (6): 926–41, ISSN 0022-006X, PMID 11777120
^Chronis, Andrea M.; Chacko, Anil; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, Jr., William E. Enhancements to the Behavioral Parent Training Paradigm for Families of Children with ADHD: Review and Future Directions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review (Springer Nature). 2004, 7 (1): 1–27. ISSN 1096-4037. doi:10.1023/b:ccfp.0000020190.60808.a4.
^Fabiano GA, Pelham WE, Coles EK, Gnagy EM, Chronis-Tuscano A, O'Connor BC. "A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder".. Clincal Psychology Rev. (systematic review). 2009-03, 29 (2): 129–140. PMID 19131150. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.11.001.
^Kratochvil CJ, Vaughan BS, Barker A, Corr L, Wheeler A, Madaan V. Review of pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder for the general psychiatrist. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 2009-03, 32 (1): 39–56. PMID 19248915. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.10.001.
^Guidelines May Have Helped Curb ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers. MedlinePlus.gov (tertiary source). HealthDay. 2016-11-15 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2016-12-25）. The guidelines, issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), called for a standardized approach to diagnosis, and recommended behavior therapy -- not drugs -- as the first-line therapy for preschoolers.
^Bjornstad G, Montgomery P. Bjornstad GJ, 编. Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005, (2): CD005042. PMID 15846741. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005042.pub2.
^ADHD, CHADD – The National Resource on. CHADD. Social Skills in Adults with ADHD. [2018-06-14]. （原始内容存档于2017-12-22）.
^Daley, D; Van Der Oord, S; Ferrin, M; Cortese, S; Danckaerts, M; Doepfner, M; Van den Hoofdakker, BJ; Coghill, D; Thompson, M; Asherson, P; Banaschewski, T; Brandeis, D; Buitelaar, J; Dittmann, RW; Hollis, C; Holtmann, M; Konofal, E; Lecendreux, M; Rothenberger, A; Santosh, P; Simonoff, E; Soutullo, C; Steinhausen, HC; Stringaris, A; Taylor, E; Wong, ICK; Zuddas, A; Sonuga-Barke, EJ. Practitioner Review: Current best practice in the use of parent training and other behavioural interventions in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2017-10-30. PMID 29083042. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12825.
^Fabiano, Gregory A. Father participation in behavioral parent training for ADHD: Review and recommendations for increasing inclusion and engagement.. Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) (American Psychological Association (APA)). 2007, 21 (4): 683–693. ISSN 1939-1293. PMID 18179340. doi:10.1037/0893-318.104.22.1683.
^Cortese, S; Ferrin, M; Brandeis, D; Holtmann, M; Aggensteiner, P; Daley, D; Santosh, P; Simonoff, E; Stevenson, J; Stringaris, A; Sonuga-Barke, EJ; European ADHD Guidelines Group, (EAGG). Neurofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Clinical and Neuropsychological Outcomes From Randomized Controlled Trials.. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016-06, 55 (6): 444–55. PMID 27238063. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.03.007.
^See also footnote number "(1)" of [and the whole "What is ABA?" section of] «Olive, Dr. Melissa. What is ABA?. Applied Behavioral Strategies. [2015-10-06]. （原始内容存档于2015-10-06）. », where the same definition is given, (or quoted), and it credits (or mentions) both [i] the source "Baer, Wolf & Risley, 1968" and [ii] another source, called "Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991"
^ADHD-treatment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-04-11 [2017-04-23]. （原始内容存档于2017-04-23）.
^高淑芬. 家有過動兒：幫助ADHD孩子快樂成長. 台北: 心靈工坊. 2013-08-28. ISBN 9789866112805."家庭是ADHD孩子最重要的行為治療場域，更是支撐他們好好長大的關鍵。父母的支持能幫助孩子有勇氣面對困難，度過辛苦的學習過程。 身為父母，全心全意愛孩子是最基本的態度，一定要打從心裡認定：「我無條件愛我的孩子，如果連我都不願意幫助他，還有誰能幫他？我絕對不會放棄他，也不會放棄希望。我願意陪孩子一起努力！」 唯有讓孩子們在充滿安全感和接納的環境中長大，他們才能夠好好接受治療。"
^高淑芬. 家有過動兒：幫助ADHD孩子快樂成長. 台北: 心靈工坊. 2013-08-28. ISBN 9789866112805."無論如何，父母必須用「愛心、同理心」對待孩子並理解孩子在面對日常生活小事時所遇到的困難。多與孩子溝通，不要自以為知道孩子們在想什麼。願意把時間投資在促進親子關係上。不應該罵人，更不應該見到孩子劈頭就罵。這些種種將阻斷與孩子溝通的路。放下責備與自以為是後，父母和孩子往往將明白彼此之間有很多的誤會與淚水，需要釐清，更需要彼此的擁抱。"
^Medscape Log In. Medscape Education. 2010-01-01 [2018-06-14]. （原始内容存档于2018-06-14）. Short-acting stimulants have been available for decades, but their use as first-line treatment is not advised. These agents require 3-4 daily doses to sustain effectiveness throughout the day. This is a tall order for patients with preexisting struggles with time management and organization. Furthermore, because behavioral response is linked to drug metabolism and these agents have a therapeutic effect that wanes within hours of administration, it is difficult for a clinician to assess efficacy in patients with rapidly shifting blood levels. For these reasons, the use of short-acting stimulants delays significant and consistent improvements in symptoms.
^Medscape Log In. Medscape Education. 2010-01-01 [2018-06-14]. （原始内容存档于2018-06-14）. Using pharmacy data of 60,010 patients taking ADHD medications (41.6% adults), researchers found that adherence and persistence were best with long-acting stimulants, with long-acting amphetamines having the advantage over long-acting methylphenidate.A long-acting drug and a higher therapeutic dose may make a marked difference. If the patient is resistant to one agent, then trying a different medication might be more effective and elicit better adherence. In most cases, long-acting ADHD medications are best because they can provide a more rapid response, which further increases the likelihood of medication adherence.
^Biederman, Joseph. New-Generation Long-Acting Stimulants for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Medscape. 2003 [19 June 2016]. （原始内容存档于7 December 2003）. As most treatment guidelines and prescribing information for stimulant medications relate to experience in school-aged children, prescribed doses for older patients are lacking. Emerging evidence for both methylphenidate and Adderall indicate that when weight-corrected daily doses, equipotent with those used in the treatment of younger patients, are used to treat adults with ADHD, these patients show a very robust clinical response consistent with that observed in pediatric studies. These data suggest that older patients may require a more aggressive approach in terms of dosing, based on the same target dosage ranges that have already been established – for methylphenidate, 1–1.5–2 mg/kg/day, and for D,L-amphetamine, 0.5–0.75–1 mg/kg/day....
In particular, adolescents and adults are vulnerable to underdosing, and are thus at potential risk of failing to receive adequate dosage levels. As with all therapeutic agents, the efficacy and safety of stimulant medications should always guide prescribing behavior: careful dosage titration of the selected stimulant product should help to ensure that each patient with ADHD receives an adequate dose, so that the clinical benefits of therapy can be fully attained.已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
^Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014, 55 (8): 878–885. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12164. Results_ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse.
^Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014, 55 (8): 878–885. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12164. Conclusions：We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients.
^Soren Dalsgaard, James F. Leckman, Preben Bo Mortensen, Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen. Effect of drugs on the risk of injuries in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study. The lancet. Psychiatry. 2015-08, 2 (8): 702–709. PMID 26249301. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00271-0. INTERPRETATION: Children with ADHD had an increased risk of injuries compared with other children. Treatment with ADHD drugs reduced the risk of injuries by up to 43% and emergency ward visits by up to 45% in children with ADHD. Taken together with previous findings of accidents being the most common cause of death in individuals with ADHD, these results are of major public health importance.
^Rafael Mikolajczyk, Johannes Horn, Niklas Schmedt, Ingo Langner, Christina Lindemann & Edeltraut Garbe. Injury prevention by medication among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-only study. JAMA pediatrics. 2015-04, 169 (4): 391–395. PMID 25686215. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3275. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: No significant risk reduction for hospitalizations with injury diagnoses was observed during periods of ADHD medication, but there was a preventive effect on the risk of brain injuries (34% risk reduction). The effects were controlled for time-invariant characteristics of the patients by the study design.
^Helen Briggs; the journal JAMA Psychiatry. Vitamins ‘effective in treating ADHD symptoms’. BBC News. 2014-01-30 [2017-04-13]. （原始内容存档于2017-04-14）. Scientists from the Karolinska Institute studied 17,000 individuals with ADHD over a period of four years using data from health registers. They found individuals with ADHD had a higher risk of being involved in serious transport accidents, such as car or motorcycle crashes, compared with those without ADHD. Transport accidents were lower among men with ADHD who were on medication than among men with ADHD who did not take medication. Calculations showed 41% of transport accidents involving men with ADHD could have been avoided if they had received medication and carried on taking it during the course of the study.
^Label of Ritalin LA. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. 2017-01-05 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2017-03-26）. Ritalin LA 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg capsules provide in a single dose the same amount of methylphenidate as dosages of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 mg of Ritalin tablets given b.i.d.
^Lopez, F; Silva, R; Pestreich, L; Muniz, R, Comparative efficacy of two once daily methylphenidate formulations (Ritalin LA and Concerta) and placebo in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the school day., Paediatric drugs, 2003, 5 (8): 545–55, ISSN 1174-5878, PMID 12895137, While both Ritalin LA and Concerta were shown to be effective, the different release profiles of each formulation can result in distinct differences between the effects on measures of attention and deportment.
^ 310.0310.1Wender, PH. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 1998,. 59 Suppl 7: 76–9. ISSN 0160-6689. PMID 9680056.
^Wilens, TE; Hammerness, PG; Biederman, J; Kwon, A; Spencer, TJ; Clark, S; Scott, M; Podolski, A; Ditterline, JW; Morris, MC; Moore, H, Blood pressure changes associated with medication treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder., The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 2005, 66 (2): 253–9, ISSN 0160-6689, PMID 15705013
^Hypoglycemia: MedlinePlus. MedlinePlus. 2017-11-07 [2017-12-23]. （原始内容存档于2017-12-22）. You can also have low blood sugar without having diabetes. Causes include certain medicines or diseases, hormone or enzyme deficiencies, and tumors. Laboratory tests can help find the cause. The kind of treatment depends on why you have low blood sugar.
^Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 2016-08-11 [2017-12-23]. （原始内容存档于2017-07-28）. Fast or irregular heart beat
^Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review Update of Medications used to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and young adults. Food and Drug Administration; November 1, 2011.
^Biederman J, Mick E, Surman C, et al. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of OROS Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Biol Psychiatry2006; 59: 829-835.
^Hammerness P, Wilens T, Mick E, et al. Cardiovascular Effects of Longer-Term, High-Dose OROS Methylphenidate in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Pediatr 2009; 155: 84-9.
^Adler L, Orman C, Starr L, et al. Long-term Safety of OROS Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2011; 31: 108-114.
^Weisler RH, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, et al. Long-term cardiovascular effects of mixed amphetamine salts extended release in adults with ADHD. CNS Spectr 2005; 10(12 Suppl 20): 35-43.
^Simpson D, Plosker G. Atomoxetine: A Review of its Use in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Drugs 2004; 64(2): 205-222.
^Wernicke J, Faries D, Girod D, et al. Cardiovascular Effects of Atomoxetine in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Drug Safety 2003; 26(10): 729-740.
^Adler L, Spencer T, Williams D, et al. Long-Term, Open-Label Safety and Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Adults With ADHD. J. of Att. Dis. 2008; 12(3): 248-253.
^Habel L, Cooper W, Sox C, et al. ADHD Medications and Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Events in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. JAMA 2011; 306(24): 2673-2683.
^Kelly, Aaron S.; Rudser, Kyle D.; Dengel, Donald R.; Kaufman, Christopher L.; Reiff, Michael I.; Norris, Anne L.; Metzig, Andrea M.; Steinberger, Julia. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction and Arterial Stiffness among Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulants. The Journal of pediatrics (Elsevier BV). 2014, 165 (4): 755–759. ISSN 0022-3476. PMID 25015574. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.05.043.
^Pharmacotherapy-for-Adult-Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder. UpToDate. [2018-02-26]. （原始内容存档于2018-02-27）. An uncontrolled follow-up of 96 adults with ADHD who experienced improvement while taking extended release methylphenidate in a randomized trial found that improvement in ADHD symptoms was sustained at 30 weeks on the medication. Only 39 subjects (40.6 percent) completed the long-term follow-up period. Participants continued to experience decreased appetite, insomnia, and jitteriness
^Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig; Doyle, Robert; Hammerness, Paul; Kotarski, Meghan; Spencer, Thomas. A Randomized, 3-Phase, 34-Week, Double-Blind, Long-Term Efficacy Study of Osmotic-Release Oral System-Methylphenidate in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)). 2010, 30 (5): 549–553. ISSN 0271-0749. PMID 20814332. doi:10.1097/jcp.0b013e3181ee84a7.
^Shoptaw, SJ; Kao, U; Ling, W. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis.. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2009-01-21, (1): CD003026. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 19160215. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3. A minority of individuals who use amphetamines develop full-blown psychosis requiring care at emergency departments or psychiatric hospitals. In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation. More common (about 18%) is for frequent amphetamine users to report psychotic symptoms that are sub-clinical and that do not require high-intensity intervention ... About 5–15% of the users who develop an amphetamine psychosis fail to recover completely (Hofmann 1983) ... Findings from one trial indicate use of antipsychotic medications effectively resolves symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.参数|quote=值左起第492位存在換行符 (帮助)
^ 337.0337.1Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B.; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Skoog, Maria; Holmskov, Mathilde; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Magnusson, Frederik L; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Gillies, Donna; Buch Rasmussen, Kirsten; Gauci, Dorothy; Zwi, Morris; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian, Storebø, Ole Jakob, 编, Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (systematic review) (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd), 2015-11-25, (11), PMID 26599576, doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009885.pub2, Within the short follow-up periods typical of the included trials, there is some evidence that methylphenidate is associated with increased risk of non-serious adverse events, such as sleep problems and decreased appetite, but no evidence that it increases risk of serious adverse events.Better designed trials are needed to assess the benefits of methylphenidate. Given the frequency of non-serious adverse events associated with methylphenidate, the particular difficulties for blinding of participants and outcome assessors point to the advantage of large, 'nocebo tablet' controlled trials.
^Methylphenidate. Home of MedlinePlus → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Methylphenidate Methylphenidate pronounced as (meth il fen' i date). 2016-02-15 [2017-02-27]. （原始内容存档于2017-07-04）.
^ 340.0340.1340.2Combining medications could offer better results for ADHD patients. Science News. Elsevier. 2016-08-01 [2017-01]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-02）. "Three studies to be published in the August 2016 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) report that combining two standard medications could lead to greater clinical improvements for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than either ADHD therapy alone.", August, 2016
^Adults with ADHD. MedlinePlus the Magazine 9. 8600 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, MD 20894, United States of America: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. 2014: 19. ISSN 1937-4712. （原始内容存档于2017-07-15） （美国英语）.
^Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. 2016-05-25 [2017-02-27]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-26）.
^All Disorders. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. [February twenty seventh, 2017]. （原始内容存档于2016-12-02）.请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Label of Strattera consisting of atomoxetine. DailyMed.gov. Eli Lilly Company. 2015-06 [2017-02]. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Acute Treatment Dosing of children and adolescents up to 70 kg body weight......No additional benefit has been demonstrated for doses higher than 1.2 mg/kg/day [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 'The total daily dose in children and adolescents should not exceed 1.4 mg/kg or 100 mg, whichever is less'. Dosing of children and adolescents over 70 kg body weight and adults......The maximum recommended total daily dose in children and adolescents over 70 kg and adults is 100 mg.
^How long for Strattera to start working?(PDF). Minnesota National Allianceof Mental Illness. [2017-02]. （原始内容存档(PDF)于2015-12-24）. It may take 4 - 8 weeks after an effective dose is reached for atomoxetine to reach maximum effectiveness. However, improvements in some symptoms may occur sooner.
^Frequently Asked Questions. Official website for Strattera. Strattera-Eli Lilly. 2016-09 [2017-02]. （原始内容存档于2017-01-09）. Strattera works gradually, so improvements are seen over time. When your child starts treatment with Strattera, it's important to set some small goals. Remember to be patient—some people notice small changes within 2 weeks, and by 4 to 6 weeks at target dose you should see significant improvement in your child's symptoms.
^Chi-Yung Shang, Yi-Lei Pan, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Lin-Wan Huang & Susan Shur-Fen Gau. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2015-09, 25 (7): 566–573. PMID 26222447. doi:10.1089/cap.2015.0035. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine.
^Myriam Harfterkamp, Jan K. Buitelaar, Ruud B. Minderaa, Gigi van de Loo-Neus, Rutger-Jan van der Gaag & Pieter J. Hoekstra. Long-term treatment with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: an open-label extension study. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2013-04, 23 (3): 194–199. PMID 23578015. doi:10.1089/cap.2012.0012.
^L. Eugene Arnold, Michael G. Aman, Amelia M. Cook, Andrea N. Witwer, Kristy L. Hall, Susan Thompson & Yaser Ramadan. Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006-10, 45 (10): 1196–1205. PMID 17003665. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000231976.28719.2a.
^Matthew Siegel, MD.,Craig Erickson, MD., MS, Jean A. Frazier, MD., Toni Ferguson, Autism Society of America., Eric Goepfert, MD., Gagan Joshi, MD., Quentin Humberd, MD., Bryan H. King, MD., Amy Lutz, EASI Foundation: Ending Aggression and Self-Injury in the Developmentally Disabled., Louis Kraus, MD., Alice Mao, MD., Adelaide Robb, MD., Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, MD, PhD., Paul Wang, MD, Autism SpeaksCarmen J. Head, MPH, CHES, Director, Research, Development, & WorkforceEve, Bender, Scientific Editor. Autism_Spectrum_Disorder_Parents_Medication_Guide(PDF). 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3007: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016: 13. （原始内容存档(PDF)于2017-04-11） （英语）. Atomoxetine (Strattera) has also been researched in controlled studies for treatment of ADHD in children with autism, and showed some improvements,particularly for hyperactivity and impulsivity.