陳國齡醫生 瑪麗醫院 精神科顧問醫生 兒童及青少年精神科主管 香港大學李嘉誠醫學院 精神科學系 榮譽臨床副教授 Dr. Chan Kwok Ling, Phyllis., Consultant Psychiatrist, Head of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry., Queen Mary Hospital., Honorary Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry LKS Medical Faculty University of Hong Kong. Child with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 認識注意力不足 /過度活躍症(PDF). 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區政府教育局 The government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of People's Republic of China. [April 22nd, 2017.].请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013: 59–65. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
^ 3.03.1Symptoms and Diagnosis. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Division of Human Development, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014-09-29 [2014-11-03].
^Ferri, Fred F. Ferri's differential diagnosis : a practical guide to the differential diagnosis of symptoms, signs, and clinical disorders 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Mosby. 2010: Chapter A. ISBN 0323076998.引文格式1维护：冗余文本 (link)
^ 12.012.1American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013: 59–65. ISBN 0890425558.
^Symptoms and Diagnosis. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Division of Human Development, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014-09-29 [2014-11-03]. （原始内容存档于2014-11-07）.
^Sibley, Margaret H.; Swanson, James M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily T.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Stehli, Annamarie; Abikoff, Howard; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Mitchell, John T.; Jensen, Peter S.; Howard, Andrea L.; Lakes, Kimberley D.; Pelham, William E. Defining ADHD symptom persistence in adulthood: optimizing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12620.
^ 17.017.1Margaret H. Sibley, James M. Swanson, L. Eugene Arnold, Lily T. Hechtman, Elizabeth B. Owens, Annamarie Stehli, Howard Abikoff, Stephen P. Hinshaw, Brooke S. G. Molina, John T. Mitchell, Peter S. Jensen, Andrea L. Howard, Kimberley D. Lakes & William E. Pelham. Defining ADHD symptom persistence in adulthood: optimizing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. September 2016. PMID 27642116. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12620. CONCLUSION:The interview format optimizes young adult self-reporting when parent reports are not available. However, the combination of parent and self-reports from rating scales, using an 'or' rule and a NB threshold optimized the balance between sensitivity and specificity. With this definition, 60% of the ADHD group demonstrated symptom persistence and 41% met both symptom and impairment criteria in adulthood.
^Signs and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, National Institute of Mental Health.. nimh.nih.gov. National Institute of mental health. March 2013 [January 2017]（英语）. Many adolescents with ADHD also struggle with relationships and antisocial behaviors. Inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems or missed entirely in quiet, well-behaved children, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Adults with undiagnosed ADHD may have a history of poor academic performance, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships.
^ADHD symptom persistence into adulthood estimated. Science News. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2016. 2016-10-20 [January 2017]. （原始内容存档于2016-09-19） （英语）. There has been a lot of recent controversy over whether children with ADHD continue to experience symptoms into adulthood," said Dr. Margaret Sibley, lead author of the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry study. "This study found that the way you diagnose ADHD can lead to different conclusions about whether or not an adult still has the disorder that started in childhood. First, if you ask the adult about their continued symptoms, they will often be unaware of them; however, family members or others who know them well often confirm that they still observe significant symptoms in the adult." Dr. Sibley added that if the classic childhood definition of ADHD is used when diagnosing adults, many cases will be missed because symptom presentation changes in adulthood. "By asking a family member about the adult's symptoms and using adult-based definitions of the disorder, you typically find that around half of children with moderate to severe ADHD still show significant signs of the disorder in adulthood.
^ 31.031.131.231.3Chan, Eugenia; Fogler, Jason M.; Hammerness, Paul G. Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents. JAMA. 2016, 315 (18): 1997. ISSN 0098-7484. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.5453. Findings Sixteen randomized clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis, involving 2668 participants, of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for ADHD in adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were included. Evidence of efficacy was stronger for the extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine class stimulant medications (level 1B based on Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria) and atomoxetine than for the extended-release α2-adrenergic agonists guanfacine or clonidine (no studies). For the primary efficacy measure of total symptom score on the ADHD Rating Scale (score range, 0 [least symptomatic] to 54 [most symptomatic]), both stimulant and nonstimulant medications led to clinically significant reductions of 14.93 to 24.60 absolute points. The psychosocial treatments combining behavioral, cognitive behavioral, and skills training techniques demonstrated small- to medium-sized improvements (range for mean SD difference in Cohen d, 0.30-0.69) for parent-rated ADHD symptoms, co-occurring emotional or behavioral symptoms, and interpersonal functioning. Psychosocial treatments were associated with more robust (Cohen d range, 0.51-5.15) improvements in academic and organizational skills, such as homework completion and planner use.
^ 32.032.132.232.3Chan, Eugenia; Fogler, Jason M.; Hammerness, Paul G. Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents. JAMA. 2016, 315 (18): 1997. ISSN 0098-7484. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.5453. Conclusions and Relevance Evidence supports the use of extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations, atomoxetine, and extended-release guanfacine to improve symptoms of ADHD in adolescents. Psychosocial treatments incorporating behavior contingency management, motivational enhancement, and academic, organizational, and social skills training techniques were associated with inconsistent effects on ADHD symptoms and greater benefit for academic and organizational skills. Additional treatment studies in adolescents, including combined pharmacological and psychosocial treatments, are needed..
^Hyperactivity: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus (tertiary source). 2017-07-05 [2017-07-07]. Hyperactive behavior usually refers to constant activity, being easily distracted, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, aggressiveness, and similar behaviors.
Typical behaviors may include:
Fidgeting or constant moving
Talking too much
Difficulty participating in quiet activities (such as reading)
……But many hyperactive children are unhappy, or even depressed. Hyperactive behavior may make a child a target for bullying, or make it harder to connect with other children. Schoolwork may be more difficult. Kids who are hyperactive are frequently punished for their behavior.
A child who is normally very active often responds well to specific directions and a program of regular physical activity. But, a child with a ADHD has a hard time following directions and controlling impulses.
Call your child's health care provider if:
Your child seems hyperactive all the time.
Your child is very active, aggressive, impulsive, and has difficulty concentrating.
Your child's activity level is causing social difficulties, or difficulty with schoolwork.参数|quote=值左起第198位存在換行符 (帮助)
^Coleman WL (August 2008). "Social competence and friendship formation in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 19 (2): 278–99, x. PMID 18822833.
^"ADHD Anger Management Directory". Webmd.com. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
^"F90 Hyperkinetic disorders", International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision, World Health Organisation, 2010, retrieved 2 November 2014
^Bellani M, Moretti A, Perlini C, Brambilla P (December 2011). "Language disturbances in ADHD". Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 20 (4): 311–315. doi:10.1017/S2045796011000527. PMID 22201208.
^ 62.062.1Walitza, S; Drechsler, R; Ball, J (August 2012). "Das schulkind mit ADHS" [The school child with ADHD]. Ther Umsch (in German). 69 (8): 467–73. doi:10.1024/0040-5930/a000316. PMID 22851461.
^Eveline L. de Zeeuw, Catharina E. M. van Beijsterveldt, Erik A. Ehli, Eco J. C. de Geus & Dorret I. Boomsma. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Low Educational Achievement: Evidence Supporting A Causal Hypothesis. Behavior genetics. February 2017. PMID 28191586. doi:10.1007/s10519-017-9836-4.
^ 64.064.1Emond, V; Joyal, C; Poissant, H. Neuroanatomie structurelle et fonctionnelle du trouble déficitaire d’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité (TDAH) [Structural and functional neuroanatomy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. Encephale. April 2009, 35 (2): 107–14. PMID 19393378. doi:10.1016/j.encep.2008.01.005（法语）.
^ 66.066.166.266.3Archer, Dale. The ADHD advantage : what you thought was a diagnosis may be your greatest strength. New York, New York: Avery. 2015 [2017-06-24]. ISBN 978-0-399-57345-3. People with ADHD are restless, endlessly curious, often adventurous, willing to take smart risks, and unusually resilient, and their ranks include some of the greatest entrepreneurs of our time. Sharing the stories of highly successful people with ADHD, Archer offers a vitally important and inspiring new way to recognize ADHD traits in oneself or in one’s loved ones and then leverage them to great advantage. Readers will learn to harness mental energy for greater creativity, embrace multitasking, and build a path to great success.
^Frazier, TW; Demaree, HA; Youngstrom, EA (July 2004). "Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.". Neuropsychology. 18 (3): 543–55. doi:10.1037/0894-422.214.171.1243. PMID 15291732.
^Mackenzie, GB; Wonders, E (2016). "Rethinking Intelligence Quotient Exclusion Criteria Practices in the Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.". Frontiers in psychology. 7: 794. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00794. PMC 4886698Freely accessible. PMID 27303350.
^Hofvander B, Ossowski D, Lundström S, Anckarsäter H. Continuity of aggressive antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood: The question of phenotype definition. International Journal of Law Psychiatry. 2009, 32 (4): 224–234. PMID 19428109. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.04.004.
^Rubia K. "Cool" inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus "hot" ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review. Biology Psychiatry (review). 2010-09-23, 69 (12): e69–87. PMID 21094938. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.023.使用|accessdate=需要含有|url= (帮助)
^Mark Wolraich, Lawrence Brown,Ronald T. Brown, George DuPaul, Marian Earls, Heidi M. Feldman, Theodore G. Ganiats, Beth Kaplanek, Bruce Meyer, James Perrin, Karen Pierce, Michael Reiff, Martin T. Stein & Susanna Visser. ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. November 2011, 128 (5): 1007–1022. PMID 22003063. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2654.
^Morgenstern M, Wang J, Beatty N, Batemarco T, Sica AL, Greenberg H. Obstructive sleep apnea: an unexpected cause of insulin resistance and diabetes. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2014, 43 (1): 187–204. PMID 24582098. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2013.09.002.
^H Singh; R Pollock; J Uhanova; M Kryger; K Hawkins; GY Minuk. Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2005, 50 (12): 2338–2343. doi:10.1007/s10620-005-3058-y.
^F Tanne; F Gagnadoux; O Chazouilleres; B Fleury; D Wendum; E Lasnier; B Labeau; R Poupon; L Serfaty. Chronic Liver Injury During Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Hepatology. 2005, 41 (6): 1290–1296. doi:10.1002/hep.20725.
^ 98.098.198.2Ertürk, E; Wouters, S; Imeraj, L; Lampo, A. Association of ADHD and Celiac Disease: What Is the Evidence? A Systematic Review of the Literature.. Journal of Attention Disorders (Review). 2016-01-29. PMID 26825336. doi:10.1177/1087054715611493. Up till now, there is no conclusive evidence for a relationship between ADHD and CD. Therefore, it is not advised to perform routine screening of CD when assessing ADHD (and vice versa) or to implement GFD as a standard treatment in ADHD. Nevertheless, the possibility of untreated CD predisposing to ADHD-like behavior should be kept in mind. ... It is possible that in untreated patients with CD, neurologic symptoms such as chronic fatigue, inattention, pain, and headache could predispose patients to ADHD-like behavior (mainly symptoms of inattentive type), which may be alleviated after GFD treatment. (CD: celiac disease; GFD: gluten-free diet)
^Yewchuk, C. R., & Lupark, J. L. (1993), Gifted handicapped: A desultory duality, In K. A. Heller, F. J. Monks, & A. H. Passow (Eds.), International handbook of research and development of giftedness and talent, pp. 709-725, Oxford: Pergamon
^Edward Hallowell; John J. Ratey. Driven to distraction : recognizing and coping with attention deficit disorder from childhood through adulthood. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1995. ISBN 978-0-684-80128-5.
^Gau, SS; Huang, WL. Rapid visual information processing as a cognitive endophenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (快速視覺訊息歷程為注意力不足過動症的內表現型). Psychological medicine. 2014, 44 (2): 435–46. ISSN 0033-2917. PMID 23561037. doi:10.1017/S0033291713000640. Compared with the controls, probands with ADHD and unaffected siblings had significantly higher total misses, lower probability of hits in the RVP task...
^Lin, HY; Hwang-Gu, SL; Gau, SS. Intra-individual reaction time variability based on ex-Gaussian distribution as a potential endophenotype for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (個體内反應時間差異做為注意力不足過動症之內表現型：ex-Gaussian研究). Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2015, 132 (1): 39–50. ISSN 0001-690X. PMID 25612058. doi:10.1111/acps.12393. Compared with unaffected siblings and controls, ADHD probands had elevated sigma value, omissions, commissions, and mean RT. Unaffected siblings formed an intermediate group in-between probands and controls in terms of tau value and RTSD...Conforming to a context-dependent nature, unaffected siblings still had an intermediate tau value in-between probands and controls across different interstimulus intervals.
^Yang, LK; Shang, CY; Gau, SS. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their siblings. ( 患有注意力不足過動症之青少年及其手足之精神共病現象). Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. 2011, 56 (5): 281–92. ISSN 0706-7437. PMID 21586194. doi:10.1177/070674371105600507. Compared with the controls, adolescents with ADHD and unaffected siblings had a significantly shorter backward digit span, more extra-dimensional shift errors in the IED, shorter spatial span length in the SSP, more total errors and poorer strategy use in the SWM, and fewer problems solved in the minimum number of moves and shorter initial thinking time in the SOC.
^台灣兒童精神醫學現況(PDF). Psychiatry Newletter: 1 – 12. 2013. 內表現型研究發現，患有 ADHD 的兒少有較差的神經認知功能（e.g., Shang and Gau 2011），包括持續專注力、清醒度、認知衝動性、反應時間、反應時間的 ex-Gaussian 分佈、視覺空間記憶、時間知覺和多面向的執行 功能（例如工作記憶、認知彈性、計畫和問題解決）。進一步的內表現型研究發現未患 病手足也有較多的執行功能（Gau and Shang 2010）、視覺記憶（Shang and Gau 2011）、 時間複製雙重作業、注意力資源限制（Hwang and Gau 2013）、和 ex-Gaussian 分布的 τ 值之異常，因此顯示這些神經認知的功能，可成為 ADHD 之內表現型。
^Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung. Executive functions as endophenotypes in ADHD: evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Wiley-Blackwell). 2010-01-18, 51 (7): 838–849. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02215.x.
^What Causes ADHD. WebMD. 2017-10-04 [2017-10-12]. If a parent has ADHD, a child has more than a 50% chance of having it. If an older sibling has it, a child has more than a 30% chance.
^Genetics of ADHD. ADD ADHD Blog.com. 2013-12-01 [2017-10-12]. If a person has ADHD, then:
an identical twin has a 78-92% chance of having ADHD as well.
25-35% of siblings have ADHD as well.
15-20% of the mothers have ADHD as well.
25-30% of the fathers have ADHD as well.
If a parent has ADHD, there is a 20-54% chance that his/her child will get ADHD as well.
If both parents have ADHD – well, I don’t know of any research statistics, but let’s just say that there is a very high chance of a child having ADHD as well.
So, to answer the specific question – if you have ADHD, and you plan to have kids, each child has about a 20-54% chance of having ADD or ADHD.参数|quote=值左起第29位存在換行符 (帮助)
^ADDISS Common Questions. ADDISS. [2017-10-12]. ADHD has a significant genetic component: most differences in severity of symptoms are due to genetic factors. For example, if a family has one ADHD child, there is a 30-40% chance that another brother/sister will also have the condition and a 45% chance (or greater) that at least one parent has the condition1. If the child with ADHD has an identical twin, the likelihood that the twin will also have the disorder is about 90%.
^Barkley, Russell. Taking charge of ADHD : the complete, authoritative guide for parents. New York: The Guilford Press. 2013: 83. ISBN 978-1-4625-0789-4. The risk is two to three times greater than the risk to one sibling if another one has the disorder (25%-35%)
^Selikowitz, Mark. ADHD (The Facts Series). Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. 2009: 80. ISBN 978-0-19-956503-0. If parents have had a child with ADHD, the chance of each successive child to have ADHD is 5-6 times greater than for the general population, i.e. the risk increases to one in three.
^National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults. British Psychological Society. 2009: 19–27, 38, 130, 133, 317. ISBN 9781854334718.
^Burt SA. Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: a meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychol Bull. July 2009, 135 (4): 608–637. PMID 19586164. doi:10.1037/a0015702.
^Berry, MD. The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials. January 2007, 2 (1): 3–19. PMID 18473983. doi:10.2174/157488707779318107. Although there is little direct evidence, changes in trace amines, in particular PE, have been identified as a possible factor for the onset of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). … Further, amphetamines, which have clinical utility in ADHD, are good ligands at trace amine receptors. Of possible relevance in this aspect is modafanil, which has shown beneficial effects in ADHD patients and has been reported to enhance the activity of PE at TAAR1. Conversely, methylphenidate, …showed poor efficacy at the TAAR1 receptor. In this respect it is worth noting that the enhancement of functioning at TAAR1 seen with modafanil was not a result of a direct interaction with TAAR1.
^Burger PH, Goecke TW, Fasching PA, Moll G, Heinrich H, Beckmann MW, Kornhuber J. [How does maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy affect the development of attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome in the child]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr (Review). September 2011, 79 (9): 500–506. PMID 21739408. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1273360（German）.引文格式1维护：未识别语文类型 (link)
^de Cock M, Maas YG, van de Bor M. Does perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors induce autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders? Review. Acta Paediatr. (Review. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't). August 2012, 101 (8): 811–818. PMID 22458970. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02693.x.
^Ystrom, Eivind; Gustavson, Kristin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Magnus, Per; Susser, Ezra; Davey Smith, George; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Surén, Pål; Håberg, Siri E.; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian; Nordeng, Hedvig; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted. Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk of ADHD. Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)). 2017-10-30, 140 (5): e20163840. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 29084830. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-3840.
^Wolraich, Mark L. An Association Between Prenatal Acetaminophen Use and ADHD: The Benefits of Large Data Sets. Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)). 2017-10-30, 140 (5): e20172703. ISSN 0031-4005. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-2703.
^Mayes R, Bagwell C, Erkulwater JL. Medicating Children: ADHD and Pediatric Mental Health illustrated. Harvard University Press. 2009: 4–24. ISBN 9780674031630.
^ 165.0165.1165.2165.3165.4165.5Sonuga-Barke EJ, Brandeis D, Cortese S, Daley D, Ferrin M, Holtmann M, Stevenson J, Danckaerts M, van der Oord S, Döpfner M, Dittmann RW, Simonoff E, Zuddas A, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Hollis C, Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Wong IC, Sergeant J. Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. Am J Psychiatry. March 2013, 170 (3): 275–289. PMID 23360949. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12070991. Free fatty acid supplementation and artificial food color exclusions appear to have beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms, although the effect of the former are small and those of the latter may be limited to ADHD patients with food sensitivities...
^CDC, Facts About ADHD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016-01-06 [2016-03-20]
^ 176.0176.1176.2176.3176.4176.5176.6176.7176.8176.9Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapters 10 and 13. (编) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 266, 315, 318–323. ISBN 9780071481274. Early results with structural MRI show thinning of the cerebral cortex in ADHD subjects compared with age-matched controls in prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, areas involved in working memory and attention.
^ 177.0177.1177.2177.3177.4177.5177.6Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin. (编) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 148, 154–157. ISBN 9780071481274. DA has multiple actions in the prefrontal cortex. It promotes the "cognitive control" of behavior: the selection and successful monitoring of behavior to facilitate attainment of chosen goals. Aspects of cognitive control in which DA plays a role include working memory, the ability to hold information "on line" in order to guide actions, suppression of prepotent behaviors that compete with goal-directed actions, and control of attention and thus the ability to overcome distractions. Cognitive control is impaired in several disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... Noradrenergic projections from the LC thus interact with dopaminergic projections from the VTA to regulate cognitive control. ... it has not been shown that 5HT makes a therapeutic contribution to treatment of ADHD. NOTE: DA: dopamine, LC: locus coeruleus, VTA: ventral tegmental area, 5HT: serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)
^Cortese S. The neurobiology and genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): what every clinician should know. Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. September 2012, 16 (5): 422–433. PMID 22306277. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.01.009.
^ 184.0184.1Diamond A. Executive functions. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2013, 64: 135–168. PMC 4084861. PMID 23020641. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750. EFs and prefrontal cortex are the first to suffer, and suffer disproportionately, if something is not right in your life. They suffer first, and most, if you are stressed (Arnsten 1998, Liston et al. 2009, Oaten & Cheng 2005), sad (Hirt et al. 2008, von Hecker & Meiser 2005), lonely (Baumeister et al. 2002, Cacioppo & Patrick 2008, Campbell et al. 2006, Tun et al. 2012), sleep deprived (Barnes et al. 2012, Huang et al. 2007), or not physically fit (Best 2010, Chaddock et al. 2011, Hillman et al. 2008). Any of these can cause you to appear to have a disorder of EFs, such as ADHD, when you do not.
^Modesto-Lowe V, Chaplin M, Soovajian V, Meyer A. Are motivation deficits underestimated in patients with ADHD? A review of the literature. Postgrad Med. 2013, 125 (4): 47–52. PMID 23933893. doi:10.3810/pgm.2013.07.2677. Behavioral studies show altered processing of reinforcement and incentives in children with ADHD. These children respond more impulsively to rewards and choose small, immediate rewards over larger, delayed incentives. Interestingly, a high intensity of reinforcement is effective in improving task performance in children with ADHD. Pharmacotherapy may also improve task persistence in these children. ... Previous studies suggest that a clinical approach using interventions to improve motivational processes in patients with ADHD may improve outcomes as children with ADHD transition into adolescence and adulthood.
^ 192.0192.1Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Yao-Hsu Yang, Yin-To Liao, Ting-Yu Kuo, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuo-You Huang, Yin-Cheng Huang, Yena Lee, Roger S. McIntyre & Tzu-Chin Lin. The association between methylphenidate treatment and the risk for fracture among young ADHD patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. PloS one. 2017, 12 (3): e0173762. PMID 28296941. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173762.
^Fabiano GA, Pelham WE, Coles EK, Gnagy EM, Chronis-Tuscano A, O'Connor BC. "A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder".. Clincal Psychology Rev. (systematic review). March 2009., 29 (2): 129–140. PMID 19131150. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.11.001.请检查|date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Kratochvil CJ, Vaughan BS, Barker A, Corr L, Wheeler A, Madaan V. Review of pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder for the general psychiatrist. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. March 2009, 32 (1): 39–56. PMID 19248915. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.10.001.
^Guidelines May Have Helped Curb ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers. MedlinePlus.gov (tertiary source). HealthDay. Tuesday, November 15, 2016 [January 2017]. （原始内容存档于February twenty first, 2017.）. The guidelines, issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), called for a standardized approach to diagnosis, and recommended behavior therapy -- not drugs -- as the first-line therapy for preschoolers.请检查|date=, |archive-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Bjornstad G, Montgomery P. Bjornstad GJ, 编. Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005, (2): CD005042. PMID 15846741. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005042.pub2.
^Daley, D; Van Der Oord, S; Ferrin, M; Cortese, S; Danckaerts, M; Doepfner, M; Van den Hoofdakker, BJ; Coghill, D; Thompson, M; Asherson, P; Banaschewski, T; Brandeis, D; Buitelaar, J; Dittmann, RW; Hollis, C; Holtmann, M; Konofal, E; Lecendreux, M; Rothenberger, A; Santosh, P; Simonoff, E; Soutullo, C; Steinhausen, HC; Stringaris, A; Taylor, E; Wong, ICK; Zuddas, A; Sonuga-Barke, EJ. Practitioner Review: Current best practice in the use of parent training and other behavioural interventions in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2017-10-30. PMID 29083042. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12825.
^Cortese, S; Ferrin, M; Brandeis, D; Holtmann, M; Aggensteiner, P; Daley, D; Santosh, P; Simonoff, E; Stevenson, J; Stringaris, A; Sonuga-Barke, EJ; European ADHD Guidelines Group, (EAGG). Neurofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Clinical and Neuropsychological Outcomes From Randomized Controlled Trials.. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. June 2016, 55 (6): 444–55. PMID 27238063. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.03.007.
^See also footnote number "(1)" of [and the whole "What is ABA?" section of] «Olive, Dr. Melissa. What is ABA?. Applied Behavioral Strategies. [2015-10-06]. （原始内容存档于2015-10-06）. », where the same definition is given, (or quoted), and it credits (or mentions) both [i] the source "Baer, Wolf & Risley, 1968" and [ii] another source, called "Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991"
^ADHD-treatment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-04-11 [2017-04-23].
^Kamp CF, Sperlich B, Holmberg HC. Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters. Acta Paediatr. July 2014, 103 (7): 709–14. PMID 24612421. doi:10.1111/apa.12628.
^Millichap JG. Chapter 9: Medications for ADHD. (编) Millichap JG. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD 2nd. New York, USA: Springer. 2010: 112. ISBN 9781441913968.
Table 9.2 Dextroamphetamine formulations of stimulant medication
Dexedrine [Peak:2–3 h] [Duration:5–6 h] ...
Adderall [Peak:2–3 h] [Duration:5–7 h]
Dexedrine spansules [Peak:7–8 h] [Duration:12 h] ...
Adderall XR [Peak:7–8 h] [Duration:12 h]
Vyvanse [Peak:3–4 h] [Duration:12 h]
^Huang YS, Tsai MH. Long-term outcomes with medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: current status of knowledge. CNS Drugs. July 2011, 25 (7): 539–554. PMID 21699268. doi:10.2165/11589380-000000000-00000. Recent studies have demonstrated that stimulants, along with the non-stimulants atomoxetine and extended-release guanfacine, are continuously effective for more than 2-year treatment periods with few and tolerable adverse effects. The effectiveness of long-term therapy includes not only the core symptoms of ADHD, but also improved quality of life and academic achievements. The most concerning short-term adverse effects of stimulants, such as elevated blood pressure and heart rate, waned in long-term follow-up studies. ... In the longest follow-up study (of more than 10 years), lifetime stimulant treatment for ADHD was effective and protective against the development of adverse psychiatric disorders.
^Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014, 55 (8): 878–885. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12164. Results_ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse.
^Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014, 55 (8): 878–885. ISSN 0021-9630. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12164. Conclusions：We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients.
^Soren Dalsgaard, James F. Leckman, Preben Bo Mortensen, Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen. Effect of drugs on the risk of injuries in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study. The lancet. Psychiatry. August 2015, 2 (8): 702–709. PMID 26249301. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00271-0. INTERPRETATION: Children with ADHD had an increased risk of injuries compared with other children. Treatment with ADHD drugs reduced the risk of injuries by up to 43% and emergency ward visits by up to 45% in children with ADHD. Taken together with previous findings of accidents being the most common cause of death in individuals with ADHD, these results are of major public health importance.
^Rafael Mikolajczyk, Johannes Horn, Niklas Schmedt, Ingo Langner, Christina Lindemann & Edeltraut Garbe. Injury prevention by medication among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-only study. JAMA pediatrics. April 2015, 169 (4): 391–395. PMID 25686215. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3275. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: No significant risk reduction for hospitalizations with injury diagnoses was observed during periods of ADHD medication, but there was a preventive effect on the risk of brain injuries (34% risk reduction). The effects were controlled for time-invariant characteristics of the patients by the study design.
^Helen Briggs; the journal JAMA Psychiatry. Vitamins ‘effective in treating ADHD symptoms’. BBC News. 2014-01-30 [2017-04-13]. Scientists from the Karolinska Institute studied 17,000 individuals with ADHD over a period of four years using data from health registers. They found individuals with ADHD had a higher risk of being involved in serious transport accidents, such as car or motorcycle crashes, compared with those without ADHD. Transport accidents were lower among men with ADHD who were on medication than among men with ADHD who did not take medication. Calculations showed 41% of transport accidents involving men with ADHD could have been avoided if they had received medication and carried on taking it during the course of the study.
^Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review Update of Medications used to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and young adults. Food and Drug Administration; November 1, 2011.
^Biederman J, Mick E, Surman C, et al. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of OROS Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Biol Psychiatry2006; 59: 829-835.
^Hammerness P, Wilens T, Mick E, et al. Cardiovascular Effects of Longer-Term, High-Dose OROS Methylphenidate in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Pediatr 2009; 155: 84-9.
^Adler L, Orman C, Starr L, et al. Long-term Safety of OROS Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2011; 31: 108-114.
^Weisler RH, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, et al. Long-term cardiovascular effects of mixed amphetamine salts extended release in adults with ADHD. CNS Spectr 2005; 10(12 Suppl 20): 35-43.
^Simpson D, Plosker G. Atomoxetine: A Review of its Use in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Drugs 2004; 64(2): 205-222.
^Wernicke J, Faries D, Girod D, et al. Cardiovascular Effects of Atomoxetine in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Drug Safety 2003; 26(10): 729-740.
^Adler L, Spencer T, Williams D, et al. Long-Term, Open-Label Safety and Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Adults With ADHD. J. of Att. Dis. 2008; 12(3): 248-253.
^Habel L, Cooper W, Sox C, et al. ADHD Medications and Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Events in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. JAMA 2011; 306(24): 2673-2683.
^Label of Ritalin LA. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. 2017-01-05 [January, 2017.]. Ritalin LA 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg capsules provide in a single dose the same amount of methylphenidate as dosages of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 mg of Ritalin tablets given b.i.d.请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Lopez, F; Silva, R; Pestreich, L; Muniz, R, Comparative efficacy of two once daily methylphenidate formulations (Ritalin LA and Concerta) and placebo in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the school day., Paediatric drugs, 2003, 5 (8): 545–55, ISSN 1174-5878, PMID 12895137, While both Ritalin LA and Concerta were shown to be effective, the different release profiles of each formulation can result in distinct differences between the effects on measures of attention and deportment.
^ 257.0257.1Label of Concerta. DailyMed.gov. Jassen Cilag. 2013 [January, 2017.]. 14.2 Adolescents In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial (Study 4) involving 177 patients, CONCERTA® was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of ADHD in adolescents aged 13 to 18 years at doses up to 72 mg/day (1.4 mg/kg/day). Of 220 patients who entered an open 4-week titration phase, 177 were titrated to an individualized dose (maximum of 72 mg/day) based on meeting specific improvement criteria on the ADHD Rating Scale and the Global Assessment of Effectiveness with acceptable tolerability. Patients who met these criteria were then randomized to receive either their individualized dose of CONCERTA® (18 – 72 mg/day, n=87) or placebo (n=90) during a two-week double-blind phase. At the end of this phase, mean scores for the investigator rating on the ADHD Rating Scale demonstrated that CONCERTA® was statistically significantly superior to placebo.参数|quote=值左起第17位存在換行符 (帮助);请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Label of Concerta. DailyMed.gov. Jassen Cilag. 2013 [January, 2017.]. 14.2 Adolescents 14.3 Adults Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted in 627 adults aged 18 to 65 years. The controlled studies compared CONCERTA® administered once daily and placebo in a multicenter, parallel-group, 7-week dose-titration study (Study 5) (36 to 108 mg/day) and in a multicenter, parallel-group, 5-week, fixed-dose study (Study 6) (18, 36, and 72 mg/day). Study 5 demonstrated the effectiveness of CONCERTA® in the treatment of ADHD in adults aged 18 to 65 years at doses from 36 mg/day to 108 mg/day based on the change from baseline to final study visit on the Adult ADHD Investigator Rating Scale (AISRS). Of 226 patients who entered the 7-week trial, 110 were randomized to CONCERTA® and 116 were randomized to placebo. Treatment was initiated at 36 mg/day and patients continued with incremental increases of 18 mg/day (36 to 108 mg/day) based on meeting specific improvement criteria with acceptable tolerability. At the final study visit, mean change scores (LS Mean, SEM) for the investigator rating on the AISRS demonstrated that CONCERTA® was statistically significantly superior to placebo. Study 6 was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response study (5-week duration) with 3 fixed-dose groups (18, 36, and 72 mg). Patients were randomized to receive CONCERTA® administered at doses of 18 mg (n=101), 36 mg (n=102), 72 mg/day (n=102), or placebo (n=96). All three doses of CONCERTA® were statistically significantly more effective than placebo in improving CAARS (Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale) total scores at double-blind end point in adult subjects with ADHD.参数|quote=值左起第17位存在換行符 (帮助);请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^ 260.0260.1Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B.; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Skoog, Maria; Holmskov, Mathilde; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Magnusson, Frederik L; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Gillies, Donna; Buch Rasmussen, Kirsten; Gauci, Dorothy; Zwi, Morris; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian, Storebø, Ole Jakob, 编, Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (systematic review) (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd), 2015-11-25, (11), PMID 26599576, doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009885.pub2, Within the short follow-up periods typical of the included trials, there is some evidence that methylphenidate is associated with increased risk of non-serious adverse events, such as sleep problems and decreased appetite, but no evidence that it increases risk of serious adverse events.Better designed trials are needed to assess the benefits of methylphenidate. Given the frequency of non-serious adverse events associated with methylphenidate, the particular difficulties for blinding of participants and outcome assessors point to the advantage of large, 'nocebo tablet' controlled trials.
^Methylphenidate. Home of MedlinePlus → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Methylphenidate Methylphenidate pronounced as (meth il fen' i date). 2016-02-15 [February twenty seventh, 2017].请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^ 263.0263.1263.2Combining medications could offer better results for ADHD patients. Science News. Elsevier. 2016-08-01 [January 2017]. （原始内容存档于August 2016）. "Three studies to be published in the August 2016 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) report that combining two standard medications could lead to greater clinical improvements for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than either ADHD therapy alone.", August, 2016
^Adults with ADHD. MedlinePlus the Magazine 9. 8600 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, MD 20894, United States of America: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Spring 2014: 19. ISSN 1937-4712（美国英语）.
^Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. 2016-05-25 [February twenty seventh, 2017.].请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^All Disorders. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. [February twenty seventh, 2017].请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Label of Strattera consisting of atomoxetine. DailyMed.gov. Eli Lilly Company. June 2015 [February 2017]. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Acute Treatment Dosing of children and adolescents up to 70 kg body weight — STRATTERA should be initiated at a total daily dose of approximately 0.5 mg/kg and increased after a minimum of 3 days to a target total daily dose of approximately 1.2 mg/kg administered either as a single daily dose in the morning or as evenly divided doses in the morning and late afternoon/early evening. No additional benefit has been demonstrated for doses higher than 1.2 mg/kg/day [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 'The total daily dose in children and adolescents should not exceed 1.4 mg/kg or 100 mg, whichever is less'. Dosing of children and adolescents over 70 kg body weight and adults — STRATTERA should be initiated at a total daily dose of 40 mg and increased after a minimum of 3 days to a target total daily dose of approximately 80 mg administered either as a single daily dose in the morning or as evenly divided doses in the morning and late afternoon/early evening. 'After 2 to 4 additional weeks, the dose may be increased to a maximum of 100 mg in patients who have not achieved an optimal response'. There are no data that support increased effectiveness at higher doses [see Clinical Studies (14)]. The maximum recommended total daily dose in children and adolescents over 70 kg and adults is 100 mg.。
^Frequently Asked Questions. Official website for Strattera. Strattera-Eli Lilly. September 2016 [February 2017]. Strattera works gradually, so improvements are seen over time. When your child starts treatment with Strattera, it's important to set some small goals. Remember to be patient—some people notice small changes within 2 weeks, and by 4 to 6 weeks at target dose you should see significant improvement in your child's symptoms.
^Chi-Yung Shang, Yi-Lei Pan, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Lin-Wan Huang & Susan Shur-Fen Gau. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. September 2015, 25 (7): 566–573. PMID 26222447. doi:10.1089/cap.2015.0035. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine.
^3, 注意力不足過動症(PDF), 中華民國衛生福利部/心理衛生專輯 1 1, 中華民國衛生福利部/心理衛生專輯/03注意力不足過動症.pdf: 中華民國衛生福利部: 22, [June 2015], ISBN 9789860454154（Chinese Traditional and 繁體中文）, atomoxetine，用在病情 較為複雜、或是無法忍受MPH副作用的患者，然而一般發現其對於專注度的改善沒有MPH明顯引文格式1维护：未识别语文类型 (link)
^Myriam Harfterkamp, Jan K. Buitelaar, Ruud B. Minderaa, Gigi van de Loo-Neus, Rutger-Jan van der Gaag & Pieter J. Hoekstra. Long-term treatment with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: an open-label extension study. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. April 2013, 23 (3): 194–199. PMID 23578015. doi:10.1089/cap.2012.0012.
^L. Eugene Arnold, Michael G. Aman, Amelia M. Cook, Andrea N. Witwer, Kristy L. Hall, Susan Thompson & Yaser Ramadan. Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. October 2006, 45 (10): 1196–1205. PMID 17003665. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000231976.28719.2a.
^Matthew Siegel, MD.,Craig Erickson, MD., MS, Jean A. Frazier, MD., Toni Ferguson, Autism Society of America., Eric Goepfert, MD., Gagan Joshi, MD., Quentin Humberd, MD., Bryan H. King, MD., Amy Lutz, EASI Foundation: Ending Aggression and Self-Injury in the Developmentally Disabled., Louis Kraus, MD., Alice Mao, MD., Adelaide Robb, MD., Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, MD, PhD., Paul Wang, MD, Autism SpeaksCarmen J. Head, MPH, CHES, Director, Research, Development, & WorkforceEve, Bender, Scientific Editor. Autism_Spectrum_Disorder_Parents_Medication_Guide(PDF). 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3007: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016: 13 （English）. Atomoxetine (Strattera) has also been researched in controlled studies for treatment of ADHD in children with autism, and showed some improvements,particularly for hyperactivity and impulsivity.引文格式1维护：未识别语文类型 (link)
^Parent's Medication Guide: ADHD(PDF). American Psychiatric Association (Guidelines (Tertiary source)). American Psychiatric Association & American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). July 2013 [January 2017]. （原始内容存档于July 2013）. Though not FDA-approved for combined treatment, atomoxetine (Strattera) is sometimes used in conjunction with stimulants as an off-label combination therapy.
^Medical Encyclopedia → Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. MedlinePlus.gov. 2017-01-05 [January 2017]. Medicine combined with behavioral treatment often works best. Different ADHD medicines can be used alone or combined with each other. The doctor will decide which medicine is right, based on the person's symptoms and needs.
^Label of Strattera consisting of atomoxetine. DailyMed.gov (Leaflet/label (Tertiary source)). Eli Lilly Company. June 2015 [February 2017]. 7.7 Methylphenidate\ Coadministration of methylphenidate with STRATTERA did not increase cardiovascular effects beyond those seen with methylphenidate alone.
^ 286.0286.1Parent's Medication Guide: ADHD(PDF). American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association & American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). July 2013 [January 2017]. （原始内容存档于July 2013）. Extended release guanfacine (Intuniv) and extended release clonidine (Kapvay) are approved to be added to stimulant treatment when the stimulant doesn’t fully reduce the ADHD symptoms.
^Combining medications could offer better results for ADHD patients. Science News. Elsevier. 2016-08-01 [January 2017]. （原始内容存档于August 2016）. Summary:Three studies report that combining two standard medications could lead to greater clinical improvements for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than either ADHD therapy alone. At present, studies show that the use of several ADHD medications result in significant reductions in ADHD symptoms. However, so far there is no conclusive evidence that these standard drug treatments also improve long-term academic, social, and clinical outcomes.
^John-Michael Sauer, Barbara J. Ring & Jennifer W. Witcher. Clinical pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005, 44 (6): 571–590. PMID 15910008. doi:10.2165/00003088-200544060-00002. After single oral dose, atomoxetine reaches maximum plasma concentration within about 1-2 hours of administration. In extensive metabolisers, atomoxetine has a plasma half-life of 5.2 hours, while in poor metabolisers, atomoxetine has a plasma half-life of 21.6 hours.
^LABEL: CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED-RELEASE- clonidine hydrochloride tablet, extended release. DailyMed. 2016-09-30 [2017-04-23]. What should I avoid while taking clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets?
Do not drink alcohol or take other medicines that make you sleepy or dizzy while taking clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets until you talk with your doctor.
Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets taken with alcohol or medicines that cause sleepiness or dizziness may make your sleepiness or dizziness worse.
Do not drive, operate heavy machinery or do other dangerous activities until you know how clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets will affect you.
Avoid becoming dehydrated or overheated.
What are possible side effects of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets?
Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause serious side effects, including:
Low blood pressure and low heart rate.
Your doctor should check your heart rate and blood pressure before starting treatment and regularly during treatment with clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets.
Suddenly stopping clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause withdrawal symptoms including:
increased blood pressure, headache, increased heart rate, lightheadedness, tightness in your chest and nervousness.参数|quote=值左起第88位存在換行符 (帮助)
^New Zealand Datasheet\Name of Medicine\CATAPRES®\Clonidine hydrochloride(PDF). 24 February 2012. [2017-04-13]（New Zhealand English）. Pharmacokinetics Absorption and distribution The pharmacokinetics of clonidine is dose-proportional in the range of 75 - 300 mcg. Clonidine's peak plasma concentrations are reached within 1 - 3 h after oral administration. The plasma protein binding is 30-40% Clonidine is rapidly and extensively distributed into tissues and crosses the blood brain barrier, as well as the placenta barrier. Clonidine is excreted in human milk.However, there is insufficient information on the effect on newborns. Metabolism and elimination The terminal elimination half-life of clonidine has been found to range from 5 to 25.5 hours. It can be prolonged in patients with severely impaired renal function up to 41 hours. About 70% of the dose administered is excreted with the urine mainly in the form of the unchanged parent drug. The main metabolite p-hydroxy-clonidine is pharmacologically inactive. Approximately 20% of the total amount is excreted with the faeces. The pharmacokinetics of clonidine are not influenced by food nor by the race of the patient. Patients who wear contact lenses should be warned that treatment with CATAPRES may cause decreased lacrimation. Interactions It cannot be ruled out that concomitant administration of a beta-receptor blocker will cause or potentiate peripheral vascular disorders. Studies with combined administration of clonidine and beta-receptor blockers have shown that if treatment is to be discontinued, the dose of the betareceptor blocker must always be slowly diminished first followed by the clonidine.参数|quote=值左起第17位存在換行符 (帮助);请检查|date=中的日期值 (帮助)引文格式1维护：未识别语文类型 (link)
^CATAPRES® 100 TABLETS(PDF). ABN 52 000 452 308 78 Waterloo Road NORTH RYDE NSW 2113: Boehringer Ingelheim Pty Limited. 2016-11-07 [2014-04-14]（Australian English）. Pharmacokinetic Studies Absorption and distribution The pharmacokinetics of clonidine is dose-proportional in the range of 75-300 micrograms. Clonidine, the active ingredient of CATAPRES, is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and undergoes a minor first pass effect. Peak plasma concentrations are reached within 1-3 hours after oral administration. The duration of action varies from 6-12 hours, the duration of action being longer in the milder hypertensives. The plasma protein binding is 30-40%. Metabolism and excretion The terminal elimination half-life of clonidine has been found to range from 9-26 hours in patients with normal renal function. With impaired renal function it has been reported to increase to 18-48 hours参数|quote=值左起第24位存在換行符 (帮助)引文格式1维护：未识别语文类型 (link)
^Helen Briggs. Vitamins ‘effective in treating ADHD symptoms’. BBC News. 2014-01-30 [2017-04-13]. After eight weeks of treatment those on supplements reported greater improvements in both their inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity compared with those taking the placebo. "Our study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness for micronutrients in the treatment of ADHD symptoms in adults," said Prof Julia Rucklidge, who led the study.
^Brasky, Theodore M.; White, Emily; Chen, Chi-Ling. Long-Term, Supplemental, One-Carbon Metabolism–Related Vitamin B Use in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort. Journal of Clinical Oncology (American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)). 2017-10-20, 35 (30): 3440–3448. ISSN 0732-183X. doi:10.1200/jco.2017.72.7735.
^Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and synthetic food color additives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. January 2012, 51 (1): 86–97. PMID 22176942. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2011.10.015.
^Krause J. SPECT and PET of the dopamine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Rev. Neurother. April 2008, 8 (4): 611–625. PMID 18416663. doi:10.1586/14737126.96.36.1991. Zinc binds at ... extracellular sites of the DAT , serving as a DAT inhibitor. In this context, controlled double-blind studies in children are of interest, which showed positive effects of zinc [supplementation] on symptoms of ADHD [105,106]. It should be stated that at this time [supplementation] with zinc is not integrated in any ADHD treatment algorithm.
^Rick Nauert PhD. Music Lessons May Help Kids with Autism & ADHD. psychcentral.com. the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Novemeber 23rd, 2016 [January 2017]. A new imaging study suggests taking music lessons increases brain fiber connections in children. As such, the training may be useful in treating autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to researchers from the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).请检查|date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^ 368.0368.1368.2368.3368.4368.5高淑芬 醫師; Kim Bung Nyun of Korea. 台灣兒童青少年精神醫學會年會新聞稿 2017.06.10. June 10th, 2017. [2017-06-16]. （原始内容存档于2017-06-11）. 注意力不足過動症與自閉症是兒童、青少年及成人中常見的精神疾患，不僅顯著影響個人的整體生活功能、學習狀況、人際互動和自我發展，更會對家庭、學校與社會有重大的影響。在學校裡，教師必須清楚瞭解學生的困難並提供適當的協助。此外，教師也需要引導學生們增進對於有困擾同學的了解、體諒及相處與協助的能力，促進良好的互動循環，減少霸凌的發生。在家庭裡，家長們需要對於疾病有正確的認識，並協助孩子們得到有充份醫學實證支持的治療方式。此外，家長們長期照顧患童的辛苦也需要被同理、支持與接納。在社會上，大家需要對於精神疾病有更為良善的了解，消除長期以來因誤解、了解不足、偏見及懼怕所導致對精神疾病污名化的現象，營造一個更良善且平等的社會環境。
^Wang, Tingting; Liu, Kaihua; Li, Zhanzhan; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Wenpei; Chen, Lizhang. Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry (systematic review, meta-analysis (secondary source)). 2017, 17 (1). ISSN 1471-244X. doi:10.1186/s12888-016-1187-9.
^陳國齡醫生 瑪麗醫院 精神科顧問醫生 兒童及青少年精神科主管 香港大學李嘉誠醫學院 精神科學系 榮譽臨床副教授 Dr. Chan Kwok Ling, Phyllis., Consultant Psychiatrist, Head of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry., Queen Mary Hospital., Honorary Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry LKS Medical Faculty University of Hong Kong. Child with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 認識注意力不足 /過度活躍症(PDF). 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區政府教育局 The government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of People's Republic of China. [April 22nd, 2017.].请检查|access-date=中的日期值 (帮助)
^Catalá-López, F; Peiró, S; Ridao, M; Sanfélix-Gimeno, G; Gènova-Maleras, R; Catalá, MA. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Spain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.. BMC Psychiatry. 2012-10-12, 12: 168. PMID 23057832. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-168.
^Palmer ED, Finger S. An early description of ADHD (inattentive subtype): Dr Alexander Crichton and 'Mental restlessness' (1798). Child and Adolescent Mental Health. May 2001, 6 (2): 66–73. doi:10.1111/1475-3588.00324.