In the area of the Römer, Roman settlements were established, probably in the first century; some artifacts from that era are found to this ddday. The city district Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times — it is thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa. Nida (Heddernheim) was also a Roman civitas capital.

The name of Frankfurt on the 美因河 is derived from the Franconofurt of the Germanic tribe of the Franks; Furt (cf. 英語 淺灘) denotes a low point passage across a stream or river. Alemanni and Franks lived there and by 794 Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly and church synod, at which Franconofurd (-furt -vurd) is first mentioned.

神聖羅馬帝國境內,法蘭克福是其中一個最重要的城市。由公元855年起,德國的國王和皇帝都在法蘭克福被推舉出,並在亞琛加冕。由1562年起國王和皇帝改為同時在法蘭克福被推舉和加冕,第一個在法蘭克福被加冕的皇帝是馬克西米利安二世。這個傳統在1792年弗朗茨二世就任時終於完結。他於7月14日巴士底日,這個紀念巴黎人民佔領巴斯第監獄的一日被加冕。推舉的程序和加冕儀式都在聖巴多羅買大教堂,亦稱Kaiserdom (英語: 皇帝大教堂)舉行。

The Frankfurter Messe (en: Frankfurt trade fair) was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted an Imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the Empire. Since 1478 book trade fairs have been held in Frankfurt, the Frankfurter Buchmesse being still the most important in Germany and, some might say, the world.

1372年法蘭克福成為了Reichsstadt (英語:帝國自由城市),直轄於神聖羅馬帝國皇帝,不屬於該區的統治者或貴族管轄。


In the Napoleonic Wars Frankfurt was occupied or cannonaded several times by French troops. It nevertheless still remained a free city until the total collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805/6. In 1806 it become part of the principality of Aschaffenburg under the Fürstprimas ('Prince-Primate', 25 July 1806 – 19 October 1813: Karl Theodor Anton Maria Kämmerer von Worms, Reichsfreiherr von Dalberg (b. 1744 – d. 1817), 1803–1806 Prince-archbishop of Regensburg). This also meant, that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine. In 1810 Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt. Napoleon intended to make his adopted son Eugène de Beauharnais, already prince de Venise ("prince of Venice", a newly established primogeniture in Italy) Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop didn't have legitimate heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810 to 1813, when military tide turned in favor of the Anglo-Prussian lead allies, which turns over the Napoleonic order of central Europe. Dalberg abdicated in favor of Eugène de Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the latter effectively never did rule after the ruin of the French armies and Frankfurt being taken by the allies.

After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna (1812-1815, redrawing the map of Europe) dissolved the grand-duchy, and Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".

After the ill-fated revolution of 1848, Frankfurt was home to the first German National Assembly (Nationalversammlung), which resided in St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche) (see German Confederation for details) and was opened on 18 May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the Prussian king declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt lost its independence after 普奧戰爭 as Prussia annexed in 1866 several smaller states, among them the free city of Frankfurt. The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in 1890.

In 1914 the citizens of Frankfurt founded the University of Frankfurt, later called Johann Wolfgang Goethe University. This is the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest universities.

After World War I Frankfurt was occupied by French troops as a means of reprisal, because the French found the German side guilty of having violated in some details the clauses of the peace treaty of Versailles concerning the demilitarisation of the Rhineland.Template:Request quote In 1924 Ludwig Landmann became the first Jewish Mayor of the city, and led a significant expansion during the following years. However, during the Nazi era, the synagogues of Frankfurt were destroyed.

The city of Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II. About 5,500 residents were killed during the raids, and the once famous medieval city centre, by that time the largest in Germany, was destroyed. The reconstruction after the war took place in an (often-simple) modern style, thus irrevocably changing the architectural face of Frankfurt. Only very few landmark buildings have been reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner.

After the end of the war Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse-(Darmstadt) and the Prussian Hesse provinces. The city was part of the American administered zone of Germany. The Military Governor for the United States Zone (1945-1949) and the United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) (1949-1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben Building, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies' wartime bombardment. Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital of West Germany — they even went as far as constructing a new parliament building that has never been used for its intended purpose, and is now a TV studio. In the end, Konrad Adenauer (the first post-war Chancellor) preferred the tiny city of Bonn, for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also for another reason; many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt, one of the largest German cities, and a former centre of the old German-dominated Holy Roman Empire, would be accepted as a "permanent" capital of Germany, thereby weakening the West German population's support for reunification and the eventual return of the capital city to Berlin.


Frankfurt is a multicultural city. Most immigrants are from Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Spain, North-African countries, Iran, Lebanon, and the United States. The Frankfurt Area is also home to the (now 2nd) largest Korean community in Europe. 180 different nationalities reside in Frankfurt.

For a long time Frankfurt was a Protestant-dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved to the city. Today a narrow plurality of citizens are Catholic. Frankfurt has the second largest Jewish community (after Berlin) in Germany.

结果 神聖羅馬帝國斐迪南二世取得決定性勝利
Flag of Bohemia.svg 波希米亞貴族 神聖羅馬帝國 神聖羅馬帝國
西班牙 西班牙
Catholic League (Germany).svg 天主教同盟
4,000人傷亡[1] 700人傷亡[1]

Template:Campaignbox Thirty Years' War Bohemian Revolt

白山戰役發生於1620年11月8日,是三十年戰爭中較早的一場戰役。 The Battle of White Mountain, 8 November 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years' War in which an army of 30,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 27,000 men of the combined armies of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor under Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy and the German Catholic League under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly at Bílá Hora, near Prague (now part of the city).[2] The battle marked the end of the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years' War.


In the early 17th Century most of the Bohemian estates, though under the dominion of the Catholic Holy Roman Empire, had large Protestant populations, and had been granted rights and protections allowing them varying degrees of religious and political freedom. In 1617, as Emperor Matthias lay dying, his cousin Ferdinand - a fiercely devout Catholic and proponent of the Counter-reformation - was named his successor as Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia. This led to deep consternation among many Bohemian Protestants, who feared not only the loss of their religious freedom, but also of their traditional semi-autonomy, under which many of the estates had separate, individual constitutions governing their relationship with the Empire.[3]

Ferdinand (who would become Emperor Ferdinand II following Matthias' death in 1619) saw Protestantism as inimical to the Empire, and wanted to impose standardized, centralized rule on Bohemia while forcefully encouraging conversion to the Catholic faith. He also hoped to reclaim church properties which had been seized by Protestants at the start of the Reformation decades earlier, and to do away with the Electorate - the body of noblemen, both Catholic and Protestant, which had considerable power over Imperial policy.

Particularly galling to Protestants were perceived violations of Emperor Rudolf II's 1609 Letter of Majesty, which had ensured religious freedom throughout Bohemia.[4] Wanting to air their grievances over this and other issues, a group of Bohemian nobles met with representatives of the Emperor at the royal castle in Prague in May, 1618; the meeting ended with two of the representatives and their scribe being thrown out a high window and seriously injured. This incident - the so-called Second Defenestration of Prague - triggered the Bohemian Revolt.[5]

In November 1619, Elector Palatine Frederick V - like many of the rebels, a Calvinist - was named King of Bohemia by the Bohemian Electorate.


In 1620, now fully established as Emperor, Ferdinand II set out to reclaim his Bohemian lands and make an example of the rebels. King Frederick and his military commander, Prince Christian of Anhalt, had organized a Protestant army of 30,000 men; Ferdinand countered with a force of 25,000, many of them seasoned soldiers, under the expert leadership of Field Marshal Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, a Catholic Spanish-Flemish nobleman. Tilly's force was made up of two distinct groups: Imperial troops commanded by Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy, and soldiers of the German Catholic League, directly under Tilly. Both Catholic and Protestant armies employed numerous mercenaries - including, by some definitions, Tilly himself. Serving with the Catholic League as an official observer was the future "father of modern philosophy", René Descartes.

After pacifying most of western Bohemia, the Imperial-Catholic army made for Prague, the Bohemian capital, then in rebel hands. The Bohemians attempted to block them by setting up defensive positions, which the Imperial army simply bypassed. Force-marching his men, Christian of Anhalt managed to get ahead of the Imperial army just before Prague. They gained an advantageous position on White Mountain (actually a low plateau), but had little time to set up defensive works. Enthusiasm for battle was low on both sides. After the reverses of the previous several weeks, Christian of Anhalt's army had been reduced to about 15,000 men, with little prospect of victory; mercenaries on both sides had not been paid in months; and with Winter approaching, cold, wet weather made for less than ideal combat conditions.

On November 8th a small Catholic force was sent to probe the Protestant flank. To their surprise, the Bohemians retreated at their advance. Tilly quickly sent in reinforcements, and the Bohemian flank began to crumble. Anhalt tried to retrieve the situation by sending forward infantry and cavalry led by his son, Christian II. The cavalry charged into the Imperial infantry, causing significant casualties, but Tilly countered with his own cavalry, forcing the Bohemian horsemen to retire. The Bohemian infantry, who were only now approaching the Imperial army, saw the cavalry retreating, at which they fired one volley at extreme range before retreating themselves. A small group of Imperial cavalry began circling the Protestant forces, driving them to the middle of the battlefield. With the Bohemian army already demoralized, company after company began retreating, most without having actually entered the battle. Tilly and his Imperial cavalrymen advanced with 2,000 Bavarian hussars, steadily pushing Protestant forces back to the Star Palace (just west of Prague), where the rebels tried without success to establish a line of defense.

The Battle of White Mountain was more a skirmish than a full-fledged battle. The Bohemian army was no match for King Ferdinand's troops. The actual battle lasted only an hour and left the Bohemian army in tatters. Some 4,000 Protestants were killed or captured, while Catholic losses amounted to roughly 700.[6]



The 27 tributary crosses.

With the Bohemian army destroyed, Tilly entered Prague and the revolt collapsed. King Frederick with his wife Elizabeth fled the country (hence his nickname the Winter King), and many citizens welcomed the restoration of Catholicism. Forty-seven noble leaders of the insurrection were tried, and twenty-seven were executed on what is called "the Day of Blood" by Protestants at Prague's Old Town Square. Amongst those executed were Kryštof Harant and Jan Jesenius. Today, 27 crosses have been inlaid in the cobblestone as a tribute to those victims. An estimated five-sixths of the Bohemian nobility went into exile soon after the Battle of White Mountain, and their properties were confiscated.[7] Before the war about 151,000 farmsteads existed in the Lands of Bohemian Crown, while only 50,000 remained after the year 1648. The number of inhabitants decreased from 3 million to 800,000.[8] The Thirty Years War had still another 28 years to run, and Bohemia was often the scene of much bloodshed.

But there was still a strong Protestant army in Silesia under the command of Johann Georg of Hohenzollern, Duke of Brandenburg-Jägerndorf which continued fighting the Imperial army in Moravia and in what today is Slovakia until 1623.

In 1621, the Emperor ordered all Calvinists and other non-Lutherans to leave the realm in 3 days or to convert to Catholicism. Next year, he also ordered all Lutherans (who primarily had not been involved in the revolt) to convert or leave the country. By 1627, Archbishop Harrach of Prague and Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice set out to peacefully convert the heretics as they were termed; most Bohemians converted, but a significant Protestant minority remained. Spanish troops, seeking to encircle their rebellious Dutch provinces, seized the Palatinate electoral lands. With the prospect of Protestantism being overrun in Germany, Denmark entered the struggle. Sweden was to join the Protestant forces in 1630.

See also编辑


  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Bílá Hora., Ottův slovník naučný (1888-1909) a Ottův slovník naučný nové doby (1930-1943). (in Czech)
  2. ^ The Battle of White Mountain, 11-06-2003 - Radio Prague
  3. ^ Johnson, Lonnie. Central Europe enemies, neighbours, friends. New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Print.
  4. ^ Helfferich, Tryntje. The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Hackett Company, Inc., 2009. Print.
  5. ^ Guthrie, William P. Battles of the Thirty Years War from White Mountain to Nordlingen, 1618-1635. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2001. Print.
  6. ^ Guthrie, William P. Battles of the Thirty Years War from White Mountain to Nordlingen, 1618-1635. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2001. Print.
  7. ^ Consequences of Czech Defeat, U.S. Library of Congress
  8. ^ The Kingdom of Bohemia during the Thirty Years´ War


External links编辑

坐标50°04′42″N 14°19′10″E / 50.07833°N 14.31944°E / 50.07833; 14.31944

Herzogtum Mecklenburg-Schwerin
• 1701年–1713年
• 1713年–1728年
• 1728年–1756年
• 1756年–1785年
• 1785年–1815年
• 漢堡條約
• 升格為大公國
今属于  德國

梅克倫堡-什未林是1701年於德國北部建立起的一個公國,由弗里德里希·威廉阿道夫·弗里德里希二世分裂原梅克倫堡公國分別為什未林施特雷利茨兩部分而成。公國一直由尼克洛特後裔的梅克倫堡王室統治,多個世紀以來公國都只是神聖羅馬帝國波羅的海沿岸的一個窮困邦國,was a duchy in northern Germany created in , when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg between Schwerin and Strelitz. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin remained a relatively poor state of the Holy Roman Empire along the Baltic Sea littoral between Holstein-Glückstadt and Duchy of Pomerania.


The dynasty's progenitor, Niklot (1090–1160), was a chief of the Slavic Obotrite tribal federation, who fought against the advancing Saxons and was finally defeated in 1160 by Henry the Lion in the course of the Wendish Crusade. Niklot's son, Pribislav, submitted himself to Henry, and in 1167 came into his paternal inheritance as the first Prince of Mecklenburg.

After several divisions among Pribislav's descendants, Henry II of Mecklenburg (1266–1329) until 1312 acquired the lordships of Stargard and Rostock, and bequeathed the reunified Mecklenburg lands – except the County of Schwerin and Werle – to his sons, Albert II and John. After they both had received the ducal title, the former lordship of Stargard was recreated as the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Stargard for John in 1352. Albert II retained the larger western part of Mecklenburg, and after he acquired the former County of Schwerin in 1358, he made Schwerin his residence.

In 1363 Albert's son, Duke Albert III, campaigned in Sweden, where he was crowned king one year later. In 1436, William, the last Lord of Werle, died without a male heir. Because William's son-in-law, Ulric II of Mecklenburg-Stargard, had no issue, his line became extinct upon Ulric's death in 1471. All possessions fell back to Duke Henry IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who was then the sole ruler over all of Mecklenburg.

In 1520 Henry's grandsons, Henry V and Albert VII, again divided the duchy, creating the subdivision of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, which Duke Adolf Frederick I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin inherited in 1610. In a second partition of 1621, he granted Güstrow to his brother, John Albert II. Both were deposed in 1628 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, as they had supported Christian IV of Denmark in the Thirty Years' War. Nevertheless, the Swedish Empire forced their restoration three years later. When John Albert II's son, Duke Gustav Adolph, died without male heirs in 1695, Mecklenburg was reunited once more under Frederick William.


In June 1692, when Christian Louis I died in exile and without sons, a dispute arose about the succession to his duchy between his brother, Adolphus Frederick II, and his nephew, Frederick William. The emperor and the rulers of Kingdom of Sweden and of Electorate of Brandenburg took part in this struggle, which was intensified three years later, when on the death of Gustav Adolph, the family ruling over Mecklenburg-Güstrow became extinct. In 1701, with the endorsement of the Imperial state of the Lower Saxon Circle, the Treaty of Hamburg was signed and the final division of the country was made. Mecklenburg was divided between the two claimants. The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was given to Frederick William, and the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, roughly a recreation of the medieval Stargard lordship, to Adolphus Frederick II. At the same time, the principle of primogeniture was reasserted, and the right of summoning the joint Landtag was reserved to the ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Continued conflicts and partitions weakened the rule of the dukes and affirmed the reputation of Mecklenburg as one of the most backward territories of the Empire.

Mecklenburg-Schwerin began its existence during a series of constitutional struggles between the duke and the nobles. The heavy debt incurred by Karl Leopold, who had joined Russian Empire in a war against Kingdom of Sweden, brought matters to a crisis; Charles VI interfered, and in 1728 the imperial court of justice declared the duke incapable of governing. His brother, Christian Ludwig II, was appointed administrator of the duchy. Under this prince, who became ruler de jure in 1747, the Convention of Rostock, by which a new constitution was framed for the duchy, was signed in April 1755. By this instrument, all power was in the hands of the duke, the nobles, and the upper classes generally; the lower classes were entirely unrepresented. During the Seven Years' War, Frederick II took up a hostile attitude towards Frederick the Great, and in consequence Mecklenburg-Schwerin was occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia. In other ways his rule was beneficial to the country. In the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, Frederick Francis I remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar from Kingdom of Sweden. In 1806 the land was overrun by the First French Empire, and in 1808 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. He was the first member of the confederation to abandon Napoleon, to whose armies he had sent a contingent, and in 1813–1814 he fought against France.


With the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin received the title of Grand Duke. After the fall of the monarchies in 1918 resulting from World War I, the Grand Duchy became the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. On 1 January 1934 it was united with the neighbouring Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (both today part of the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern).


  本條目出自公有领域Chisholm, Hugh (编). 大英百科全書 (11th ed.). 劍橋大學出版社. 1911.  Template:Lower Saxon Circle

Kurfürstentum Bayern
Bavaria highlighted on a map of the Holy Roman Empire in 1648
Elector of Bavaria 
• 1623-1651
Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
• 1651-1679
Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria
• 1679-1726
Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
• 1726-1745
Karl Albrecht, Elector of Bavaria
• 1745-1777
Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria
• 1777-1799
Karl Theodor, Elector of Bavaria
• 1799-1805
Maximilian IV Joseph, Elector of Bavaria
• 獲得選帝候身份
• 簽訂西發里亞和約
• Put under Imperial Ban
• Imperial Ban reversed

• Raised to kingdom
  Duchy of Bavaria
Kingdom of Bavaria  

The Electorate of Bavaria (德語:Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.[1]

The Wittelsbach dynasty which ruled the Duchy of Bavaria was the younger branch of the family which also ruled the Electorate of the Palatinate. The head of the elder branch was one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire according to the Golden Bull of 1356, but Bavaria was excluded from the electoral dignity. In 1621, the Elector Palatine Frederick V was put under the imperial ban for his role in the Bohemian Revolt against Emperor Ferdinand II, and the electoral dignity and territory of the Upper Palatinate was conferred upon his loyal cousin, Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria. Although the Peace of Westphalia would create a new electoral title for Frederick V's son, with the exception of a brief period during the War of the Spanish Succession, Maximilian's descendants would continue to hold the original electoral dignity until the extinction of his line in 1777. At that point the two lines were joined in personal union until the end of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1805, after the Peace of Pressburg, the then-elector, Maximilian Joseph, raised himself to the dignity of King of Bavaria, and the Holy Roman Empire was abolished the next year.



Королівство Галичини та Володимирії 烏克蘭語 Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii 波蘭語
Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien 德語
使用波蘭語人口: 58.6%
使用盧森尼亞語人口: 40.2%[2]
• 1772年–1780年
瑪麗亞·特蕾西婭 (首)
• 1916年–1918年
卡爾一世 (末)
• 西烏克蘭建國
• 簽訂聖日耳曼條約
a: 奧地利帝國(1804–1867年)及稍後奧匈帝國(1867–1918年)的王冠領地




  • 德語:Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator;
  • 波蘭語Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii wraz z Wielkim Księstwem Krakowskim i Księstwem Oświęcimia i Zatoru;
  • 烏克蘭語Королівство Галичини та Володимирії з великим князіством Краківським і князівствами Освенцима і Затору, transliterated: Korolivstvo Halychyny i Lodomeriï z velykym knyazivstvom Krakivskym i knyazivstvamy Osventsyma i Zatoru
  • 匈牙利語Galícia és Lodoméria királysága Krakkó nagyhercegségével és Auschwitz és Zator hercegséggel


加利西亞是奧地利1772年第一次瓜分波蘭中瓜分到的最大片土地。As such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was later to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of 加利西亞-洛多梅里亞王國 to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. 可是在第三次瓜分波蘭後,大批波蘭人居住的西加利西亞(或新加利西亞)併入王國之內,這改變了「加利西亞」的地理概念。儘管王國東部地區的居民大部分均為烏克蘭人(或當時所認知的盧森尼亞人),但是以波蘭貴族為主導的利沃夫(倫貝格)仍然成為了奧屬加利西亞的首都。除了居於全國各地的波蘭貴族和士紳階級,和居於東部的盧森尼亞人之外,王國亦有一大批猶太人族群,主要居於國內的東部地區。

奧地利維也納政府統治加利西亞的首十年,政局相對穩定,由德國人和德藉捷克人所組成的政府推行了多項重要改革。雖然政府聲稱貴族階層的權利得到保障,但實際上他們的權益相當受到限制。農奴不再只是地主的財產,他們於法律上受到保障,而且得到一些個人自由,例如農奴可以無需地主准許自由結婚的權利。他們的工作義務獲明確規定和限制,他們能夠繞過地主向最高法院就地主違反工作權益尋求判決。盧森尼亞人所信奉的東方禮天主教會,被更名為希臘禮天主教會,以讓它獲得與羅馬天主教會同等的地位; 當局亦讓教會建立神學院,最終更給予都主教區的地位。雖然Although unpopular with the aristocracy, among the common folk, Polish and Ukrainian/Ruthenian alike, 這些改革依然讓他們對皇帝存有好感,直至奧地利統治的末期為止。同一時間奧地利在加利西亞得到大量財富,亦能夠徵召大批農民階層加入軍隊為帝國服務。these reforms created a reservoir of good will toward the emperor which lasted almost to the end of Austrian rule. At the same time, however, Austria extracted from Galicia considerable wealth and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services.

Kingdom of Galicia 1846-1918




同一時期,在加利西亞東部的盧森尼亞人亦逐漸喚起他們的民族意識。當地希臘天主教神學院的學生,不斷受到歐洲各地的浪漫民族主義浪潮所影響,加上鄰近俄國治下烏克蘭東部的斯拉夫人的民族統一運動亦驅動他們成為一批活躍的民族意識分子,他們開始尋求自我的民族認同和民族文化。1837年,神父馬爾基揚·沙切基夫奇(Markiian Shashkevych)領導的民族主義組織「盧森尼亞三人組」(Ruthenian Triad)出版了小冊子「德涅斯特河的女神」(The Nymph of the Dniester),刊載了盧森尼亞的民族歌曲和以盧森尼亞方言所撰寫的資料。這本小冊子宣揚的民主主義引起了奧地利當局的注意,並下令當地政府和希臘禮天主教會都主教區禁止該小冊子的出版。

1848年,奧地利帝國各地包括首都維也納,均發生一連串大大小小的叛亂。動亂期間,在加利西亞政府所在地林堡,波蘭國民議會與烏克蘭最高議會、或稱盧森尼亞最高議會先後成立。在維也納當局能有所應對之前,加利西亞總督弗朗茨·施塔迪昂就已經將剩餘的農奴釋放,嘗試用他們去對抗起義人士。而且當局亦利用兩族之間要求的矛盾來討價還價。波蘭人提出加利西亞自治的要求,盧森尼亞人則要求獲得平等地位、及將整個加利西亞劃分為東部盧森尼亞人和西部波蘭人地區。當局用以和,Moreover, Polish demands for Galician automomy were countered by Ruthenian demands for national equality and for a partition of the province into an Eastern, Ruthenian part, and a Western, Polish part. Eventually, Lemberg was bombarded by imperial troops and the revolution put down completely.

A decade of renewed absolutism followed, but to placate the Poles, Count Agenor Goluchowski, a conservative representative of the eastern Galician aristocracy, the so-called Podolians, was appointed Viceroy. He began to Polonize the local administration and managed to have Ruthenian ideas of partitioning the province shelved. He was unsuccessful, however, in forcing the Greek Catholic Church to shift to the use of the western or Gregorian calendar, or among Ruthenians generally, to replace the Cyrillic alphabet with the Latin alphabet.

Template:Ukrainian statehood

Galician slaughter (Polish "Rzeź galicyjska") by Jan Lewicki (1795-1871)

Constitutional experiments编辑

In 1859, following Austrian military defeat in Italy, the Empire entered a period of constitutional experiments. In 1860, the Vienna Government, influenced by Agenor Goluchowski, issued its October Diploma, which envisioned a conservative federalization of the empire, but a negative reaction in the German-speaking lands led to changes in government and the issuing of the February Patent which watered down this de-centralization. Nevertheless, by 1861, Galicia was granted a Legislative Assembly or Galicia Diet. Although at first pro-Habsburg Ukrainian and Polish peasant representation was considerable in this body (about half the assembly), and the pressing social and Ukrainian questions were discussed, administrative pressures limited the effectiveness of both peasant and Ukrainian representatives and the Diet of Galicia became dominated by the Polish aristocracy and gentry, who favoured further autonomy. This same year, disturbances broke out in Russian Poland and to some extent spilled over into Galicia. The Sejm ceased to sit.

By 1863, open revolt broke out in Russian Poland and from 1864 to 1865 the Austrian government declared a State of Siege in Galicia, temporarily suspending civil liberties.

1865 brought a return to federal ideas along the lines suggested by Agenor Goluchowski and negotiations on autonomy between the Polish aristocracy and Vienna began once again.

Meanwhile, the Ruthenians felt more and more abandoned by Vienna and among the "Old Ruthenians" grouped around the Greek Catholic Cathedral of Saint George, there occurred a turn towards Russia. The more extreme supporters of this orientation came to be known as "Russophiles". At the same time, influenced by the Ukrainian language poetry of the eastern Ukrainian writer, Taras Shevchenko, a Ukrainophile movement arose which published literature in the Ukrainian/Ruthenian vernacular and eventually established a network of reading halls. Supporters of this orientation came to be known as "Populists", and later, simply as "Ukrainians". Almost all Ruthenians, however, still hoped for national equality and for an administrative division of Galicia along ethnic lines.






這些改變受到很多波蘭的知識分子所歡迎。1869年於克拉科夫有一群年輕的保守These changes were supported by many Polish intellectuals. In 1869 a group of young conservative publicists in Kraków, including Józef Szujski, Stanisław Tarnowski, Stanisław Koźmian and Ludwik Wodzicki, published a series of satirical pamphlets entitled Teka Stańczyka (Stańczyk's Portfolio). Only five years after the tragic end of the January Uprising, the pamphlets ridiculed the idea of armed national uprisings and suggested compromise with Poland's enemies, especially the Austrian Empire, concentration on economic growth, and acceptance of the political concessions offered by Vienna. This political grouping came to be known as the Stanczyks or Kraków Conservatives. Together with the eastern Galician conservative Polish landowners and aristocracy called the "Podolians", they gained a political ascendency in Galicia which lasted to 1914. This shift in power from Vienna to the Polish landowning class was not welcomed by the Ruthenians, who became more sharply divided into Russophiles, who looked to Russia for salvation, and Ukrainians who stressed their connections to the common people.

Both Vienna and the Poles saw treason among the Russophiles and a series of political trials eventually discredited them. Meanwhile, by 1890, an agreement was worked out between the Poles and the "Populist" Ruthenians or Ukrainians which saw the partial Ukrainianization of the school system in eastern Galicia and other concessions to Ukrainian culture. Thereafter, the Ukrainian national movement spread rapidly among the Ruthenian peasantry and, despite repeated setbacks, by the early years of the twentieth century this movement had almost completely replaced other Ruthenian groups as the main rival for power with the Poles. Throughout this period, the Ukrainians never gave up the traditional Ruthenian demands for national equality and for partition of the province into a western, Polish half, and an eastern, Ukrainian half.

Template:Polish statehood


1880年,加利西亞的工業仍然處於低水平。1857年加利西亞境內擁有102,189名工業人員,包括工廠老闆及其員工在內,只佔加利西亞總人口的百分之二點二。so only 2.2% of the population worked in industry. By 1870 the number had risen to 179,626, or 3.3% of the population.

The Great Economic Emigration编辑

Beginning in the 1880s, a mass emigration of the Galician peasantry occurred. The emigration started as a seasonal one to Germany (newly unified and economically dynamic) and then later became a Trans-Atlantic one with large-scale emigration to The United States, Brazil, and Canada.

Caused by the backward economic condition of Galicia where rural poverty was widespread (see "Economy" below), the emigration began in the western, Polish populated part of Galicia and quickly shifted east to the Ukrainian inhabited parts. Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, and Germans all participated in this mass movement of countryfolk and villagers. Poles migrated principally to New England and the midwestern states of the United States, but also to Brazil and elsewhere; Ruthenians/Ukrainians migrated to Brazil, Canada, and the United States, with a very intense emigration from Southern Podolia to Western Canada; and Jews emigrated both directly to the New World and also indirectly via other parts of Austria-Hungary.

A total of several hundred thousand people were involved in this Great Economic Emigration which grew steadily more intense until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. The war put a temporary halt to the emigration which never again reached the same proportions.

The Great Economic Emigration, especially the emigration to Brazil, the "Brazilian Fever" as it was called at the time, was described in contemporary literary works by the Polish poetess, Maria Konopnicka, the Ukrainian writer, Ivan Franko, and many others. Some states in south of Brazil have a large percentage of their population formed by direct descendants of these Ruthenians/Ukrainians immigrants.





See also编辑


  • Paul Robert Magocsi, Galicia: A Historical Survey and Bibliographic Guide (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983). Concentrates on the historical, or Eastern Galicia.
  • Andrei S. Markovits and Frank E. Sysyn, eds., Nationbuilding and the Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982). Contains an important article by Piotr Wandycz on the Poles, and an equally important article by Ivan L. Rudnytsky on the Ukrainians.
  • Christopher Hann and Paul Robert Magocsi, eds., Galicia: A Multicultured Land (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005). A collection of articles by John Paul Himka, Yaroslav Hrytsak, Stanislaw Stepien, and others.
  • Taylor, A.J.P., The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1941, discusses Habsburg policy toward ethnic minorities.
  • Alison Fleig Frank, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005). A new monograph on the history of the Galician oil industry in both the Austrian and European contexts.
  • Drdacki, Moritz knight by Ostrow, the glad patents Galziens a contribution to customer of the Unterthanswesens, printed with J.P. Sollinger, Vienna, 1838, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 978-3-89433-024-8
  • Kratter, F., letters over itzigen condition of Galicia a contribution to the Staatistik and knowledge of human nature, publishing house G. Ph. of usurer, Leipzig 1786, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 978-3-89433-001-9
  • Mueller, Sepp, from the settlement to the resettlement, Wiss. contribution to history and regional studies of east Central Europe, hrsg. v. Joh. Gottfr. Herder Joh.-Gottfr.-Herder-Institut Marburg, NR. 54 Rohrer, Josef, remarks on a journey of the Turkish Graenze over the Bukowina by east and west Galicia, Schlesien and Maehren to Vienna, publishing house Anton Pichler, Vienna 1804, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 978-3-89433-010-1
  • statistic Central Commission (Hrsg.), local repertory of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomerien with the Herzogthume Krakau, publishing house Carl Gerolds son, Vienna 1874, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 978-3-89433-015-6
  • Stupnicki, Hipolit, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomerien sammt the Grossherzogthume Krakau and the Herzogthume Bukowina in geographical-historical-statistic relationship, printed with Peter Piller, Lemberg 1853, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 978-3-89433-016-3
  • Traunpaur, Alfons Heinrich Chevalier d'Orphanie, Dreyssig of letters over Galicia or observations of a[n] unpartheyischen man, Vienna 1787, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 978-3-89433-013-2


  1. ^ Otto Von Pivka. Napoleon's German Allies. Osprey Publishing. November 1980: 3– [4 July 2012]. ISBN 978-0-85045-373-7. 
  2. ^ Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt (1911). Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. Vienna: K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische. "Census December 31st 1910"

External links编辑

Template:Galicia and Lodomeria timeline Template:Provinces of the Austrian Empire

警告:默认排序关键字“Galicia And Lodomeria, Kingdom of”覆盖了之前的默认排序关键字“White Mountain 1620”。



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