User:Waeping/Sandbox

露易丝·德·拉瓦莉埃
LouiseDeLaValliere01.jpg
出生(1644-08-06)1644年8月6日
法国图尔
逝世1710年6月7日(1710歲-06-07)(65歲)
法国巴黎
头衔拉瓦莉埃女公爵
子嗣Marie Anne,Conti公主
Louis,Vermandois伯爵

露易丝·德·拉瓦里埃尔路易丝·德·拉瓦莉埃 - en:Louise de La Vallière

上海译文出版社《布拉热洛纳子爵》:作者: 大仲马,译者: 谭玉培、吴丹丽:拉瓦利埃尔、昂利埃特公主、路易十四的弟弟安茹公爵

路易丝·德·拉瓦莉埃(或露易丝·德·拉瓦里埃尔、全名露易丝·弗兰索瓦兹·鲁·布兰·德·拉·瓦里埃尔Françoise Louise de La Baume Le Blanc de La Vallière[1]。1644年8月6日–1710年6月7日。)从1661年到1667年是法国国王 路易十四的一个情妇。她后来凭借自身能力成为了拉瓦莉埃女公爵以及Vaujours女公爵。与她的情敌蒙特斯潘夫人不同,她的家系后来断绝了。

早期生活编辑

露易丝·德·拉瓦里埃尔1644年8月出生在法国图尔, 是一个小贵族的女儿,父亲是Laurent de La Baume Le Blanc[2]死于1651;母亲是Françoise Le Provost,1655年改嫁给了Jacques de Courtarvel(圣雷米侯爵),在布卢瓦进入了加斯东·奥尔良公爵的宫廷。

露易丝被奥尔良公爵的三个年轻的郡主们抚养长大,她们是玛格丽特·路易丝伊丽莎白·德·奥尔良弗朗索瓦丝·玛德莱娜[3]

奥尔良公爵死后(1660年), 他的遗孀带着她的女儿们包括十六岁的露易丝去了巴黎的卢森堡宫

路易十四编辑

 
Louise de La Vallière和她的孩子彼得·莱利绘, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rennes

通过一个远亲Mme de Choisy的介绍, 露易丝成为了英格兰公主亨丽埃塔·安妮·斯图尔特(亨莉雅妲公主)的侍女。亨丽埃塔是英格兰查理二世的姐妹,此时刚刚和国王的兄弟腓力一世,奥尔良公爵结婚.Henrietta(以下简称夫人)是非常有吸引力的,1661年加入了枫丹白露的宫廷。她与路易十四国王的友好关系,引起了一些丑闻和风流韵事的谣言。

针对这些谣言,国王和夫人决定让路易斯挡在前面示爱转移注意力,夫人选择三个年轻的小姐“设置在他的路径”,露易丝是其中之一。Abbé de Choise(法语?)十七岁的女孩,"有一个美丽的肤色,金发,蓝眼睛,甜美的微笑,温柔谦虚"[4]露易丝的一条腿短,所以她穿上特制的高跟鞋。

情妇编辑

露易丝在枫丹白露待了两个月就成为了国王的情妇。虽然她是为了转移注意力从路易斯和他的嫂子之间危险的调情,露易丝和路易很快坠入爱河。[5] 这是露易丝第一场热恋,据说她是无辜的,信仰宗教的女孩给他们的秘密恋情既没有利益,也没有卖弄风情。 可以从她的状况看出,她既不奢侈也不是对金钱或财富感兴趣;她只想要国王的爱。安东尼亚-弗雷泽如此写道,她是一个“秘密情人”而不是一个 贵族情妇Maîtresse-en-titre比如en:Barbara Villiers."[6]

尼古拉斯·富凯贿赂露易丝的问题是他的耻辱,这导致路易十四误以为富凯试图把露易丝当作他的情人。[7]

1662年2月, 这对情侣陷入争执,这是由于国王质疑而露易丝拒绝告诉他亨丽埃塔和伯爵的事情。恰在此时,雅克-貝尼涅·博須埃进行了一系列的布道,他谴责了一些不道德的行为比如大卫国王的通奸——这让这位虔诚的小姐感到不安。[8]她逃到了Chaillot的修道院。 Louis followed her there and convinced her to return to court. Her enemies—chief among them, Olympe Mancini, comtesse de Soissons, niece of 儒勒·马扎然—sought to orchestrate her downfall by bringing her liaison to the ears of Louis's queen, Maria Theresa of Spain.

During her first pregnancy, Louise was removed from the Princess' service and established in a lodging in the Palais Royal, where, on 19 December 1663, she gave birth to a son, Charles, who was taken immediately to Saint-Leu[需要消歧义] and given to two faithful servants of Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Despite the secrecy of the transfer, organised by a doctor Boucher who was present at the birth, the story quickly spread to Paris. The public scorn at a midnight mass on 24 December resulted in a distraught Louise escaping home from the church.[9]

子女编辑

露易丝为路易十四生了4个子女,只有2个存活了:

  • 查尔斯 (1663–1665);
  • 菲利普 (1665–1666);
  • 玛丽·安妮·波旁 (1666–1739):她的父亲路易十四给她合法的称号前,她被称为“布洛瓦小姐”。后来她嫁给了孔蒂王子,通过这个婚姻,她获得了公主血脉的承认,称“孔蒂公主”;
  • 路易斯·德·波旁,韦芒杜瓦公爵(1667–1683); 16岁死于他的第一场出征。

衰落编辑

Concealment was practically abandoned after her return to court, and within a week of Anne of Austria's death on 20 January 1666, La Vallière appeared at Mass beside Maria Theresa. Ashamed of her conduct, she treated the queen with humility and respect. In return, the queen was reportedly venomous towards her during the five-year affair, continuing even after the affair really ended[來源請求]—unaware that the king had taken another mistress.

After five years, Louise's favour was waning. She had given birth to a second son, Philippe, on 7 January 1665; but both children soon died, Charles on 15 July 1665, and Philippe before the autumn of 1666. A daughter was born at Vincennes on 2 October 1666. In May 1667, by letters patent confirmed by the Parlement de Paris, Louis XIV legitimised his daughter, who was named Marie Anne de Bourbon and was given the title of Mademoiselle de Blois. Louis XIV also made Louise a duchess and gave her the estate of Vaujours. As a duchess, Louise had the right to sit on a tabouret in the presence of the queen, which was a highly prized privilege. However, Louise was not impressed. She said her title seemed a kind of retirement present given to a servant who was retiring. Indeed she was correct, for Louis commented that legitimising their daughter and giving Louise an establishment "matched the affection he had had for her for six years": in other words, an extravagant farewell present.[10]

那一年的10月2日,她给他生了第四个孩子,一个叫路易斯的儿子,但那时她在国王的地位已经被Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan取代了,露易丝和王后在她怀孕开始的时候都曾认为其一个可信赖的朋友。whom both she and the queen (both pregnant when the affair began) had thought of as a trusted friend. Under the pretense of her pregnancy, Louise was sent away to Versailles while the King and the court were at the scene of the war; however, she disobeyed the King's orders and returned, throwing herself at his feet sobbing uncontrollably. In a strange twist of fate, she ended her relationship with the King in the same way in which she started: used initially as a decoy for Louis and "Madame", Louise now became a decoy for her own successor, as Louis made her share the Marquise de Montespan's apartments at the Tuileries to prevent the legal manœuvres of the Marquis de Montespan (who wanted to get his wife back) and to keep the court from gossiping.

Mme de Montespan demanded that Louise assist her with her toilette, and Louise did so without complaint. Whenever the king wished to travel with his real mistress, Athénaïs, he made both Louise and Athénaïs sit in the same carriage with the queen. Since Athénaïs was married, it meant that both the king and she were committing adultery, a mortal sin. Louise had refused a smokescreen marriage for this very reason. (In cases where one partner is unmarried, canon law of the Roman Catholic Church considered a carnal affair to be simply fornication.)

Mlle de La Vallière was the godmother of Athénaïs' and Louis XIV's first daughter, who was given the first name Louise. Louise hated being the decoy for Athénaïs and begged and wept often to be allowed to join a convent. She took to wearing a hair shirt, and the strain of being forced to live with her former lover and his current mistress caused her to lose weight and become increasingly haggard.

She attempted to leave in 1671, fleeing to the convent of Ste Marie de Chaillot, only to be compelled (once more by order of the King) to return. In 1674, she was finally permitted to enter the Carmelite convent in the Faubourg Saint-Jacques in Paris under the name of Sister Louise of Mercy.

When Louise left the Court, the new Duchess of Orléans (born Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate) took care of the education of her only surviving son, Louis. He later was involved in a scandal with his uncle Philippe de France and Philippe's favourite, the Chevalier de Lorraine, and died in 1683 while in exile in Flandres.[11] His loving sister and aunt were greatly affected by his death, while his father did not shed a tear. His mother, still obsessed with the sin of her relationship with the king, said upon hearing of her son's death:

I ought to weep for his birth far more than [for] his death.[12]

Madame de Maintenon asked Louise if she had fully considered the discomforts that awaited her at the Carmelite convent which ended up including being forbidden to wear the shoes that allowed her to walk without a limp. "When I shall be suffering at the convent", Louise replied, "I shall only have to remember what they made me suffer here, and all the pain shall seem light to me." The day she left, she threw herself at the feet of the Queen, begging forgiveness: "My crimes were public, my repentance must be public, too."[13]

She took the final vows a year later, accepting the black veil from the queen herself, who kissed and blessed her. The queen already had a habit of spending brief sojourns at the convent for spiritual consolation and repose. Interestingly, later in life, Mme de Montespan went to Louise for advice on living a pious life. Louise forgave her, and counselled her on the mysteries of divine grace. She died in 1710. The Duchy of La Vallière went to her daughter Marie Anne as did the fortune she had acquired during her life as Louis's mistress.

La Vallière's Réflexions sur la miséricorde de Dieu, written after her retreat, were printed by Lequeux in 1767, and in 1860 Réflexions, lettres et sermons, by M. P. Clement (2 vols.). Some apocryphal Mémoires appeared in 1829, and the Lettres de Mme la Duchesse de la Vallière (1767) are a corrupt version of her correspondence with the Maréchal de Bellefonds.

对后世的影响编辑

  • 单词lavaliere (lavalier),项链上的垂饰,一个宝石吊坠项链的名字,来自她的名字。在最初的法国lavallière指的是一个松软的领带系在在脖子前面,组成一个蝴蝶结(类似与猫式蝴蝶结)。这在19世纪是一种流行时尚。
  • 露易丝·法兰西斯·露·布朗·杜·拉·瓦利埃尔零之使魔的女主角的名字的一部分以她的名字命名。
  • 大仲马的小说布拉热洛纳子爵中的一个人物是以她为生活原型的。一个普遍的英文译本被分成了三部分,第二部分书名是《Louise de la Vallière》。在小说《二十年后》, 《三劍客》续集里, 她是阿多斯的私生子布拉日隆子爵拉乌尔的童年好友,在《布拉日隆子爵》,这对夫妇十年后爱上了,仅仅因为 露易丝转而爱上了法国国王路易十四,拉乌尔,带着破碎的心在北非一场自杀式的战斗中结束了生命。
  • Sandra Gulland桑德拉·格兰德写了一部关于Louise de la Vallière的历史小说《太阳的情妇》(Mistress of the Sun),2008年出版.
  • Karleen Koen卡琳·蔻恩的2011年的小说,“在凡尔赛宫前”"Before Versailles", 以Louise de la Vallière作为主视角。
  • Joan Sanders琼-路易丝在1959出版的一本传记为《La Petite: Louise de la Vallière》。

参考资料编辑

  1. ^ 这是一个女公爵的名字,她的本名是Francoise Louise,或只称Louise,以领地La Baume le Blanc de la Vallière为姓,法国人简称为Louise de La Vallière,即露易丝·德·拉瓦里埃尔
  2. ^ La Vallière这个姓氏取自昂布瓦斯附近的一个小庄园。因此,父亲也称Laurent de La Vallière
  3. ^ 她们后来分别成为了Tuscany大公爵夫人,Alençon公爵夫人,以及Savoy公爵夫人,她们有一个同父异母的姐姐安娜·玛丽·路易丝·德·奥尔良,蒙庞西耶女公爵,人称大郡主
  4. ^ Herman, Eleanor, Sex with Kings, Harper Collins, 2004, p. 106.
  5. ^ Fraser, Antonia, Love and Louis XIV, Anchor Books, 2006, pp. 70-71.
  6. ^ ib. Fraser, pp. 83-84.
  7. ^ ib. Fraser, pp. 70-75.
  8. ^ ib. Fraser, pp. 80-81.
  9. ^ Breton, Guy; Histoires d'amour de l'histoire de France IV: Les favorites de Louis XIV, Presses de la Cité, Paris, 1991, p. 115.
  10. ^ ib. Fraser, pp. 111-112.
  11. ^ Louis was later suspected of being the Man in the Iron Mask.
  12. ^ ib. Fraser
  13. ^ Herman, Elizabeth, Sex with Kings, Harper Collins, 2004, p. 222.

相关书目编辑

外部链接编辑


Template:Persondata Category:17th-century women writers