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冈瓦那兽目学名:Gondwanatheria,亦可称为冈瓦纳兽目)是哺乳动物中一个已经灭绝的目,生活在上白垩世中新世(而且可能更早,如果将Allostaffia划为该目的成员[3])的南半球,包括南极洲。该类群为人所知的仅有数颗分离的牙齿,几片下颌骨,两块不完整的头骨和一块完整的头骨。[4]正是因为这种零碎的知识,其分类地位不甚清晰。

 
冈瓦那兽目
化石時期: 坎帕期-中新世, 70.6–17.5 Ma
(可能在侏罗纪出现)
Sudamerica属物种的下颌骨
Sudamerica属物种的下颌骨
科學分類
界: 动物界 Animalia
門: 脊索动物门 Chordata
亞門: 脊椎动物亚门 Vertebrata
綱: 哺乳纲 Mammalia
目: 冈瓦那兽目 Gondwanatheria

目录

分类关系编辑

 
Vintana sertichi的复原图。除头部外的身体部分为想象。

该类群分类关系的不明确持续了几十年,其最开始被认为是早期的异关节总目动物,一种“无齿”的哺乳动物,接近现代的食蚁兽。随后的多个不同研究认为它们属于异兽亚纲,接近多瘤齿兽目,甚至可能真正属于多瘤齿兽目,比Cimolodonta亚目更接近于Plagiaulacida亚目。[1][5][6][7]然而,一项最近的研究表明,它们与贼兽目有关,并将它们列入非哺乳动物的犬齿兽亚目[8]

冈瓦那兽目下有3个已知的科,其中Sudamericidae科由Scillato-Yané及Pascual于1984年命名,包含该类群的绝大多数部分。Ferugliotheriidae科由José Bonaparte于1986年命名, 包含Ferugliotherium一个属,而且可能包括诸如Trapalcotherium等其他类群。Groeberiidae科最开始被认为是Paucituberculate目的有袋类,之后因该科中Groeberia属经检验后被归入冈瓦那兽目,所以整个科也被归入冈瓦那兽目。[1]

 
冈瓦那兽目的进化分枝图,根据Chimento et al. 2015。

另有化石在印度马达加斯加南极被发现。一个可能为Ferugliotherium属物种的化石在墨西哥马斯特里赫特期地层中被发现,使得此类群的分布范围扩展到北美洲[9]

中新世(Colhuehuapian英语Colhuehuapian期)的属Patagonia是该类群已知年代最近的代表。[1]

生物学编辑

从头部骨骼化石得知,冈瓦那兽目动物普遍具有深长而强壮有力的口鼻部,这有利于它们营专一的植食性生活。GroeberiaVintana两个属都具有奇特的轭骨凸缘,这与诸如地懒异关节类相似;但这两个属的咀嚼方式与大多数异兽亚纲动物一样为后移式(由前向后),而这一点与几乎所有的兽亚纲动物都不同。[10][1]大多数冈瓦那兽目动物是专一的牧食生物,它们是最早专一于食草的哺乳动物,远早于兽亚纲动物(Groeberiidae科与Ferugliotheriidae科除外,因为它们缺乏高冠齿,其植食性可能更广泛)。

于梅法拉诺发现的具关节的样本,为研究者提供了有关这一类动物的非头部骨骼的深入信息。其中奇异而独特的特征包括:中间外侧扁平且前后弯曲的胫骨、具双滑车的距骨、发育完全的肱骨滑车,以及异常多的躯椎。这一新类群拥有19节与肋骨相连的脊椎(胸椎)和11节不与肋骨相连的脊椎(腰椎)。除了这些衍生特征之外,这种来自马达加斯加的哺乳动物还拥有镶嵌的胸带形态:其前乌喙骨缺失,乌喙骨高度发达(形成一个扩大的过程,占关节窝的一半),间锁骨小,而且胸锁关节似乎可活动。A ventrally facing glenoid and the well-developed humeral trochlea suggest a relatively parasagittal posture for the forelimbs. Remarkable features of the hind limb and pelvic girdle include a large obturator foramen similar in size to that of therians, a large parafibula, and the presence of an epipubic bone.[11]

分类学编辑

Order †Gondwanatheria[12][13] McKenna 1971 [Gondwanatheroidea Krause & Bonaparte 1993]

  • ?†Allostaffia [14]
  • Family †Groeberiidae Patterson, 1952
    • Groeberia minoprioi Ryan Patterson, 1952
    • Groeberia pattersoni G. G. Simpson, 1970
    •  ?†Klohnia charrieri Flynn & Wyss 1999
    •  ?†Klohnia major Goin et all 2010
    •  ?†Epiklohnia verticalis Goin et all 2010
    •  ?†Praedens aberrans Goin et all 2010
  • Family †Ferugliotheriidae Bonaparte 1986
    • Ferugliotherium windhauseni Bonaparte 1986a [Vucetichia Bonaparte 1990; Vucetichia gracilis Bonaparte 1990]
    • Trapalcotherium matuastensis Rougier et al. 2008
  • Family †Sudamericidae Scillato-Yané & Pascual 1984 [Gondwanatheridae Bonaparte 1986]
    • Greniodon sylvanicum Goin et al. 2012
    • Vintana sertichi Krause et al. 2014
    • Dakshina jederi Wilson, Das Sarama & Anantharaman 2007
    • Gondwanatherium patagonicum Bonaparte 1986
    • Sudamerica ameghinoi Scillato-Yané & Pascual 1984
    • Lavanify miolaka Krause et al. 1997
    • Bharattherium bonapartei Prasad et al. 2007
    • Patagonia peregrina Pascual & Carlini 1987
    • †TNM 02067

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Nicolás R. Chimento, Federico L. Agnolin and Fernando E. Novas. The bizarre ‘metatherians’ Groeberia and Patagonia, late surviving members of gondwanatherian mammals. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 2015, 27 (5): 603–623. doi:10.1080/08912963.2014.903945. 
  2. ^ Francisco J. Goin, Marcelo F. Tejedor, Laura Chornogubsky, Guillermo M. López, Javier N. Gelfo, Mariano Bond, Michael O. Woodburne, Yamila Gurovich, Marcelo Reguero. Persistence of a Mesozoic, non-therian mammalian lineage (Gondwanatheria) in the mid-Paleogene of Patagonia. Naturwissenschaften. 2012, 99 (6): 449–463. PMID 22584426. doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0919-z. 
  3. ^ Nicholas Chimento, Frederico Agnolin, Agustin Martinelli, Mesozoic Mammals from South America: Implications for understanding early mammalian faunas from Gondwana, May 2016
  4. ^ Kraus, David W. Vintana Sertichi (Mammalia, Gondwanatheria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. [Lincoln, NE]: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 2014: 1–2. 
  5. ^ Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B. O'Connor, Patrick M., Seiffert, Erik R., Dumont, Elizabeth R., Holloway, Waymon L., Rogers, Raymond R., Rahantarisoa, Lydia J., Kemp, Addison D., Andriamialison, Haingoson. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism. Nature (Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited). 2014-11-05, 515: 512–517. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..512K. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25383528. doi:10.1038/nature13922. 
  6. ^ Drake, Nadia. Fossil From Dinosaur Era Reveals Big Mammal With Super Senses. National Geographic Society. November 5, 2014 [November 5, 2014]. 
  7. ^ Wilford, John Noble. Fossil’s Unusual Size and Location Offer Clues in Evolution of Mammals. New York Times. November 5, 2014 [November 6, 2014]. 
  8. ^ Huttenlocker, Adam K.; rossnickle, David M.; Kirkland, Jam,es I.; Schultz, Julia A.; Luo, Zhe-Xi (23 May 2018). "Late-surviving stem mammal links the lowermost Cretaceous of North America and Gondwana". Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0126-y. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  9. ^ SVP 2015
  10. ^ Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B. (2014-11-05). O'Connor, Patrick M., Seiffert, Erik R., Dumont, Elizabeth R., Holloway, Waymon L., Rogers, Raymond R., Rahantarisoa, Lydia J., Kemp, Addison D., Andriamialison, Haingoson. "First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism". Nature. Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. online. doi:10.1038/nature13922. ISSN 1476-4687.
  11. ^ HOFFMANN, Simone, THE FIRST POSTCRANIAL REMAINS OF A GONDWANATHERIAN MAMMAL, October 2016
  12. ^ Mikko's Phylogeny Archive [1] Haaramo, Mikko. †Gondwanatheria – gondwanatheres. 2007 [30 December 2015]. 
  13. ^ Paleofile.com (net, info) Archived copy. [2015-12-30]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-11). . Taxonomic lists- Mammals. [30 December 2015]. 
  14. ^ Nicholas Chimento, Frederico Agnolin, Agustin Martinelli, Mesozoic Mammals from South America: Implications for understanding early mammalian faunas from Gondwana, May 2016

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