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冈瓦那兽目学名:Gondwanatheria,亦可称为冈瓦纳兽目)是哺乳动物中一个已经灭绝的目,生活在上白垩世中新世(而且可能更早,如果将Allostaffia划为该目的成员[3])的南半球,包括南极洲。该类群为人所知的仅有数颗分离的牙齿,几片下颌骨,两块不完整的头骨和一块完整的头骨。[4]正是因为这种零碎的知识,其分类地位不甚清晰。

 
冈瓦那兽目
化石時期: 坎帕期-中新世, 70.6–17.5 Ma
(可能在侏罗纪出现)
Sudamerica属物种的下颌骨
Sudamerica属物种的下颌骨
科學分類
界: 动物界 Animalia
門: 脊索动物门 Chordata
亞門: 脊椎动物亚门 Vertebrata
綱: 哺乳纲 Mammalia
目: 冈瓦那兽目 Gondwanatheria

分类关系编辑

 
Vintana sertichi的复原图。除头部外的身体部分为想象。

该类群分类关系的不明确持续了几十年,其最开始被认为是早期的异关节总目动物,一种“无齿”的哺乳动物,接近现代的食蚁兽。随后的多个不同研究认为它们属于异兽亚纲,接近多瘤齿兽目,甚至可能真正属于多瘤齿兽目,比Cimolodonta亚目更接近于Plagiaulacida亚目。[1][5][6][7]然而,一项最近的研究表明,它们与贼兽目有关,并将它们列入非哺乳动物的犬齿兽亚目[8]

冈瓦那兽目下有3个已知的科,其中Sudamericidae科由Scillato-Yané及Pascual于1984年命名,包含该类群的绝大多数部分。Ferugliotheriidae科由José Bonaparte于1986年命名, 包含Ferugliotherium一个属,而且可能包括诸如Trapalcotherium等其他类群。Groeberiidae科最开始被认为是Paucituberculate目的有袋类,之后因该科中Groeberia属经检验后被归入冈瓦那兽目,所以整个科也被归入冈瓦那兽目。[1]

 
冈瓦那兽目的进化分枝图,根据Chimento et al. 2015。

另有化石在印度马达加斯加南极被发现。一个可能为Ferugliotherium属物种的化石在墨西哥马斯特里赫特期地层中被发现,使得此类群的分布范围扩展到北美洲[9]

中新世(Colhuehuapian英语Colhuehuapian期)的属Patagonia是该类群已知年代最近的代表。[1]

生物学编辑

从头部骨骼化石得知,冈瓦那兽目动物普遍具有深长而强壮有力的口鼻部,这有利于它们营专一的植食性生活。GroeberiaVintana两个属都具有奇特的轭骨凸缘,这与诸如地懒异关节类相似;但这两个属的咀嚼方式与大多数异兽亚纲动物一样为后移式(由前向后),而这一点与几乎所有的兽亚纲动物都不同。[10][1]大多数冈瓦那兽目动物是专一的牧食生物,它们是最早专一于食草的哺乳动物,远早于兽亚纲动物(Groeberiidae科与Ferugliotheriidae科除外,因为它们缺乏高冠齿,其植食性可能更广泛)。

于梅法拉诺发现的具关节的样本,为研究者提供了有关这一类动物的非头部骨骼的深入信息。其中奇异而独特的特征包括:中间外侧扁平且前后弯曲的胫骨、具双滑车的距骨、发育完全的肱骨滑车,以及异常多的躯椎。这一新类群拥有19节与肋骨相连的脊椎(胸椎)和11节不与肋骨相连的脊椎(腰椎)。除了这些衍生特征之外,这种来自马达加斯加的哺乳动物还拥有镶嵌的胸带形态:其前乌喙骨缺失,乌喙骨高度发达(形成一个扩大的过程,占关节窝的一半),间锁骨小,而且胸锁关节似乎可活动。A ventrally facing glenoid and the well-developed humeral trochlea suggest a relatively parasagittal posture for the forelimbs. Remarkable features of the hind limb and pelvic girdle include a large obturator foramen similar in size to that of therians, a large parafibula, and the presence of an epipubic bone.[11]

分类学编辑

Order †Gondwanatheria[12][13] McKenna 1971 [Gondwanatheroidea Krause & Bonaparte 1993]

  • ?†Allostaffia [14]
  • Family †Groeberiidae Patterson, 1952
    • Groeberia minoprioi Ryan Patterson, 1952
    • Groeberia pattersoni G. G. Simpson, 1970
    •  ?†Klohnia charrieri Flynn & Wyss 1999
    •  ?†Klohnia major Goin et all 2010
    •  ?†Epiklohnia verticalis Goin et all 2010
    •  ?†Praedens aberrans Goin et all 2010
  • Family †Ferugliotheriidae Bonaparte 1986
    • Ferugliotherium windhauseni Bonaparte 1986a [Vucetichia Bonaparte 1990; Vucetichia gracilis Bonaparte 1990]
    • Trapalcotherium matuastensis Rougier et al. 2008
  • Family †Sudamericidae Scillato-Yané & Pascual 1984 [Gondwanatheridae Bonaparte 1986]
    • Greniodon sylvanicum Goin et al. 2012
    • Vintana sertichi Krause et al. 2014
    • Dakshina jederi Wilson, Das Sarama & Anantharaman 2007
    • Gondwanatherium patagonicum Bonaparte 1986
    • Sudamerica ameghinoi Scillato-Yané & Pascual 1984
    • Lavanify miolaka Krause et al. 1997
    • Bharattherium bonapartei Prasad et al. 2007
    • Patagonia peregrina Pascual & Carlini 1987
    • †TNM 02067

参考文献编辑

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Nicolás R. Chimento, Federico L. Agnolin and Fernando E. Novas. The bizarre ‘metatherians’ Groeberia and Patagonia, late surviving members of gondwanatherian mammals. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 2015, 27 (5): 603–623. doi:10.1080/08912963.2014.903945. 
  2. Francisco J. Goin, Marcelo F. Tejedor, Laura Chornogubsky, Guillermo M. López, Javier N. Gelfo, Mariano Bond, Michael O. Woodburne, Yamila Gurovich, Marcelo Reguero. Persistence of a Mesozoic, non-therian mammalian lineage (Gondwanatheria) in the mid-Paleogene of Patagonia. Naturwissenschaften. 2012, 99 (6): 449–463. PMID 22584426. doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0919-z. 
  3. Nicholas Chimento, Frederico Agnolin, Agustin Martinelli, Mesozoic Mammals from South America: Implications for understanding early mammalian faunas from Gondwana, May 2016
  4. Kraus, David W. Vintana Sertichi (Mammalia, Gondwanatheria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. [Lincoln, NE]: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 2014: 1–2. 
  5. Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B. O'Connor, Patrick M., Seiffert, Erik R., Dumont, Elizabeth R., Holloway, Waymon L., Rogers, Raymond R., Rahantarisoa, Lydia J., Kemp, Addison D., Andriamialison, Haingoson. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism. Nature (Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited). 2014-11-05, 515: 512–517. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..512K. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25383528. doi:10.1038/nature13922. 
  6. Drake, Nadia. Fossil From Dinosaur Era Reveals Big Mammal With Super Senses. National Geographic Society. November 5, 2014 [November 5, 2014]. 
  7. Wilford, John Noble. Fossil’s Unusual Size and Location Offer Clues in Evolution of Mammals. New York Times. November 5, 2014 [November 6, 2014]. 
  8. Huttenlocker, Adam K.; rossnickle, David M.; Kirkland, Jam,es I.; Schultz, Julia A.; Luo, Zhe-Xi (23 May 2018). "Late-surviving stem mammal links the lowermost Cretaceous of North America and Gondwana". Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0126-y. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  9. SVP 2015
  10. Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B. (2014-11-05). O'Connor, Patrick M., Seiffert, Erik R., Dumont, Elizabeth R., Holloway, Waymon L., Rogers, Raymond R., Rahantarisoa, Lydia J., Kemp, Addison D., Andriamialison, Haingoson. "First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism". Nature. Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. online. doi:10.1038/nature13922. ISSN 1476-4687.
  11. HOFFMANN, Simone, THE FIRST POSTCRANIAL REMAINS OF A GONDWANATHERIAN MAMMAL, October 2016
  12. Mikko's Phylogeny Archive [1] Haaramo, Mikko. †Gondwanatheria – gondwanatheres. 2007 [30 December 2015]. 
  13. Paleofile.com (net, info) Archived copy. [2015-12-30]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-11). . Taxonomic lists- Mammals. [30 December 2015]. 
  14. Nicholas Chimento, Frederico Agnolin, Agustin Martinelli, Mesozoic Mammals from South America: Implications for understanding early mammalian faunas from Gondwana, May 2016

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