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執政黨,是一個國家政府中獲得政權政黨,一般是國家元首政府首腦或地方行政長官所屬的政黨,或者是其他形式而掌握執政權的政黨。

标准的議會民主國家中,执政党是指实际控制立法行政权力的政党,政治下的执政权力一般限于国家治理,不是能真正掌握国家制度的权力,因为单一政党及其政治家无法代表绝对多数政治力量。民主國家的執政黨政治人物在担任国家及地方政府重要职务时,擁有依法組織政府和制定政策的权力,同时执政党負起政治責任,以維護執政權,否則會在下次選舉中成為在野黨甚至丧失国家层面的政治活动地位。在政党轮替中與執政黨相反的是在野黨,即在国家机关中拥有席位,有政治地位的政党,或反對黨,即广义上反对执政党的政党。

總統制编辑

總統制的國家,則以總統所屬的政黨作為執政黨,總統兼任國家元首和政府首腦。如美國墨西哥巴西阿根廷智利哥倫比亞菲律賓南韓。執政黨在議會未必是多數黨,或擁有佔多數的執政聯盟,擁有行政权力,属行政主導。政治較為穩定,總統受到任期保障,除非犯下嚴重罪行,否則難以被趕下台,而民主國家的議會擁有彈劾總統的權力。

实行总统制的国家编辑

实行总统制的政权,多集中在拉丁美洲非洲中亞,总统制以美國為代表。

实行总统制但总理为超级部长的国家编辑

实行总统制但設最高領袖的國家编辑

实行总统制的未被普遍承认的国家编辑

半總統制编辑

半總統制又稱雙首長制的國家,擁有行政权的總統和领導內閣的總理共同行使政治权力,總統与總理並非一定屬同一政党,但總理的权力一般是基于其政党在議會是否維持多数,如:中華民國。而中華民國設置總統卻不設總理,取而代之的是行政院院長,且總統行政院長通常同屬一個政黨,另依據中華民國憲法第55條規定:行政院院長,由總統提名,經立法院同意任命之。後中華民國憲法增修條文第三條改由行政院院長由總統直接任命之。

總統優勢制编辑

總統擁有最高的行政權力,可以不經國會同意,逕行任免總理(多為同一政黨),再由總理組成內閣。所以閣揆必須受總統領導。閣揆由總統任命、免除、替換,也不須徵詢國會的意見,閣揆惟有代表政府,接受國會的質詢,其職位更類似於一個超級部長。國會可以行使倒閣權,但總統通常也有權解散國會。實行國家如下:

雙軌制编辑

總統提名總理和內閣須咨询国会、得到國會的同意或依慣例任命議會最大黨主席為總理,內閣與總統互不隸屬,當兩者分屬不同政黨時總統將喪失部份或全部權力。只有國會有權撤換總理和內閣,但總統有權解散國會。實行國家如下:

內閣制编辑

內閣制君主立憲制國家的政府需要經公民直接選舉國會議員,再由國會多數黨作為執政黨。現時行兩院制的國家,多數會以下議院多數,作為執政基礎,政府亦需要獲下議院的多數才能繼續執政。

若有一黨贏得國會下議院過半數席次並自行組閣,該黨即為執政黨,如英國日本;若無任一政黨席次過半,則各參與聯合政府的政黨皆為執政黨,如德國意大利;若数个政党组成联盟的国家内,赢得最多议席的政党占据了主导优势,如马来西亚

完整的议会共和制度编辑

混合的议会共和制度编辑

具有礼仪/非执行君主的议会制君主立宪制编辑

君主掌握实权的议会制君主立宪制国家编辑

混合制编辑

也因实行總統內閣制,總統由议会選出,但握有实际行政权力,如緬甸聯邦共和國南非共和國博茨瓦納共和國

混合制的總統、议会共和制度编辑

君主獨裁编辑

君主專制獨裁國家,政權為君主絕對掌控,如沙烏地阿拉伯阿曼。這些國家政權不會有政黨存在。

君主掌握实权的君主獨裁制国家编辑

共和獨裁编辑

一黨獨大一黨執政的國家,只有一個具支配地位的合法執政黨,反對黨長期處於在野地位且无机会執政,部分國家不允許具競爭性的政黨存在,如俄羅斯白俄羅斯亞塞拜然土耳其敘利亞葉門新加坡土庫曼斯坦烏茲別克斯坦哈薩克斯坦辛巴威蘇丹厄利垂亞赤道幾內亞坦桑尼亞莫三比克等。

共和國最高領導人掌握实权的共和獨裁制国家编辑

一黨專政國家编辑

共產黨执政的国家,该国共产党常常是唯一合法的执政党,只不過有時也允许存在一些其他卫星党參政,卻不能取得执政地位,屬政治花瓶,如朝鮮中華人民共和國越南古巴老撾

現存的一黨專政制度的國家编辑

参見编辑

备注编辑

  1. ^ In France, the President chooses but cannot dismiss the Prime Minister, but the National Assembly can remove the Prime Minister from office with a vote of no confidence. The president can also dissolve the National Assembly once.
  2. ^ Following the 19th amendment, Sri Lankan president can only appoint the prime minister following vacating of the position due to loss of confidence of Parliament, death or resignation. And does not hold the power to dismiss the prime minister at will.

注释编辑

  1. ^ (in Armenian) «Մտադիր եմ շարունակել ծառայել հայրենիքին». Արցախի վարչապետի պաշտոնակատար 1in.am, 13 September 2017
  2. ^ Referendum to create 'Republic of Artsakh' on Europe's fringe EU Observer, 20 February 2017
  3. ^ Kudelia, Serhiy. Presidential activism and government termination in dual-executive Ukraine. Post-Soviet Affairs. 4 May 2018, 34 (4): 246–261. doi:10.1080/1060586X.2018.1465251. 
  4. ^ In Bangladesh, a caretaker government during parliamentary elections. The Caretaker government is headed by a Chief Adviser and a group of neutral, non-partisan advisers chosen from the civil society. During this time, the president has jurisdiction over the defence and foreign affairs ministries.
  5. ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  6. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University, who in his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko. From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland. Scandinavian Political Studies. June 2001, 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048.  as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the President has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and substantially has not the power to disband the parliament under its own desire. Finland is actually represented by its Prime Minister, and not by its President, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the President even further.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament but does not hold a parliamentary seat, and is immune from a vote of no confidence (as well is their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  9. ^ Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino (PDF). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri: 5. July 2012 (意大利语). 
  10. ^ The Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who are have their interests known through a representative.
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General (GG) to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister (PM) is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".

    In many cases, the Governor-General or monarch has a lot more theoretical, or constitutional, powers than they actually exercise, except on the advice of elected officials, per constitutional convention. For example, the Constitution of Australia makes the GG the head of the executive branch (including commander-in-chief of the armed forces), although they seldom ever use this power, except on the advice of elected officials, especially the PM, which makes the PM the de facto head of government.
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  13. ^ Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino (PDF). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri: 5. July 2012 (意大利语). 


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