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尼姆爾·巴克爾·尼姆爾(阿拉伯语:نمر باقر النمر[1];1959年-2016年1月2日),通常被稱為謝赫尼姆爾,曾是一名於沙地阿拉伯東部省阿瓦米亚市英语Al-Awamiyah伊斯蘭教什葉派謝赫[4]。他批評沙地阿拉伯政府英语Politics of Saudi Arabia[1],受年輕人支持[1][5],向政府要求在沙地阿拉伯舉行自由選舉英语elections in Saudi Arabia[6]。他聲稱在2006年被捕期間被沙地秘密警察英语Mabahith毆打[1]。2009年,他批評沙地政府,並建議如果不改善被歧視的沙地什葉派教徒英语Shia Islam in Saudi Arabia的待遇[2][4],東部省便應該獨立[7]。此導致政府對他發出通輯令,最後他和另外35人被拘捕[2][8]。在2011-2012年沙地阿拉伯騷亂英语2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests期間,尼姆爾呼籲示威者以「語言的轟鳴」而不用暴力抵抗警察[9][10],以及預測如果政府的打壓持續,沙地的機關將會被推翻[3]。因此,他被《衛報》視為「在起義中持領導角色」[5]

尼姆爾·巴克爾·尼姆爾
  • نمر باقر النمر
  • نمر باقر آل نمر
頭銜 謝赫
个人资料
出生 1959年6月21日
逝世 2016年1月2日(2016-01-02)(56歲)
宗教信仰 伊斯蘭教[1]
國籍 沙地阿拉伯
學校 什葉派十二伊瑪目派
教派 穆罕默德·侯賽尼·設拉子
穆罕默德·塔基英语Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi[1]
母校 伊朗庫姆神學院叙利亚[1]
高級職位
网站 www.sknemer.com

2012年7月8日尼姆爾在警察形容為「交火」後腿部中槍被捕[11][12]。數千人因此有數次的示威[12][13],而其中兩人Akbar al-Shakhouri和Mohamed al-Felfel被警察的槍火擊斃[14]。尼姆爾開始絕食,身上有被施以酷刑後的痕跡[14][15][16]。Asharq人權中心在8月21日對尼姆爾在絕食期間的健康表示關注,呼籲國際的支持及要求允許家人、律師及人權活動人士見尼姆爾[17]

2014年10月15日,尼姆爾被特別刑事法庭英语Specialized Criminal Court因「尋求『外國干涉』沙地阿拉伯、『不服從』領導人及武裝對付安全部隊」被處死[18],而他的兄弟穆罕默德·尼姆爾由於在當天於Twitter發佈關於該死刑的資訊被捕[18][19]。尼姆爾·巴克爾·尼姆爾在2016年1月2日前不久和另外46人一同被處決[20]。他的處決在中東被什葉派信徒以及什葉派國家伊朗譴責,此外亦被反對宗派主義的遜尼派信徒和西方人物譴責。沙地阿拉伯政府並無把他的遺體歸還予家屬,指機關已把所有屍體埋葬。

目录

處死编辑

2016年1月2日,沙地阿拉伯內政部宣佈當天被處決的47人中有尼姆爾[20][21]

街頭示威编辑

在行刑後已有數次示威。在沙地阿拉伯東部省中的蓋提夫地區,人們由尼姆爾家鄉al-Awamiyah英语al-Awamiyah遊行至蓋提夫,高叫「打倒沙地(王朝)」口號[22]。1月2日在處決同一天,示威者在伊朗首都德黑蘭的沙地阿拉伯大使館聚集,其中一人對使館投擲自製燃燒彈後著火,示威在當地清晨3時後仍然繼續[23]。伊朗警察以襲擊大使館為由拘捕當中40名示威者[24][25][26]

數百人在巴林首都麥納瑪舉行示威[27]。帶著謝赫尼姆爾的畫像的示威者於巴林村落Abu-Saiba英语Abu-Saiba與警察發生衝突[28]。另外數百人於巴林al-Daih英语al-DaihSitra英语Sitra遊行,高叫反對沙地阿拉伯統治沙特王朝家族和巴林統治遜尼派家族的標語,並叫尼姆爾「我們的烈士」[29]

數百名群眾闖入仍未工式開啟的沙地阿拉伯駐伊拉克大使館[30],媒體亦公開了一段沙地阿拉伯巴格達伊館被火箭炮攻擊的片段[31]

群眾在印度查謨-克什米爾邦首府斯利那加高舉反沙地橫額示威。示威者遊行往聯合國辦公室,被警察截停。類似的示威於卡基爾縣亦有舉行,宗教團體呼籲舉行為期3日的哀悼[32]

2016年1月5日,印度拉達克有來自列城卡爾吉爾佛教基督教伊斯蘭教(遜尼及什葉派)團體舉行了燭光集會,表示對人權活動的支持及反對處決尼姆爾[33]

其它一些地方也发生了和平示威,如伊朗聖地庫姆馬什哈德黎巴嫩巴基斯坦土耳其

宗教及政治人物之反應编辑

有關各方
  •   沙烏地阿拉伯
    • 謝赫尼姆爾的兄弟穆罕默德·尼姆爾指出,處決执行後,在沙地境內的民主運動只會更大[34]。他形容他兄弟為「謙卑、宗教且生活簡樸的人,这使他對很多年輕人而言有吸引力」,还说處決尼姆爾「會引發(什葉派)青年的憤怒」,但指他希望所有反應行動都和平進行[35]
    • 沙地阿拉伯认为伊朗在處決执行後发表了「敵對」言論,于是傳召伊朗駐利雅得大使[36]
    • 沙地阿拉伯以駐伊朗大使館被抗議處決的示威者闖入并縱火為由,與伊朗斷交[37]
跨國家機構
其他國家
非政府組織
  • 人權觀察指處決是「繼續玷污沙地阿拉伯不良的人權紀錄」。該組織中東主任莎拉·莉婭·惠特森英语Sarah Leah Whitson指尼姆爾是在不公平審訊中被定罪,且處決他「只會增加現時的教派不和及動盪」[35],还称「沙地阿拉伯東部省走向穩定的道路在於結束對什葉派公民的歧視,而並非處決」[36]
  • 國際特赦組織指对謝赫尼姆爾的審訊是政治審訊,十分不公平,而且處決只是用於完成政治目的[73][74]

參見编辑

參考資料编辑

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外部連結编辑