- ^ Some references say he first described the response in 1914 in The American Journal of Physiology. Others in the 1915 edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Other sources say that he first used the term in 1929 or in 1932 edition of the same book. The issue needs further research.
- ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1929.
- ^ H.S.Bracha; Ralston, TC; Matsukawa, JM; Williams, AE; Bracha, AS. Does "Fight or Flight" Need Updating?. Psychosomatics. 2004, 45 (5): 448–9 [2010-10-04]. PMID 15345792. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.45.5.448.
Walter Cannon's original formulation of the term for the human response to threat, 'fight or flight,' was coined exactly 75 years ago, in 1929.
- ^ Shelley Elizabeth Taylor, LC Klein, BP Lewis. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight (PDF). Psychological Review. [2010-10-04].
First described by Walter Cannon in 1932, the fight-or-flight response is characterized physiologically by sympathetic nervous system activation that innervates the adrenal medulla, producing a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially ...
- ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1915.