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战斗或逃跑反应

生理学应激反应
貓狗對侍的反應

战斗或逃跑反应英文Fight-or-flight response),心理学,生理学名词,为1929年美国生理学家怀特·坎农Walter Cannon)所创建[1][2][3],其发现机体经一系列的神经和腺体反应将被引发应激,使躯体做好防御、挣扎或者逃跑的准备。不同的荷爾蒙雌激素睾酮皮質醇都影響人們如何對壓力作反應。[4]

概述编辑

这种应激反应的中心位于丘脑下部,包括了许多种情绪反应。丘脑下部有时被视作应激中心,因为其在紧急事件中具备双重功能:对于自主神经系统(ANS)的控制,以及对垂体腺的控制[5]

两性在“战斗或逃跑反应”中表现有差异:较之女性,男性更倾向于“战斗”反应;较之男性,女性更倾向于“逃跑”反应,或寻求他人帮助,或化解当前危险——“结盟与友好”。尤其是身为母亲的女性,面临紧张情况时,会尤其倾向于保护自己的子女并寻求他人帮助。[6]

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ harvardsquarelibrary: W. B. Cannon Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement, Appleton, New York, 1915 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2010-03-16.
  2. ^ Cannon, Walter. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton. 1929. 
  3. ^ Bracha, H.S. et. al. (2004). Does "Fight or Flight" Need Updating? in Psychosomatics, 45:448-449, October 2004.[永久失效連結]
  4. ^ Adrenaline, Cortisol, Norepinephrine: The Three Major Stress Hormones, Explained. Hufflington Post. April 19, 2014 [16 August 2014]. 
  5. ^ 《心理学与生活》(Psychology and life),Richard Gerrig / Philip Zimbardo,ISBN 9787115111302,人民邮电出版社,2003-10,P363
  6. ^ Shelley Elizabeth Taylor, LC Klein, BP Lewis. "Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight". Psychological Review. Retrieved 2010-10-04. "First described by Walter Cannon in 1932, the fight-or-flight response is characterized physiologically by sympathetic nervous system activation that innervates the adrenal medulla, producing a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially ..."