民族宗教

和特定民族相关联的宗教

民族宗教宗教学中是指和特定民族相关的宗教信仰,例如犹太人信仰的犹太教[2][3]伊朗人信仰的祆教印度人信仰的印度教[4]旁遮普人锡克教[5] [6][7][6]日本人信仰的神道[1]凯尔特人信仰的凯尔特宗教英语ancient Celtic religion古希腊人希腊宗教等。

日本京都伏見稻荷大社的祭坛。神道信仰被视为日本人的民族宗教[1]

民族宗教的概念和“普世宗教”相对,即不受民族身份限制的宗教,如基督宗教伊斯兰教佛教[8]

用途编辑

民族宗教和特定的民族相关联,常常是民族身份认同的一部分,起到维系群体凝聚力的作用[9]。除了犹太教、祆教、印度教、凯尔特宗教、希腊宗教,民族宗教的例子还有伊斯兰教的德鲁兹教[10][11]阿拉维派阿列维派曼达安教[12]:4雅兹迪[13]中国汉人民间信仰[14]爪哇族克贾文英语Kejawèn卡皮塔扬英语Kapitayan信仰、巽他族维维坦英语Sunda Wiwitan信仰;塞雷尔人塞雷尔宗教英语Serer religion[15][16]。作为普世宗教的基督教也可能成为民族身份认同的元素,例如亚述人叙利亚基督教信仰[17][18]

流散的族群常常将信仰民族宗教作为维持族群认同的方式。美洲的非洲裔族群就有维持非洲传统宗教的现象[19]

近年来新异教主义兴起,欧洲一些已经消亡的多神教信仰得到一定程度复苏[20],常以“民族宗教”的概念出现[21],而非此前惯用的“异教”(pagan)。北美也有“天然宗教英语nature religion”的近义概念[22]

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Hardacre 2017,第4頁.
  2. ^   此條目包含現處於公共領域的出版物中的內容:Kohler, Kaufmann英语Kaufmann Kohler. Judaism. Singer, Isidore; 等 (编). 犹太百科全书. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 1901–1906. 
  3. ^ Jacobs 2007,第511 quote: "Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews."頁.
  4. ^ Park, Chris C. Sacred Worlds: An Introduction to Geography and Religion. Routledge. 1994: 38 [2021-05-09]. ISBN 9780415090124. 
  5. ^ Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh. Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B. Tauris. 2011-02-22: 61–. ISBN 978-0-85773-549-2. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Jones, Kenneth W. Religious Controversy in British India: Dialogues in South Asian Languages. SUNY Press. 1992-01-03. ISBN 978-0-7914-0828-5 (英语). 
  7. ^ Ramaswamy, Sumathi. Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970. University of California Press. 1997-11-20. ISBN 978-0-520-20805-6 (英语). 
  8. ^ Hinnells, John R. The Routledge companion to the study of religion. Routledge. 2005: 439–440 [2009-09-17]. ISBN 0-415-33311-3. 
  9. ^ Ruane, Joseph B.; Todd, Jennifer (编). Ethnicity and Religion: Intersections and Comparisons. London: Routledge. 2011. ISBN 978-1-138-88037-5. 
  10. ^ Chatty, Dawn. Displacement and Dispossession in the Modern Middle East. Cambridge University Press. 2010-03-15. ISBN 978-0-521-81792-9. 
  11. ^ Simon Harrison. Fracturing Resemblances: Identity and Mimetic Conflict in Melanesia and the West. Berghahn Books. 2006: 121–. ISBN 978-1-57181-680-1. 
  12. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen, The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people (PDF), Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 9780195153859 
  13. ^ Nelida Fuccaro. The Other Kurds: Yazidis in Colonial Iraq. London & New York: I. B. Tauris. 1999: 9. ISBN 1860641709. 
  14. ^ Shi Hu, “Religion and Philosophy in Chinese History” (Shanghai: China Institute of Pacific Relations, 1931), reprinted in Hu, Shih. English Writings of Hu Shih: Chinese Philosophy and Intellectual History. China Academic Library 2. Springer Science & Business Media. 2013. ISBN 978-3642311819. 
  15. ^ Olson, James Stuart. The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood. 1996: 516. ISBN 978-0313279188. 
  16. ^ Westermann, Diedrich英语Diedrich Hermann Westermann; Smith, Edwin William; Forde, Cyril Daryll; International African Institute; International Institute of African Languages and Cultures英语International Institute of African Languages and Cultures; Project Muse英语Project Muse; JSTOR (Organization), Africa: journal of the International African Institute, Volume 63, pp 86-96, 270-1, Edinburgh University Press英语Edinburgh University Press for the International African Institute (1993)
  17. ^ Winkler 2019,第119–133頁.
  18. ^ Hunter 2019,第783–796頁.
  19. ^ Oduah, Chika. Are blacks abandoning Christianity for African faiths?. theGrio. 2011-10-19 [2016-05-27]. 
  20. ^ Lewis, James R. The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0-195-36964-9. 
  21. ^ Strmiska, 2005 p. 14
  22. ^ Strmiska, Michael F. Modern Paganism in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives. ABC-CLIO英语ABC-CLIO. 2005: 15–16, 276. ISBN 9781851096084.