民族宗教群体

有着共同宗教信仰的民族群体

民族宗教群体族教群体,是指有着共同宗教信仰背景、依照共同宗教而联系起来的的民族群体。从相同的宗教信仰出发,民族宗教群体亦有着共同的文化传统,相信自身有共同祖先[1][2]

身着传统服装的雅兹迪女子

Swierenga 1990给出了“民族宗教群体”(ethnoreligious group)的三大特征:社会特征英语Social character、历史经历、神学信仰[3]。民族宗教群体在传统上也往往实行着严格的内婚制[4]

定义编辑

总体来说,民族宗教群体的身份认同既来自于祖先血缘,也来自于宗教联系,二者通常缺一不可。民族宗教群体有着共同的历史和文化传统,这种传统亦可划入宗教范畴。在很多情况下,民族宗教群体可视同有着共同民族宗教的民族文化群体(ethno-cultural group);或者说,民族宗教群体是有着严格内婚制、以共同信仰联系起来的,并依此发展出共同文化和血缘联系的群体[5][6]

一些民族宗教群体在某些地区属于少数群体,其认同感在维持其少数群体地位的过程中有所加强。如果其宗教信仰和某些特定地区有所关联,那么民族宗教群体亦可以和族裔民族主义联系起来[7]

举例编辑

民族宗教群体 宗教民族 混合群体

犹太人编辑

在成为巴比伦囚虏之前,以色列人已经是民族宗教群体,可能在何西亚的时代以前就已经发展成熟[35]

19世纪以来,犹太教改革派的某些神学信条和传统犹太教相比有了变化;不过近年来改革派又重新恢复了一些传统习俗。20世纪末以来,改革派在美国犹太人群体中成为主流。美国犹太人的跨族婚姻现象越来越多,试图令配偶皈依的现象随之增多,这是传统犹太教极不提倡的行为[36]。如果一名实行跨族婚姻的犹太人的妻子没有皈依,改革派会认同父系祖先血脉(传统犹太教认同母系血脉)。而且,改革派认定跨族婚生的犹太人子女的方式是借由行为的,即“通过合适且及时的、公开正式的认同犹太信仰和犹太身份的行为[37]”。这令部分犹太人已经不符合“民族宗教群体”之定义。

自20世纪60年代以来,随着锡安主义的胜利,以色列的国族认同和犹太人认同联系起来[38][39]。近年来,有反锡安主义者提出许多理论,试图证明当代犹太人是皈依者的后裔,主张锡安主义仅是一种现代的非理性种族主义[40],从而否认现代以色列人的民族宗教群体身份。

法律概念编辑

澳大利亚编辑

澳大利亚法律中,新南威尔士州1977年反歧视法案英语Anti-Discrimination Act 1977提及的“种族”(race)概念中,包含“民族、民族宗教或国族起源”的定义[41],其中“民族宗教”(ethno-religious)是1994年修正案中增补的[42]。时任新南威尔士州司法部长约翰·汉纳福德(John Hannaford)解释称:“这是为了将犹太人、穆斯林和锡克教徒纳入反诽谤和歧视条款的保护范畴中……这次延伸不涉及宗教范畴的歧视[26][27]。”

塔斯马尼亚州的1998年反歧视法案的种族定义和新南威尔士州相同,亦包含民族宗教群体[43]。这一法案同时也针对宗教领域的歧视[44]

英国编辑

在英国有一桩标志性的法律案例“曼德拉诉道尔-李案英语Mandla v Dowell-Lee”,为有着宗教联系的族群给出了法律定义[45]。犹太人[28][29][30]和锡克人[46][47][48]都在1994年反歧视法案修正案中以民族宗教群体的身份被纳入保护范畴[47]

1994年反歧视法案修正案参考曼德拉诉道尔-李案,将民族(ethnic group)定义为:

  1. 有着悠久的共同历史的群体,足以将这一群体和其他群体区分开来,令群体延续至今;
  2. 有着自身文化传统的群体,包括家庭和社会习俗,经常但不一定和宗教有关;除了以上两点重要特征外,以下特征互相关联:
  3. 有相同的地理来源,或有着共同祖先的;
  4. 有着共同语言的,并不一定是该群体特有;
  5. 有着特有的文学文献的;
  6. 和周围其他群体不同的共同的宗教信仰;
  7. 在较大群体中充当少数群体,或是被压迫或主导性群体的,例如被征服的群体以及征服他们的群体是不同的民族。

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

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  3. ^ Greer, Joanne Marie; Moberg, David O.; Lynn, Monty L. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion. BRILL. 2001-04-01: 45. ISBN 978-1-55938-893-1 (英语). Historically, each ethnoreligious group had its own social character, historical experience and theological beliefs. (Robert P. Swierenga 1990, p. 149) 
  4. ^ Asatrian, Garnik S.; Arakelova, Victoria. The Religion of the Peacock Angel: The Yezidis and Their Spirit World. Routledge. 2014-09-03. ISBN 978-1-317-54428-9 (英语). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Yang and Ebaugh, p.369: "Andrew Greeley (1971) identified three types of relationships in the United States: some religious people who do not hold an ethnic identity; some people who have an ethnic identity but are not religious; and cases in which religion and ethnicity are intertwined. Phillip Hammond and Kee Warner (1993), following Harold J. Abramson (1973), further explicated the “intertwining relationships” into a typology. First is “ethnic fusion,” where religion is the foundation of ethnicity, or, ethnicity equals religion, such as in the case of the Amish and Jews. The second pattern is that of “ethnic religion,” where religion is one of several foundations of ethnicity. The Greek or Russian Orthodox and the Dutch Reformed are examples of this type. In this pattern, ethnic identification can be claimed without claiming the religious identification but the reverse is rare. The third form, “religious ethnicity,” occurs where an ethnic group is linked to a religious tradition that is shared by other ethnic groups. The Irish, Italian, and Polish Catholics are such cases. In this pattern, religious identification can be claimed without claiming ethnic identification. Hammond and Warner also suggest that the relationship of religion and ethnicity is strongest in “ethnic fusion” and least strong in “religious ethnicity.” Recently, some scholars have argued that even Jews’ religion and culture (ethnicity) can be distinguished from each other and are separable (Chervyakov, Gitelman, and Shapiro 1997; Gans 1994)."
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Hammond and Warner, p.59: "1. Religion is the major foundation of ethnicity, examples include the Amish, Hutterites, Jews, and Mormons. Ethnicity in this pattern, so to speak, equals religion, and if the religious identity is denied, so is the ethnic identity. [Footnote: In actuality, of course, there can be exceptions, as the labels "jack Mormon," "banned Amish," or "cultural Jew" suggest.] Let us call this pattern "ethnic fusion."
    2. Religion may be one of several foundations of ethnicity, the others commonly being language and territorial origin; examples are the Greek or Russian Orthodox and the Dutch Reformed. Ethnicity in this pattern extends beyond religion in the sense that ethnic identification can be claimed without claiming the religious identification, but the reverse is rare. Let us call this pattern "ethnic religion."
    3. An ethnic group may be linked to a religious tradition, but other ethnic groups will be linked to it, too. Examples include Irish, Italian, and Polish Catholics; Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish Lutherans. Religion in this pattern extends beyond ethnicity, reversing the previous pattern, and religious identification can be claimed without claiming the ethnic identification. Let us call this pattern "religious ethnicity""
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书目编辑