- For instance, Wayne Hudson in Historicizing Suffering, Chapters, Springer, 2012) : "According to the standard account suffering is a universal human experience described as a negative basic feeling or emotion that involves a subjective character of unpleasantness, aversion, harm or threat of harm to body or mind (Spelman 1997; Cassell 1991)."
- Examples of physical suffering: pain of various types, excessive heat, excessive cold, itching, hunger, thirst, nausea, air hunger, sleep deprivation. IASP Pain Terminology. [September 11, 2008]. （原始内容存档于September 26, 2008）.UAB – School of Medicine – Center for Palliative and Supportive Care. [2008-09-11]. （原始内容存档于2007-10-28）. Other examples are given by L. W. Sumner, on p. 103 of Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics （页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆）: "Think for a moment of the many physical symptoms which, when persistent, can make our lives miserable: nausea, hiccups, sneezing, dizziness, disorientation, loss of balance, itching, 'pins and needles', 'restless legs', tics, twitching, fatigue, difficulty in breathing, and so on."
- Mental suffering can also be called psychological or emotional (see Psychological pain). Examples of mental suffering: depression (mood) / hopelessness, grief, sadness / loneliness / heartbreak, disgust, irritation, anger, jealousy, envy, craving or yearning, frustration, anguish, angst, fear, anxiety / panic, shame / guilt, regret, embarrassment / humiliation, restlessness.
- Eggerman, Panter Brick, Mark, Catherine. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: Resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan. Social Science & Medicine. 2010, 71 (1): 71–83. . PMID 20452111. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.03.023.