科学领域中的女性

(重定向自科學領域中的女性

早在人類有書寫歷史之前,女性就在科學領域留下重大貢獻;研究性別與科學間關係的歷史學家已將女性在科學上投注的努力與成就、面臨的阻礙,所運用的策略化為文字,讓她們的貢獻成果能登上主流科學雜誌及其他出版品並且廣獲認可。此類議題的歷史、評論和社會學研究本身,如今已經獨立成為一門學科。

在早期的文明中,已留有女性投身醫學領域的紀錄,古希臘自然哲學也對女性廣開研究的大門。西元 1-2 世紀左右,就有記錄闡述女性在原始科學英语protoscience煉金術的表現,中世紀修道院是女性受教育的重要地點,有些修道院無形中也提供了機會,讓女性為學術做出研究與貢獻。11 世紀,最早的大學問世之初,大部分的女性並不待見進入大學之門[1];只有義大利的醫學領域對女性受教育的態度較其他地方更為自由,而首位在站上科學研究領域教壇的女性,正是 18 世紀的義大利科學家蘿拉·巴斯

雖然所謂的性別角色定義泰半是形成於 18 世紀後,但女性在科學領域的角色卻已經歷了飛躍性的進步。19 世紀,雖然女性仍被排除在大多數正規的科學教育之外,但與此同時,女性已漸漸躋身學術社會。19 世紀後期女子大學興起,提供了女性受教權與科學領域職業的機會。1903 年,瑪麗·居禮成為首位諾貝爾獎(物理學)的女性獲獎人,1911 年,瑪麗再度獲得諾貝爾(化學)獎,二者都是基於她在輻射研究上的重大貢獻而頒發。1901-2010年有 40 位女性獲得諾貝爾獎,其中 17 位是物理學化學生理學或醫學等科學領域貢獻而獲獎。[2]

17 世紀以前编辑

  • 梅里特·普塔英语Merit Ptah,活躍時期約為西元前 27 世紀,是當時古埃及的主治醫師[3],也是人類史上最早的女醫師。[4][5]
  • 希帕提婭,活躍時期約為西元 400 年左右,是希臘化古埃及的希臘哲學家、天文學家數學家[6],公認為首位名留青史的女性數學家。[7]
  • 薩萊諾的特洛塔(Trota of Salerno)、Trotula de Ruggiero (名字的其他拼寫方式為 Trotula、Trotta、 Trocta 或 Troctula),活躍時期約為西元 11 世紀,義大利的沙列諾醫校(現為沙列諾大學英语University of Salerno)女醫師,著有《女性疾病(De passionibus mulierum curandarum, Trotula Major)》,詳細介紹了女性懷孕、生產、產後護理及新生兒的照護等資訊,此書在 15 世紀成為廣泛採用的教科書。[8]
  • 赫德嘉·馮·賓根(德語:Hildegard von Bingen,天主教譯名為聖賀德佳, 聖公會譯名為聖希爾德格,1098年-1179年9月17日),德國的博學家,活躍於西元 11 世紀中,在醫學及藥草學上貢獻卓越,被視為德國藥草學之祖。[9]
  • 瑪麗亞·西碧拉·梅里安,又譯瑪麗亞·西比拉·梅里安(德語:Maria Sibylla Merian,1647年4月2日-1717年1月3日),生於德國的瑞士博物學家和科學插畫家,專司研究植物和昆蟲並進行詳細的描繪記錄,1705年發表《蘇利南的昆蟲變態》(Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium)。基於她對蝴蝶變態及發育的細心觀察與筆記,被譽為是昆蟲學早期最重要的貢獻者之一。[10]

18 世紀编辑

19 世紀编辑

20 世紀编辑

21世紀编辑

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