雅可比多项式

定义

${\displaystyle P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(z)={\frac {(\alpha +1)_{n}}{n!}}\,_{2}F_{1}\left(-n,1+\alpha +\beta +n;\alpha +1;{\frac {1-z}{2}}\right),}$

${\displaystyle P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(z)={\frac {\Gamma (\alpha +n+1)}{n!\,\Gamma (\alpha +\beta +n+1)}}\sum _{m=0}^{n}{n \choose m}{\frac {\Gamma (\alpha +\beta +n+m+1)}{\Gamma (\alpha +m+1)}}\left({\frac {z-1}{2}}\right)^{m},}$

z等于1的时候，上式中的无穷级数只有第一项非零，这时得到：

${\displaystyle P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(1)={n+\alpha \choose n}.}$

${\displaystyle {z \choose n}={\frac {\Gamma (z+1)}{\Gamma (n+1)\Gamma (z-n+1)}},}$

${\displaystyle \Gamma (z)\,}$ 是通常定义的伽马函数，其中约定，当整数n为小于零的时候：

${\displaystyle {z \choose n}=0}$

${\displaystyle \int _{-1}^{1}(1-x)^{\alpha }(1+x)^{\beta }P_{m}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(x)P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(x)\;dx={\frac {2^{\alpha +\beta +1}}{2n+\alpha +\beta +1}}{\frac {\Gamma (n+\alpha +1)\Gamma (n+\beta +1)}{\Gamma (n+\alpha +\beta +1)n!}}\delta _{nm}}$

${\displaystyle P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(-z)=(-1)^{n}P_{n}^{(\beta ,\alpha )}(z);}$

${\displaystyle P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(-1)=(-1)^{n}{n+\beta \choose n}.}$

${\displaystyle P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(x)=\sum _{s}{n+\alpha \choose s}{n+\beta \choose n-s}\left({\frac {x-1}{2}}\right)^{n-s}\left({\frac {x+1}{2}}\right)^{s}}$

${\displaystyle P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(x)=(n+\alpha )!(n+\beta )!\sum _{s}\left[s!(n+\alpha -s)!(\beta +s)!(n-s)!\right]^{-1}\left({\frac {x-1}{2}}\right)^{n-s}\left({\frac {x+1}{2}}\right)^{s}.}$

${\displaystyle d_{m'm}^{j}(\phi )=\left[{\frac {(j+m)!(j-m)!}{(j+m')!(j-m')!}}\right]^{1/2}\left(\sin {\frac {\phi }{2}}\right)^{m-m'}\left(\cos {\frac {\phi }{2}}\right)^{m+m'}P_{j-m}^{(m-m',m+m')}(\cos \phi ).}$

导数

${\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {d} ^{k}}{\mathrm {d} z^{k}}}P_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(z)={\frac {\Gamma (\alpha +\beta +n+1+k)}{2^{k}\Gamma (\alpha +\beta +n+1)}}P_{n-k}^{(\alpha +k,\beta +k)}(z).}$

微分方程

${\displaystyle (1-x^{2})y''+(\beta -\alpha -(\alpha +\beta +2)x)y'+n(n+\alpha +\beta +1)y=0.\,}$

注释

1. ^ L. C. Biedenharn and J. D. Louck, Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, (1981)