胡希運動

也门宰德派反政府武装组织

胡希運動(阿拉伯語:الحوثيون‎,al-Ḥūthiyyūn),正式名稱是真主虔信者أنصار الله‎ ,anṣār allāh),是葉門的一個伊斯蘭教什葉派宰德派反政府武裝組織,該組織被數個國家視為恐怖主義組織。

胡希武裝
真主虔信者
ٱلْحُوثِيُّون(胡希武裝)
أَنْصَار ٱللَّٰه(真主虔信者)

參與葉門什葉派起義2011年葉門反政府示威敘利亞內戰2014-15年葉門政變[1]
Houthis emblem.svg
胡希運動的標語英語Slogan of the Houthi movement;其文字:「真主至大,打倒美國,打倒以色列,詛咒猶太人伊斯蘭勝利」[2][3][4]
活躍期1994年至今
(2004年起擁有武裝)
意識形態宰德派復興主義[5]


伊斯蘭革命[6][7]
社會正義[8][9][10][11]
反遜尼派[12][13] (被指控但否認)
團結什葉派-遜尼派[14][15]
反帝國主義[16]
民族統一主義[17]
反猶太復國主義[16]
反猶太主義[18] (否認)[19]
伊斯蘭主義[7]
葉門民族主義[14][20]
大帳篷民粹主義[14]


反美主義[21][22]
領導人海珊·巴得瑞丁·胡希 
阿卜杜勒-馬利克·胡希英語Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi
發言人Mohammed Abdul Salam[23]
總部 葉門薩達沙那
活動地區
成員人數十萬人(2011)[24][25][26]
盟友國家盟友

非國家盟友

對手國家

非國家

戰役、戰爭葉門什葉派起義
敘利亞內戰
葉門內戰 (2014年至今)[65][66]
網站Ansarollah.com
被以下認定為恐怖組織 沙烏地阿拉伯[67]
 阿聯[68]
 馬來西亞[69]
UNSC UNSC[70]

歷史編輯

 
葉門局勢(2018年)
  胡希運動和沙雷的支持者控制
  葉門總統阿卜杜拉布·曼蘇爾·哈迪支持者控制
 
胡希運動的書法體標誌。其內容為「信道的人們啊,你們應當做協助真主的人」(古蘭經61:14)[71][72]

胡希運動的前身「信仰青年」於1992年在葉門北部薩達省建立[73],創立者為宰德派宗教領袖海珊·胡希

2003年伊拉克戰爭中,「信仰青年」在葉門首都沙那沙雷清真寺英語Saleh Mosque宣傳反美反猶太口號。其後葉門政府逮捕其多名成員。[74]雖然時任葉門總統阿里·阿卜杜拉·沙雷為宰德派出身,但沙雷政府親美,並且和以遜尼派為主的海灣合作委員會國家保持友好關係,導致青年信仰者視其為叛徒,雙方漸行漸遠。

2004年,海珊·胡希開始武裝起義反抗,但於9月10日在和葉門政府軍的戰鬥中陣亡。其追隨者將「信仰青年」組織改名為「胡希」,以示永遠紀念海珊·胡希。[75][76]此後,胡希組織與葉門政府間時斷時續的衝突不斷。直至2010年,雙方簽署了停火協議。[77]

胡希武裝參與了2011年葉門反政府示威,但反對海灣合作委員會達成的協議,該協議將建立包括沙雷在內的聯合政府。

2011年11月,胡希武裝已控制葉門北部的薩達省焦夫省[78]

2014年9月,胡希武裝進攻首都沙那發動政變,控制了部分政府大樓和廣播電台。[79]這引起了遜尼派阿拉伯半島蓋達組織的仇恨,該組織已經策劃實施了多起針對胡希武裝的襲擊事件。[80][81]

2014年底,胡希武裝與前總統沙雷結盟,共同對抗葉門政府。[82]

2015年1月,胡希武裝繼續控制首都沙那,圍困了總理府。與政府軍的交火造成多人死亡。[83]1月22日,在胡希武裝占領總統府、官邸和重要軍事設施後,總統阿卜杜·拉布·曼蘇爾·哈迪及其內閣辭職。

2月6日,胡希武裝宣布成立「總統委員會」和「全國過渡委員會」,以取代葉門總統和議會治理國家。但聯合國美國海合會等不予承認。[84]海合會一直指責伊朗支持胡希叛軍。

2月21日,總統哈迪從胡希武裝的軟禁中逃離首都沙那,返回原南葉門的首都亞丁。隨後,他收回之前的辭呈[85]海合會國家紛紛將使館遷至亞丁,以表示對哈迪的支持。[86]

胡希武裝繼續向亞丁推進。3月26日,以沙烏地阿拉伯為首的多國聯軍發起果斷風暴行動,針對胡希武裝目標的持續空襲開始。

2017年9月,胡希武裝宣布任命「軍隊指揮官」、「最高司法委員會主席」和「財政部長」等要職,但盟友前總統沙雷不同意,拒絕承認任命。2017年11月底,胡希武裝與沙雷的關係急速惡化,雙方部隊在葉門首都沙那發生衝突。沙雷於12月2日提出與沙特領導的聯軍進行對話,被胡希武裝指責為對盟友發動「政變」。[87][88]沙雷與胡希武裝決裂後,雙方部隊爆發激戰。12月4日,沙雷在逃離沙那的途中被胡希武裝殺死。[82]

2021年1月10日,美國川普政府的國務卿蓬佩奧發佈聲明,決定將胡希武裝列為恐怖組織[89]。2月16日,美國新任喬·拜登政府宣佈將胡希武裝從恐怖主義組織名單中移除。[90][91]

恐怖主義指控編輯

沙烏地阿拉伯阿聯巴林以色列均已明確表示胡希運動為恐怖主義組織。

美國已撤銷針對胡希運動的恐怖主義指控。

參考資料編輯

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