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威权主义英语:Authoritarianism)或威權論哲學中是一個政治哲學理論,其提出某個政府應要求民眾絕對服從其权威,並限制个人的思想言論行為自由。政府上的威权主义指權力集中於單一领袖或一小撮精英。威权领导者時常任意行使权力而不考虑或利用现有法律去扩大权力,公民也通常無法透過自由競爭的选举來替換之。权力争夺与统治集团的自由競爭,是有限或不存在的。

不少打壓反对派政党或其他非政府組織政治团体,都是威權政體集权政体(Authoritarian regime)。有關反对党或其他政治組織,不是有限不然就是根本不存在,威权主义因而站在民主的對立面[1]

在不同學術領域如新聞學行政學經濟學心理學管理學社會學,威权主义概念的中文專業用詞或有差異如獨裁主義集權主義集體主義專制主義權威性格威權性格英语Authoritarian personality[2]

目录

定義與分類编辑

威權主義在本質上不一定和自由有先天的對立,而且包括的範圍非常之廣,但除了斯大林主義外,通常卻表示對民主的敵意。

從古代的君主專制極權主義政體,都可以被稱為威權主義,而從一些專於研究納粹的人認為,同期的法西斯義大利日本法西斯主義斯大林主義,都缺乏像納粹般完整的極權主義本質,但又有很多地方是相似的,一定都是威權主義政體。而且日本和義大利當時仍然是君主立憲制國家,所以可見其可變性和模糊性。

非極權的威权主义也異於极权主义,因为威权政府通常没有高度发展的指导意識型態,在社会组织方面多元化,並且缺乏动員全國的力量。[1]

例子编辑

威權主義沒有明確精確的定義,但通常以許多指標來衡量威權程度,如自由之家的年度世界自由度調查報告英语Freedom in the World

現存例子编辑

以下是一些被認為是威權政體的現存政權。

Historical编辑

Examples of states which were historically authoritarian include

State Time period Ruling group or person Notes
  阿根廷[72][73] 1966–1973 Military government Argentine Revolution period of military rule
1973–1974 Justicialista rule of Juan Perón Ideology is populist authoritarianism
1976–1983 Free trade and deregulatory rule of Jorge Rafael Videla National Reorganization Process period of military rule
  Brazil[74] 1937–1945 Getúlio Vargas Estado Novo period
1964–1985 Military government
  Burma[75] 19622011 Military government and Socialist Programme Party
  智利[76] 1973–1990 Augusto Pinochet
  克罗地亚[77][78] 1990–1999 Franjo Tuđman
  捷克斯洛伐克 1938–1939 Party of National Unity
  埃及[79] 1952–2011 Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak
  印尼 1967–1998 Suharto
 Libya[80] 1969–2011 Muammar Gaddafi
  立陶宛[81] 1926–1940 Antanas Smetona
  馬其頓[82][83] 2006–2016 Nikola Gruevski
  葡萄牙[84] 1926–1933 Military government National Dictatorship
1933–1974 António de Oliveira Salazar and Marcelo Caetano Under the Estado Novo regime
  Spain[85] 1936–1975 Francisco Franco
  南非[86][87] 1948–1994 國民黨 政權隨種族隔離廢除而結束
  韩国[88][89] 1948–1960 Syngman Rhee
1962–1987 Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan
  中華民國[90] 1945–1990 中國國民黨
  土耳其[91][92] 1925–1945 Republican People's Party
  南斯拉夫[93][94] 1944–1980 Josip Broz Tito
  南斯拉夫联盟共和国[95][96] 1991–2000 Slobodan Milošević
  辛巴威[97] 1980–2017 Robert Mugabe

参见编辑

参考文献编辑

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外部連結编辑