极端民族主义

极端民族主义是一种极端的民族主义,将一国或一族人的利益置于所有他人之上,或简单的说是“对自己的国家宗教式的虔诚”。[1][2]

极端民族主义与国家复兴是法西斯主义的关键基础.[3]

根据加努斯·布加杰斯基(Janusz Bugajski)的说法,在最极端或发展到终极形态时,极端民族主义类似于法西斯主义,其特点是对其他国家的仇外蔑视,支持专制政治并向极权主义靠近 ,强调魅力型领袖,一个组织上无定形的运动型政党,以及国家之间的“有机统一”。 [4]

罗杰·格里芬(Roger Griffin)断言,极端民族主义本质上是仇外的,并且会通过神话自己历史上的伟大成就,或者强调对历史宿敌的仇恨来实现自身的合法化。它有时还会利用庸俗的体质人类学遗传学优生学来对种族优越感和种族前途做合理化解释,并衬托其他种族的堕落和劣等的观念。 [5]

极端民族主义政党编辑

以下政党[谁?]定性为极端民族主义者。

参见编辑

参考编辑

  1. ^ Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  2. ^ Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  3. ^ Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451–53.
  4. ^ The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-communist Europe. EastWest Institute. p.65. Section author - Janusz Bugajski. Book edited by Johnathan P.Stein. Published by M.E. Sharpe. Published in New York in 2000. Retrieved via Google Books.
  5. ^ World fascism: a historical encyclopedia. 2006: 452. 
  6. ^ Katsikas, Stefanos. Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria. I.B. Tauris: 64. 2011. 
  7. ^ Mark Magnier. In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes. Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com. 8 March 2012 [2015-12-02]. 
  8. ^ Election Polls: 6-14 Seats for Bennett and Shaked's New Right-wing Party, Labor Party Crashes. Times of Israel. 30 December 2018. 
  9. ^ Ford, Peter. Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform. Christian Science Monitor. 2018 [17 December 2018]. 
  10. ^ Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U.. New York Times. 17 December 2016. 
  11. ^ Acha, Beatriz. No, no es un partido (neo)fascista. Agenda Pública. 6 January 2019. 
  12. ^ Antón-Mellón, Joan. Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal. Agenda Pública. 29 April 2019 [2019-08-16]. (原始内容存档于2019-05-03). 
  13. ^ Arman, Murat Necip. The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism. CEU Political Science Journal. 2007, (2): 133–151. 
  14. ^ Eissenstat, Howard. Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism. Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C. November 2002. 
  15. ^ Gocek, Fatma Muge. Denial of Violence. Oxford University Press. 2014: 402. 
  16. ^ Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists. BBC. 25 December 2012 [1 March 2015].