极端民族主义

(重定向自極端民族主義

極端民族主義(英語:Ultranationalism)是一種意識形態,和傳統民族主義的概念完全不同,強調某個國家或民族在政治、經濟和社會領域的利益與統治地位。通常表現為對自己族群的優越感和極端支持,同時將其他國家,種族,宗教或文化社群視為敵對與次等,並加以歧視,排斥和仇恨,進而引發種族主義迫害等問題。極端民族主義往往伴隨著侵略性和暴力傾向,可能採取戰爭或種族清洗等極端手段以實現政治目標,它與國家復興的概念共同構成了法西斯主義的關鍵基礎。[1]

加略斯·布加杰斯基英语Janusz Bugajski認為,民族主義在最極端或發展到終極形態時,類似於法西斯主義,其特點是仇外蔑視,支持專制政治並靠近極權主義,強調魅力型領袖,一個組織上無定形的運動型政黨,以及國家之間的「有機統一」。 [2]

羅傑·格里芬英语Roger Griffin指出,極端民族主義本質上是仇外的,並且會通過神化自己歷史上的偉大成就,或者強調對歷史宿敵的仇恨來實現自身的合法化。它有時還會利用庸俗的體質人類學、遺傳學和優生學來對種族優越感和種族前途做合理化解釋,並衬托其他種族的墮落和劣等的观念。 [3]

极端民族主义政党

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二战后被认为过是极端民族主义者的政党:

参见

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参考

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