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海蝶螺屬
化石时期:Bartonian–現在[1]
Atlanta01.jpg
Atlanta anatomy
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
目: 玉黍螺類 Littorinimorpha
科: 海蝶螺科 Atlantidae
属: 海蝶螺屬 Atlanta
Lesueur, 1817
模式种
Atlanta peronii
Lesueur, 1817
Species

See text

異名[2]
  • Steira Eschscholtz, 1825

海蝶螺屬(學名:Atlanta),又叫明螺屬,是玉黍螺目海蝶螺科之下一個全浮游holoplanktonic英语holoplankton海洋腹足綱軟體動物,也是海蝶螺科的模式屬[3]

分佈编辑

All of the nineteen species but one, Atlanta californiensis, dwell in tropical and subtropical waters.[4] The majority of species (ten) are cosmopolitan and, among the remaining nine species, five are Indo-Pacific, two are restricted to the Pacific Ocean, one is Indo-Atlantic, and one is limited to the Atlantic Ocean.[4]

They are floating or swimming snails in tropical and subtropical seas. Most have a cosmopolitan distribution, but A. brunnea, A. pulchella and A. quoyi are only found in American waters. A. fusca, A. pacifica and A. rosea are restricted the seas around Japan. Atlanta Aslara

Description编辑

It has been recognized by several authors that identification of species in this genus is difficult and is dependent on their morphology of eyes, radula and operculum.

Main diagnostic features include: the shell and keel are calcareous;[5] larval shell becomes the spire in the adult shell.[5]

Snails of this genus are very small. Their coiled, calcareous[5] shell has a diameter of less than 1 cm. The protoconch of the larval shell is retained after metamorphosis and becomes the spire of the adult shell.[5] The number of spire whirls varies from 2½ (in the A. lesueuri- group) to 6 (A. gibbosa) and is thus also helpful in the identification of a species. The spire shape differs between the species groups, from very small (A. lesueuri- group), to inflated or flat (A. inflata- group ) to large (A.inclinata- group and A. gibbosa- group).

They can retract into their shell and close it off with an operculum. This operculum is cartilaginous and flexible. In 1961 Richter distinguished three types of the operculum[6] in which the larval gyre of the operculum is apical. This gyre can be relatively somewhat larger (macro-oligogyre), smaller (micro-oligogyre) or a single gyre (monogyre).

The eye morphology also consists of three types with differences in pigmented region between the lens and the retina.

The radula is typically taenioglossate with one central (rachidian) tooth, with on each side one lateral tooth and two marginal teeth. In 13 species the number of tooth rows increases during growth (Type I), while in 8 species the radula has a limited number of tooth rows (Type II).[6]

Identification编辑

Many authors (e.g., Thiriot-Quiévreux, 1973, p. 240; Richter, 1974, p. 60; Seapy, 1990, p. 107) admit that identification of Atlanta species is difficult and including soft-part features (eyes, radula, operculum) or application of transmitted light to observe inner shell structures (Richter, 1987, p. 178) are very helpful in distinguishing species with similar shells.[1] However, such methods are unavailable for fossil material.[1] This makes identifying fossil species of Atlanta quite difficult and even well-preserved specimens occasionally can only be related to existing taxa with a query (e.g., Atlanta sp. in Janssen, 2004, p. 108; Atlanta cf. echinogyra in Jansen 2007).[1] Advantageous in this study of fossil atlantids, however, is the fact that all specimens are preserved as opaque aragonitic shells as a result of recrystallisation, which facilitates assessing protoconch shape and ornament with a normal 25 or 50× binocular magnification, they are thus much easier studied than in the usually very transparent and shiny Recent specimens.[1] Still, here, too, study of the larval shell shape and micro-ornamentation by SEM is highly desirable or even indispensable.[1]

物種编辑

Atlanta includes a large number of Recent species. Lalli & Gilmer (1989)[7] listed 14 species, but Richter & Seapy (1999)[8] recognised 21 extant species, provisionally subdivided into seven ‘species groups’ (and one species unassigned).[1] A further Recent species was described since; Atlanta selvagensis de Vera & Seapy, 2006.[1]

截至2018年4月15日 (2018-04-15)WoRMS紀錄本屬物種如下: Species Atlanta ariejansseni Wall-Palmer, Burridge & Peijnenburg, 2016 Species Atlanta brunnea J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta californiensis Seapy & Richter, 1993 Species Atlanta echinogyra Richter, 1972 Species Atlanta fragilis Richter, 1993 Species Atlanta frontieri Richter, 1993 Species Atlanta gaudichaudi Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta gibbosa Souleyet, 1852 Species Atlanta helicinoidea J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta inclinata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta inflata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta lesueurii J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta meteori Richter, 1972 Species Atlanta oligogyra Tesch, 1906 Species Atlanta peronii Lesueur, 1817 Species Atlanta plana Richter, 1972 Species Atlanta rosea Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta selvagensis de Vera & Seapy, 2006 Species Atlanta tokiokai van der Spoel & Troost, 1972 Species Atlanta turriculata d'Orbigny, 1836

taxon inquirendum
異名

Subgenus Atlanta (Heliconoides) d'Orbigny, 1836 accepted as Heliconoides d'Orbigny, 1836 (original rank) Species Atlanta affinis Tesch, 1906 accepted as Atlanta inclinata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta bivonae Mandralisca, 1840 accepted as Oxygyrus inflatus Benson, 1835 (synonym) Species Atlanta bulimoides d'Orbigny, 1834 accepted as Limacina bulimoides (d'Orbigny, 1834) (original combination) Species Atlanta cordiformis Gabb, 1873 accepted as Atlanta selvagensis de Vera & Seapy, 2006 (doubtful synonym) Species Atlanta costae Mandralisca, 1840 accepted as Atlanta peronii Lesueur, 1817 (synonym) Species Atlanta depressa Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta helicinoidea J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta depressa Gray, 1850 accepted as Atlanta helicinoidea J.E. Gray, 1850 (doubtful synonym) Species Atlanta fossilis Tate, 1898 † accepted as Leptonotis fossilis (Tate, 1898) † Species Atlanta fusca Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta brunnea J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta gaudichaudii Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta gaudichaudi Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta helicinoides Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta helicinoidea J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta inclinata Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta inclinata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta inflata Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta inflata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta inflata d'Orbigny, 1835 accepted as Heliconoides inflatus (d'Orbigny, 1835) (original combination) Species Atlanta keraudrenii Lesueur, 1817 accepted as Atlanta peronii Lesueur, 1817 Species Atlanta lamanoni Gray, 1850 accepted as Protatlanta souleyeti (E. A. Smith, 1888) (Invalid: secondary junior homonym of Steira lamanoni Eschscholtz, 1825) Species Atlanta lamanonii Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Protatlanta souleyeti (E. A. Smith, 1888) (synonym) Species Atlanta lesueurii Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta lesueurii J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta lesueurii d'Orbigny, 1835 accepted as Limacina lesueurii (d'Orbigny, 1835) (original combination) Species Atlanta macrocarinata Bonnevie, 1920 accepted as Atlanta inclinata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta megalope Richter, 1961 accepted as Atlanta inclinata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta pacifica Tokioka, 1955 accepted as Atlanta gaudichaudi Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta primitia Smith E.A., 1888 accepted as Atlanta lesueurii J.E. Gray, 1850 (dubious synonym) Species Atlanta quoyana Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta inflata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta quoyii J.E. Gray, 1850 accepted as Atlanta inflata J.E. Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta rangi d'Orbigny, 1836 accepted as Oxygyrus inflatus Benson, 1835 (synonym) Species Atlanta rangii d'Orbigny, 1834 accepted as Limacina rangii (d'Orbigny, 1834) (original combination) Species Atlanta reticulata d'Orbigny, 1834 accepted as Peracle reticulata (d'Orbigny, 1834) (original combination) Species Atlanta rosea Souleyet, 1852 accepted as Atlanta rosea Gray, 1850 Species Atlanta sculpta (Issel, 1911) accepted as Protatlanta sculpta Issel, 1911 Species Atlanta souleyeti E. A. Smith, 1888 accepted as Protatlanta souleyeti (E. A. Smith, 1888) (original combination) Species Atlanta steindachneri Oberwimmer, 1898 accepted as Atlanta peronii Lesueur, 1817 (synonym) Species Atlanta trochiformis d'Orbigny, 1834 accepted as Limacina trochiformis (d'Orbigny, 1834) (original combination)

Based on similar morphologies, these species have been placed in seven species groups:[5][9]

 Atlanta (19 recent species) 
 Atlanta brunnea species group 

Atlanta brunnea

Atlanta turriculata

 Atlanta inflata species group 

Atlanta inflata

Atlanta helicinoidea

Atlanta californiensis

Atlanta selvagensis

 Atlanta lesueurii species group 

Atlanta lesueurii

Atlanta oligogyra

 Atlanta peronii species group 

Atlanta peronii

Atlanta fragilis

Atlanta rosea

Atlanta frontieri

 Atlanta gaudichaudi species group 

Atlanta gaudichaudi

Atlanta plana

Atlanta echinogyra

 Atlanta inclinata species group 

Atlanta inclinata

Atlanta tokiokai

 Atlanta gaudichaudi species group 

Atlanta gibbosa

Atlanta meteori

Tesch (1908) was the first to group together the species of Atlanta sharing similar morphologies.[5] He recognized four species groups; the Atlanta peronii-, Atlanta inflata-, Atlanta turriculata-, and Atlanta inclinata-groups.[5] In addition to these four, three additional ones are currently recognized; the Atlanta lesueurii-, Atlanta gaudichaudi- and Atlanta gibbosa groups.[5] Except for Tesch's Atlanta turriculata-group, the composition of Tesch's species groups has changed by species invalidations, the addition of new species over time, and addition of three new species groups.[5] The main changes in Tesch's species groups have occurred in the Atlanta peronii-group (with Atlanta gaudichaudi and Atlanta lesueurii now forming their own species groups) and the Atlanta inclinata-group (the Atlanta gibbosa now forming its own group).[5]

參考文獻编辑

This article incorporates CC BY-3.0 text from references.[1][5]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Janssen A. W. Holoplanktonic Mollusca (Gastropoda: Pterotracheoidea, Janthinoidea, Thecosomata and Gymnosomata) from the Pliocene of Pangasinan (Luzon, Philippines). Scripta Geologica. 2007, 135. 
  2. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为WoRMS的参考文献提供内容
  3. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为WoRMS_137687的参考文献提供内容
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 引用错误:没有为名为Seapy 2011的参考文献提供内容
  5. ^ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Seapy R. R. (2010). Atlanta. Version 17 July 2010. Tree of Life Web Project, accessed 19 August 2010.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Richter G. Die Radula der Atlantiden (Heteropoda, Prosobranchia) und ihre Bedeutung für die Systematik und Evolution der Famiie. Morphol. Okol. Tiere. 1961, 50: 163–238. doi:10.1007/bf00408284. 
  7. ^ Lalli C. M. & Gilmer R. W. (1989). Pelagic Snails. The Biology of Holoplanktonic Gastropod Mollusks. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California: viii + 259 pp. page 52.
  8. ^ Richter G. & Seapy R. R. (1999). "Heteropoda". In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.) South Atlantic zooplankton, 1. Backhuys, Leiden: 621-647. page 631.
  9. ^ Richter G. & Seapy R. R. (1999). Heteropoda. In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.). South Atlantic zooplankton, 1. Backhuys, Leiden; p. 621-647.
  • Richter G. & Seapy R.R. 1999. Heteropoda, pp. 621–647. In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton. Leiden: Backhuys Publ.
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213
  • Rolán E., 2005. Malacological Fauna From The Cape Verde Archipelago. Part 1, Polyplacophora and Gastropoda.
  • Rosenberg, G., F. Moretzsohn, and E. F. García. 2009. Gastropoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 579–699 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
  • Spencer, H.; Marshall. B. (2009). All Mollusca except Opisthobranchia. In: Gordon, D. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume One: Kingdom Animalia. 584 pp

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