State of Iowa
State of Iowa旗幟
State of Iowa官方圖章
格言:Our liberties we prize and our rights we will maintain.
颂歌:The Song of Iowa英语The Song of Iowa
建州前Iowa Territory
加入聯邦December 28, 1846
Des Moines
最大都会区Omaha (NE)-Council Bluffs (IA) Metropolitan Area英语Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area
 • [[:{{{Full-ZH-name}}}州长|州长]]英语List of Governors of {{{Name}}}]]
 • [[:{{{Full-ZH-name}}}副州长|副州长]]英语List of lieutenant governors of {{{Name}}}]]
Kim Reynolds英语Kim Reynolds (R)
Adam Gregg英语Adam Gregg (R)
立法机构Iowa General Assembly
 • 上议院Senate
 • 下议院House of Representatives
[[:美国{{{Full-ZH-name}}}联邦参议员列表|联邦参议员]]英语List of United States Senators from {{{Name}}}]]Chuck Grassley (R)
Joni Ernst (R)
联邦众议员1: Abby Finkenauer英语Abby Finkenauer (D)
2: Dave Loebsack (D)
3: Cindy Axne英语Cindy Axne (D)
4: Steve King (R)[[:来自{{{Full-ZH-name}}}的美国众议院议员|列表]]英语United States congressional delegations from {{{Name}}}]]
 • 总计145,746 平方公里(58,272.81 平方英里)
 • 长度499 千米(310 英里)
 • 宽度322 千米(200 英里)
海拔340 公尺(1,100 英尺)
最高海拔Hawkeye Point英语Hawkeye Point[2][3]509 公尺(1,671 英尺)
最低海拔 (Confluence of Mississippi River and Des Moines River[2][3]146 公尺(480 英尺)
 • 總計3,156,145 (2,018)人
 • 排名全美第31st名
 • 密度21.6人/平方公里(56.1人/平方英里)
 • 密度排名全美第36th名
 • 家庭收入中值英语Household income in the United States$58,570[4]
 • 收入排名全美第26th名
 • 官方语言English
ISO 3166码US-IA
 • 夏时制UTC-05:00CDT
纬度40° 23′ N to 43° 30′ N
经度90° 8′ W to 96° 38′ W

Template:Infobox U.S. state symbols

Iowa (聆聽i/ˈəwə/)[5][6][7] is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River英语Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states: Wisconsin to the northeast, Illinois to the east, Missouri to the south, Nebraska to the west, South Dakota to the northwest, and Minnesota to the north.

In colonial times, Iowa was a part of French Louisiana and Spanish Louisiana英语Louisiana (New Spain); its state flag is patterned after the flag of France. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt.[8]

In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, processing, financial services, information technology, biotechnology, and green energy production.[9][10] Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U.S states. The state's capital, most populous city, and largest metropolitan area fully located within the state is Des Moines. A portion of the larger Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan area英语Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area extends into three counties of southwest Iowa.[11] Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in which to live.[12]


Iowa derives its name from the Ioway英语Iowa people people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration.[13]



Topography of Iowa, with counties and major streams

Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east and the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River英语Big Sioux River on the west. The northern boundary is a line along 43 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude.[14][note 1] The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along approximately 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa英语State of Missouri v. State of Iowa (1849) (1849) after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War英语Honey War.[15][16]

Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed entirely by rivers.[17]

Iowa has 99 counties, but 100 county seats because Lee County has two. The state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County.[18]

Geology and terrain编辑

Iowa's bedrock geology generally increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old; in eastern Iowa Cambrian bedrock dates to c. 500 million years ago.[19]

Iowa is generally not flat; most of the state consists of rolling hills. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils, topography, and river drainage.[20] Loess hills lie along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet thick.[21] Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River英语Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area英语Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear almost mountainous.

Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake英语Spirit Lake (Iowa), West Okoboji Lake英语West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake英语East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa (see Iowa Great Lakes英语Iowa Great Lakes). To the east lies Clear Lake英语Clear Lake (Iowa). Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa,[22] Saylorville Lake英语Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock英语Lake Red Rock (Des Moines River), Coralville Lake英语Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, and Rathbun Lake. The state's northwest area has many remnants of the once common wetlands, such as Barringer Slough英语Barringer Slough.

Ecology and environment编辑

Landforms of Iowa, based on Prior (1991)

Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie英语tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, and pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas.[20] Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; crops cover 60% of the state, grasslands (mostly pasture and hay with some prairie and wetland) cover 30%, and forests cover 7%; urban areas and water cover another 1% each.[23]

The southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition英语Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands英语Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains.

There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; less than 1% of the tallgrass prairie that once covered most of Iowa remains intact; only about 5% of the state's prairie pothole wetlands remain, and most of the original forest has been lost.[24] 截至2005年 (2005-Missing required parameter 1=month!) Iowa ranked 49th of U.S. states in public land holdings.[25] Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern英语least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat英语Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail英语Discus macclintocki, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, and the Topeka shiner英语Topeka shiner.[26] Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid英语western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid英语eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed英语Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover英语prairie bush clover, and northern wild monkshood英语northern wild monkshood.[27]

There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality.[28] In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur.

Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants,[29] fertilizer and pesticide runoff from crop production,[30] and diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer英语Jordan Aquifer.[31]


Köppen climate types in Iowa
Iowa annual rainfall, in inches

Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with extremes of both heat and cold. The average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F(10 °C); for some locations in the north the figure is under 45 °F(7 °C), while Keokuk, on the Mississippi River, averages 52 °F(11 °C). Winters are often harsh and snowfall is common.

Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather英语severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year.[32] The 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47.[33] In 2008英语Late-May 2008 tornado outbreak sequence, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968英语May 1968 tornado outbreak and also the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.[34]

Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F(32 °C) and occasionally exceeding 100 °F(38 °C). Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing, even dropping below −18 °F(−28 °C). Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F(48 °C) was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934; the all-time lowest temperature of −47 °F(−44 °C) was recorded at Elkader on February 3, 1996.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Iowa cities (°F)[35]
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Davenport[36] 30/13 36/19 48/29 61/41 72/52 81/63 85/68 83/66 76/57 65/45 48/32 35/20
Des Moines[37] 31/14 36/19 49/30 62/41 72/52 82/62 86/67 84/65 76/55 63/43 48/31 34/18
Keokuk[38] 34/17 39/21 50/30 63/42 73/52 83/62 87/67 85/65 78/56 66/44 51/33 33/21
Mason City[39] 24/6 29/12 41/23 57/35 69/46 79/57 82/61 80/58 73/49 60/37 43/25 28/11
Sioux City[40] 31/10 35/15 47/26 62/37 73/49 82/59 86/63 83/63 76/51 63/38 46/25 32/13

Iowa has a relatively smooth gradient of varying precipitation across the state, with areas in the southeast of the state receiving an average of over 38英寸(97厘米) of rain annually, and the northwest of the state receiving less than 28英寸(71厘米).[41] The pattern of precipitation across Iowa is seasonal, with more rain falling in the summer months. Virtually statewide, the driest month is January or February, and the wettest month is June, owing to frequent showers and thunderstorms, some of which produce hail, damaging winds and/or tornadoes. In Des Moines, roughly in the center of the state, over two-thirds of the 34.72英寸(88.2厘米) of rain falls from April through September, and about half of the average annual precipitation falls from May through August, peaking in June.[42]


Excavation of the 3,800-year-old Edgewater Park Site英语Edgewater Park Site

When American Indians first arrived in what is now Iowa more than 13,000 years ago, they were hunters and gatherers living in a Pleistocene glacial landscape. By the time European explorers and traders visited Iowa, American Indians were largely settled farmers with complex economic, social, and political systems. This transformation happened gradually. During the Archaic period英语Archaic period in North America (10,500–2,800 years ago), American Indians adapted to local environments and ecosystems, slowly becoming more sedentary as populations increased.[43]

More than 3,000 years ago, during the Late Archaic period, American Indians in Iowa began utilizing domesticated plants. The subsequent Woodland period saw an increased reliance on agriculture and social complexity, with increased use of mounds, ceramics, and specialized subsistence. During the Late Prehistoric period (beginning about AD 900) increased use of maize and social changes led to social flourishing and nucleated settlements.[43]

The arrival of European trade goods and diseases in the Protohistoric period led to dramatic population shifts and economic and social upheaval, with the arrival of new tribes and early European explorers and traders. There were numerous Indian tribes living in Iowa at the time of early European exploration. Tribes which were probably descendants of the prehistoric Oneota英语Oneota include the Dakota, Ho-Chunk英语Ho-Chunk, Ioway英语Ioway, and Otoe英语Otoe (tribe). Tribes which arrived in Iowa in the late prehistoric or protohistoric periods include the Illiniwek, Meskwaki, Omaha, and Sauk英语Sauk people.[43]


Early exploration and trade, 1673–1808编辑

Iowa in 1718 with the modern state area highlighted

The first known European explorers to document Iowa were Jacques Marquette英语Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet英语Louis Jolliet who traveled the Mississippi River in 1673 documenting several Indian villages on the Iowa side.[44][45] The area of Iowa was claimed for France and remained a French territory until 1763. The French, before their impending defeat in the French and Indian War, transferred ownership to their ally, Spain.[46] Spain practiced very loose control over the Iowa region, granting trading licenses to French and British traders, who established trading posts along the Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers.[44]

Iowa was part of a territory known as La Louisiane or Louisiana, and European traders were interested in lead and furs obtained by Indians. The Sauk英语Sauk people and Meskwaki effectively controlled trade on the Mississippi in the late 18th century and early 19th century. Among the early traders on the Mississippi were Julien Dubuque, Robert La Salle, and Paul Marin英语Paul Marin de la Malgue.[44] Along the Missouri River at least five French and English trading houses were built before 1808.[47] In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte took control of Louisiana from Spain in a treaty.

After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, Congress divided the Louisiana Purchase into two parts—the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana, with present-day Iowa falling in the latter. The Indiana Territory was created in 1800 to exercise jurisdiction over this portion of the District; William Henry Harrison was its first governor. Much of Iowa was mapped by Zebulon Pike英语Zebulon Pike in 1805,[48] but it was not until the construction of Fort Madison in 1808 that the U.S. established tenuous military control over the region.[49]

Plan of Fort Madison, 1810

War of 1812 and unstable U.S. control编辑

Fort Madison was built to control trade and establish U.S. dominance over the Upper Mississippi, but it was poorly designed and disliked by the Sauk and Ho-Chunk英语Ho-Chunk, many of whom allied with the British, who had not abandoned claims to the territory.[49][50] Fort Madison was defeated by British-supported Indians in 1813 during the War of 1812, and Fort Shelby英语Fort Shelby (Wisconsin) in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin英语Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, also fell to the British. Black Hawk英语Black Hawk (chief) took part in the siege of Fort Madison.[51][52]

After the war, the U.S. re-established control of the region through the construction of Fort Armstrong英语Fort Armstrong, Illinois, Fort Snelling英语Fort Snelling in Minnesota, and Fort Atkinson英语Fort Atkinson (Nebraska) in Nebraska.[53]

Trade and Indian removal, 1814–1832编辑

A map of Iowa Indian Territory Accessions

The U.S. encouraged settlement of the east side of the Mississippi and removal of Indians to the west. Trade continued in furs and lead, but disease and forced population movement decimated Indian cultures and economies. A disputed 1804 treaty between Quashquame英语Quashquame and William Henry Harrison that surrendered much of Illinois to the U.S. enraged many Sauk and led to the 1832 Black Hawk War. As punishment for the uprising, and as part of a larger settlement strategy, treaties were subsequently designed to remove all Indians from Iowa.

The Sauk and Meskwaki were pushed out of the Mississippi valley in 1832, out of the Iowa River英语Iowa River valley in 1843, and out of Iowa altogether in 1846. Many Meskwaki later returned to Iowa and settled near Tama, Iowa; the Meskwaki Settlement英语Meskwaki Settlement remains to this day. In 1856 the Iowa Legislature passed an unprecedented act allowing the Meskawki to purchase the land; Indians were not usually permitted to do so. The Ho-Chunk英语Ho-Chunk were removed from Iowa in 1850, and the Dakota were removed by the late 1850s. Western Iowa around modern Council Bluffs was used as a way station for other tribes being moved west, including the Potawatomi英语Potawatomi.

U.S. settlement and statehood, 1832–1860编辑

The first American settlers officially moved to Iowa in June 1833.[54] Primarily, they were families from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, and Virginia.[54] On July 4, 1838, the U.S. Congress established the Territory of Iowa. President Martin Van Buren appointed Robert Lucas英语Robert Lucas (governor) governor of the territory, which at the time had 22 counties and a population of 23,242.[55]

Almost immediately after achieving territorial status, a clamor arose for statehood. On December 28, 1846, Iowa became the 29th state in the Union when President James K. Polk signed Iowa's admission bill into law. Once admitted to the Union, the state's boundary issues resolved, and most of its land purchased from the Indians, Iowa set its direction to development and organized campaigns for settlers and investors, boasting the young frontier state's rich farmlands, fine citizens, free and open society, and good government.[56]

Iowa has a long tradition of state and county fairs. The first and second Iowa State Fair英语Iowa State Fairs were held in the more developed eastern part of the state at Fairfield. The first fair was held October 25–27, 1854, at a cost of around $323. Thereafter, the fair moved to locations closer to the center of the state and in 1886 found a permanent home in Des Moines. The State Fair has been held every year since except for the year 1898 due to the Spanish–American War and the World's Fair being held in nearby Omaha, Nebraska. The fair was also a World War II wartime casualty from 1942–1945, as the fairgrounds were being used as an army supply depot.[57]

Civil War, 1861–1865编辑

Jane and Samuel Kirkwood英语Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1852

Iowa supported the Union during the Civil War, voting heavily for Abraham Lincoln, though there was a strong antiwar "Copperhead英语Copperheads (politics)" movement among settlers of southern origins and among Catholics.[來源請求] There were no battles in the state, although the battle of Athens, Missouri英语Athens, Missouri, 1861, was fought just across the Des Moines River from Croton, Iowa英语Croton, Iowa, and shots from the battle landed in Iowa. Iowa sent large supplies of food to the armies and the eastern cities.[58]

Much of Iowa's support for the Union can be attributed to Samuel J. Kirkwood英语Samuel J. Kirkwood, its first wartime governor. Of a total population of 675,000, about 116,000 men were subjected to military duty. Iowa contributed proportionately more men to Civil War military service than did any other state, north or south, sending more than 75,000 volunteers to the armed forces, over one-sixth of whom were killed before the Confederates surrendered at Appomattox英语Battle of Appomattox Courthouse.[58]

Most fought in the great campaigns in the Mississippi Valley and in the South.[59] Iowa troops fought at Wilson's Creek in Missouri, Pea Ridge in Arkansas, Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and Rossville Gap as well as Vicksburg, Iuka, and Corinth. They served with the Army of the Potomac in Virginia and fought under Union General Philip Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. Many died and were buried at Andersonville. They marched on General Nathaniel Banks英语Nathaniel Banks' ill-starred expedition to the Red River. Twenty-seven Iowans英语Iowans have been awarded the Medal of Honor, the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government, which was first awarded in the Civil War.[60]

Iowa had several brigadier generals and four major generals—Grenville Mellen Dodge英语Grenville Mellen Dodge, Samuel R. Curtis英语Samuel R. Curtis, Francis J. Herron英语Francis J. Herron, and Frederick Steele英语Frederick Steele—and saw many of its generals go on to state and national prominence following the war.[58]

Agricultural expansion, 1865–1930编辑

Iowa farm, 1875

Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from 674,913 people in 1860 to 1,624,615 in 1880. The introduction of railroads in the 1859s and 1860s transformed Iowa into a major agricultural producer.

In 1917, the United States entered World War I and farmers as well as all Iowans experienced a wartime economy. For farmers, the change was significant. Since the beginning of the war in 1914, Iowa farmers had experienced economic prosperity. In the economic sector, Iowa also has undergone considerable change. Beginning with the first farm-related industries developed in the 1870s, Iowa has experienced a gradual increase in the number of business and manufacturing operations.

Depression, World War II, and the rise of manufacturing, 1930–1985编辑

The transition from an agricultural economy to a mixed economy happened slowly. The Great Depression and World War II accelerated the shift away from smallholder farming to larger farms, and began a trend of urbanization. The period since World War II has witnessed a particular increase in manufacturing operations. While agriculture continued to be the state's dominant industry, Iowans also produce a wide variety of products including refrigerators, washing machines, fountain pens, farm implements, and food products.

The Farm Crisis of the 1980s caused a major recession in Iowa, causing poverty not seen since the Depression.[61] The crisis spurred a major, decade-long population decline.[62]

Reemergence as a mixed economy, 1985–present编辑

After bottoming out in the 1980s, Iowa's economy began to become increasingly less dependent on agriculture, and by the early 21st century was characterized by a mix of manufacturing, biotechnology, finance and insurance services, and government services.[63] The population of Iowa has increased at a faster rate than the U.S. as a whole,[62] and Iowa now has a predominantly urban population.[64] The Iowa Economic Development Authority, created in 2011 has replaced the Iowa Department of Economic Development and its annual reports are a source of economic information.[65]



調查年 人口
Source: 1910–2010[66]
2018 estimate[67]

The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Iowa was 3,156,145 on July 1, 2018, a 3.60% increase since the 2010 Census.[67]

Of the residents of Iowa, 72.2% were born in Iowa, 23.2% were born in a different US state, 0.5% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 4.1% were foreign born.[68]

Immigration英语Immigration to the United States from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 29,386 people, while migration within the country produced a net loss of 41,140 people. 6.5% of Iowa's population were reported as under the age of five, 22.6% under 18, and 14.7% were 65 or older. Males made up approximately 49.6% of the population.[69] Iowa has banned sanctuary cities英语Sanctuary city.[70] The population density of the state is 52.7 people per square mile.[71] The center of population of Iowa is in Marshall County, in the city of Marshalltown.[69]

As of the 2010 Census, the population of Iowa was 3,046,355. The gender makeup of the state was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. 23.9% of the population were under the age of 18; 61.2% were between the ages of 18 and 64; and 14.9% were 65 years of age or older.[72]

The table below shows the racial composition of Iowa's population as of 2016.

Iowa racial composition of population[73]
Race Population (2016 est.) Percentage
Total population 3,106,589 100%
White 2,823,890 90.9%
Black or African American 103,052 3.3%
American Indian and Alaska Native 9,951 0.3%
Asian 66,570 2.1%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander英语Pacific Islander American 2,422 0.1%
Some other race英语Race and ethnicity in the United States Census 39,410 1.3%
Two or more races英语Multiracial American 61,294 2.0%
Iowa historical racial composition
Racial composition 1990[74] 2000[75] 2010[76]
White 96.6% 93.9% 91.3%
Black or African American 1.7% 2.1% 2.9%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.3% 0.3% 0.4%
Asian 0.9% 1.3% 1.7%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander英语Pacific Islander American 0.1%
Other race英语Race and ethnicity in the United States Census 0.5% 1.3% 1.8%
Two or more races英语Multiracial American 1.1% 1.8%
Iowa population density map

According to the 2016 American Community Survey英语American Community Survey, 5.6% of Iowa's population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (4.3%), Puerto Rican英语Puerto Ricans (0.2%), Cuban英语Cuban American (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (1.0%).[73] The five largest ancestry groups were: German (35.1%), Irish (13.5%), English (8.2%), American英语American ancestry (5.8%), and Norwegian英语Norwegian American (5.0%).[77]


File:Iowa pop 00 to 09.jpg
Percent population changes by counties in Iowa, 2000–2009. Dark green counties have gains of more than 5%.[78]

Iowa's population is more urban than rural, with 61 percent living in urban areas in 2000, a trend that began in the early 20th century.[64] Urban counties in Iowa grew 8.5% from 2000 to 2008, while rural counties declined by 4.2%.[79] The shift from rural to urban has caused population increases in more urbanized counties such as Dallas, Johnson, Linn, Polk, and Scott, at the expense of more rural counties.[80]

Iowa, in common with other Midwestern states (especially Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota), is feeling the brunt of rural flight, although Iowa has been gaining population since approximately 1990. Some smaller communities, such as Denison and Storm Lake, have mitigated this population loss through gains in immigrant laborers.[81]

Another demographic problem for Iowa is the brain drain, in which educated young adults leave the state in search of better prospects in higher education or employment. During the 1990s, Iowa had the second highest exodus rate for single, educated young adults, second only to North Dakota.[82] Significant loss of educated young people contributes to economic stagnation and the loss of services for remaining citizens.

Iowa's largest cities and their surrounding areas
Recorded by the United States Census Bureau
Rank City 2017 city population[83] 2010 city population[84] Change Metropolitan Statistical Area 2017 metro population 2010 metro population 2017 metro change
1 Des Moines 217,521 203,433 +6.93% Des Moines–West Des Moines英语Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA MSA 645,911 569,633 +13.39%
2 Cedar Rapids 132,828 126,326 +5.15% Cedar Rapids英语Cedar Rapids MSA 270,293 257,940 +4.79%
3 Davenport 104,320 99,685 +4.65% Quad Cities英语Davenport-Moline-Rock Island MSA 382,263 379,090 +0.84%
4 Sioux City 82,514 82,684 −0.21% Sioux City英语Sioux City metropolitan area 168,618 168,563 +0.03%
5 Iowa City 75,798 67,862 +11.69% Iowa City英语Iowa City metropolitan area 171,491 152,586 +12.39%
6 Waterloo 67,587 68,406 −1.20% Waterloo–Cedar Falls英语Waterloo – Cedar Falls metropolitan area 169,892 167,819 +1.24%
7 Ames 66,498 58,965 +12.78% Ames 97,502 89,542 +8.89%
8 West Des Moines 65,608 56,609 +15.90% Des Moines–West Des Moines 645,911
9 Ankeny 62,416 45,582 +36.93% Des Moines–West Des Moines 645,911
10 Council Bluffs 62,316 62,230 +0.14% Omaha–Council Bluffs英语Omaha – Council Bluffs metropolitan area 933,316 865,350 +7.85%
11 Dubuque 58,276 57,637 +1.11% Dubuque 97,041 93,653 +3.62%
12 Urbandale 43,592 39,463 +10.46% Des Moines–West Des Moines 645,911
13 Cedar Falls 41,570 39,260 +5.88% Waterloo–Cedar Falls 169,892
14 Marion 39,400 34,768 +13.32% Cedar Rapids 270,293
15 Bettendorf 35,813 33,217 +7.82% Quad Cities 382,263

Birth data编辑

Population age comparison between rural Pocahontas County and urban Polk County, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centers in Iowa[85]

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race英语Race and ethnicity in the United States Census 2013[86] 2014[87] 2015[88] 2016[89] 2017[90]
White: 35,240 (90.1%) 35,528 (89.5%) 35,279 (89.3%) ... ...
> Non-Hispanic White英语Non-Hispanic whites 32,302 (82.6%) 32,423 (81.7%) 32,028 (81.1%) 31,376 (79.6%) 30,010 (78.1%)
Black 2,232 (5.7%) 2,467 (6.2%) 2,597 (6.6%) 2,467 (6.3%) 2,657 (6.9%)
Asian 1,353 (3.5%) 1,408 (3.5%) 1,364 (3.4%) 1,270 (3.2%) 1,321 (3.4%)
American Indian 269 (0.7%) 284 (0.7%) 242 (0.6%) 147 (0.4%) 311 (0.8%)
Hispanic (of any race) 3,175 (8.1%) 3,315 (8.3%) 3,418 (8.6%) 3,473 (8.8%) 3,527 (9.2%)
Total Iowa 39,094 (100%) 39,687 (100%) 39,482 (100%) 39,403 (100%) 38,430 (100%)


Amana Colonies英语Amana Colonies were founded by German Pietists.
Religion in Iowa (2014)[91]
religion percent
No religion
No answer

A 2001 survey from the City University of New York found 52% of Iowans are Protestant, while 23% are Catholic, and other religions made up 6%. 13% responded with non-religious, and 5% did not answer.[92] A survey from the Association of Religion Data Archives英语Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) in 2010 found that the largest Protestant denominations were the United Methodist Church with 235,190 adherents and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 229,557. The largest non Protestant religion was Catholicism with 503,080 adherents. The state has a great number of Reformed denominations. The Presbyterian Church (USA) had almost 290 congregations and 51,380 members followed by the Reformed Church in America with 80 churches and 40,000 members, and the United Church of Christ had 180 churches and 39,000 members.[93]

The study Religious Congregations & Membership: 2000[94] found in the southernmost two tiers of Iowa counties and in other counties in the center of the state, the largest religious group was the United Methodist Church; in the northeast part of the state, including Dubuque and Linn counties (where Cedar Rapids is located), the Catholic Church was the largest; and in ten counties, including three in the northern tier, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America was the largest. The study also found rapid growth in Evangelical Christian denominations. Dubuque is home to the Archdiocese of Dubuque, which serves as the ecclesiastical province for all 3 other dioceses in the state and for all the Catholics in the entire state of Iowa.

Historically, religious sects and orders who desired to live apart from the rest of society established themselves in Iowa, such as the Amish and Mennonite near Kalona and in other parts of eastern Iowa such as Davis County and Buchanan County.[95] Other religious sects and orders living apart include Quakers around West Branch and Le Grand, German Pietists who founded the Amana Colonies英语Amana Colonies, followers of Transcendental Meditation英语Transcendental Meditation who founded Maharishi Vedic City, and Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance monks and nuns at the New Melleray英语New Melleray Abbey and Our Lady of the Mississippi英语Our Lady of the Mississippi Abbey Abbies near Dubuque.

截至2016年 (2016-Missing required parameter 1=month!) about 6,000 Jews live in Iowa, with about 3000 of them in Des Moines.[96]


English is the most common language used in Iowa, used by 94% of the population.[97] William Labov英语William Labov and colleagues, in the monumental Atlas of North American English[98] found the English spoken in Iowa divides into multiple linguistic regions. Natives of northern Iowa – including Sioux City, Fort Dodge, and the Waterloo region – tend to speak the dialect linguists call North Central American English英语North Central American English, which is also found in North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Natives of central and southern Iowa – including such cities as Council Bluffs, Davenport, Des Moines, and Iowa City – tend to speak the North Midland英语Midland American English dialect also found in eastern Nebraska, central Illinois, and central Indiana.[99] Natives of East-Central Iowa – including cities such as Cedar Rapids, Dubuque, and Clinton tend to speak with the Northern Cities Vowel Shift英语Northern Cities Vowel Shift, a dialect that extends from this area and east across the Great Lakes Region.[100]

After English, Spanish is the second-most-common language spoken in Iowa, with 120,000 people in Iowa of Hispanic or Latino origin[101] and 47,000 people born in Latin America.[102] The third-most-common language is German, spoken by 17,000 people in Iowa;[97] two notable German dialects used in Iowa include Amana German英语Amana German spoken around the Amana Colonies英语Amana Colonies, and Pennsylvania German, spoken among the Amish in Iowa. The Babel Proclamation英语Babel Proclamation of 1918 banned the speaking of German in public. Around Pella, residents of Dutch descent once spoke the Pella Dutch dialect英语Pella Dutch dialect.

No other language is spoken by more than 0.5 percent of the Iowa population.[97] The only indigenous language used regularly in Iowa is Meskwaki英语Fox language, used around the Meskwaki Settlement英语Meskwaki Settlement.[103]


Central Iowa编辑

The Christina Reiman Butterfly Wing at Iowa State University, Ames

Ames is the home of Iowa State University, the Iowa State Center英语Iowa State Center, and Reiman Gardens英语Reiman Gardens.

Although the Omaha (Nebr.) Metropolitan Area英语Omaha Metro, which extends into southwest Iowa, is the largest in the state, Des Moines is the largest city in Iowa and the state's political and economic center. It is home to the Iowa State Capitol, the State Historical Society of Iowa英语State Historical Society of Iowa Museum, Drake University英语Drake University, Des Moines Art Center英语Des Moines Art Center, Greater Des Moines Botanical Garden英语Greater Des Moines Botanical Garden, Principal Riverwalk英语Principal Riverwalk, the Iowa State Fair英语Iowa State Fair, Terrace Hill英语Terrace Hill, and the World Food Prize. Nearby attractions include Adventureland英语Adventureland (Iowa) and Prairie Meadows Racetrack英语Prairie Meadows Racetrack Casino in Altoona, Living History Farms英语Living History Farms in Urbandale, Trainland USA in Colfax, and the Iowa Speedway英语Iowa Speedway and Valle Drive-In in Newton.

Skyline of Des Moines, Iowa's capital and largest city

Boone hosts the biennial Farm Progress Show英语Farm Progress Show and is home to the Mamie Doud Eisenhower museum, the Boone & Scenic Valley Railroad英语Boone & Scenic Valley Railroad, and Ledges State Park英语Ledges State Park.

The Meskwaki Settlement英语Meskwaki Settlement west of Tama is the only American Indian settlement in Iowa and is host to a large annual Pow-wow英语Pow-wow.

The Clint Eastwood movie The Bridges of Madison County, based on the popular novel of the same name, took place and was filmed in Madison County. Also in Madison County is the John Wayne Birthplace Museum in Winterset.

Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Newton, Indianola, Pella, Knoxville, Marshalltown, Perry, and Story City.

Eastern Iowa编辑

Old Capitol, Iowa City
Inside the Davenport Skybridge英语Davenport Skybridge

Iowa City is home to the University of Iowa, which includes the Iowa Writers' Workshop英语Iowa Writers' Workshop, and the Old Capitol building英语Iowa Old Capitol Building. Because of the extraordinary history in the teaching and sponsoring of creative writing that emanated from the Iowa Writers' Workshop英语Iowa Writers' Workshop and related programs, Iowa City was the first American city designated by the United Nations as a "City of Literature" in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network.

The Herbert Hoover National Historic Site英语Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum are in West Branch.

The Amana Colonies英语Amana Colonies, Iowa are a group of settlements of German Pietists comprising seven villages listed as National Historic Landmarks.

The Cedar Rapids Museum of Art英语Cedar Rapids Museum of Art has collections of paintings by Grant Wood and Marvin Cone英语Marvin Cone. Cedar Rapids is also home to the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library英语National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library and Iowa's only National Trust for Historic Preservation英语National Trust for Historic Preservation Site, Brucemore英语Brucemore mansion.

Davenport boasts the Figge Art Museum英语Figge Art Museum, River Music Experience英语River Music Experience, Putnam Museum英语Putnam Museum, Davenport Skybridge英语Davenport Skybridge, Quad City Symphony Orchestra英语Quad City Symphony Orchestra, Ballet Quad Cities英语Ballet Quad Cities, and plays host to the annual Bix Beiderbecke Memorial Jazz Festival英语Bix Beiderbecke Memorial Jazz Festival, and the Quad City Air Show英语Quad City Air Show, which is the largest airshow in the state.

Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include West Liberty, Fairfield, Burlington, Mount Pleasant, Fort Madison, LeClaire, Mount Vernon, Ottumwa, Washington, and Wilton.

Along Interstate 80 near Walcott, Iowa lies the world's largest truck stop, Iowa 80英语Iowa 80.

Western Iowa编辑

File:Grotto Arcade.jpg
View of Grotto of the Redemption英语Grotto of the Redemption's Lower Arcade: Small Stations of the Cross, West Bend

Some of the most dramatic scenery in Iowa is found in the unique Loess Hills英语Loess Hills. The Iowa Great Lakes英语Iowa Great Lakes include several resort areas such as Spirit Lake, Arnolds Park, and the Okoboji Lakes. The Sanford Museum and Planetarium in Cherokee, Grotto of the Redemption英语Grotto of the Redemption in West Bend, Arnolds Park Amusement Park (one of the oldest amusement parks in the country) in Arnolds Park, The Danish Immigrant Museum英语The Danish Immigrant Museum in Elk Horn, and the Fort Museum and Frontier Village in Fort Dodge are regional destinations.

Every year in early May, the city of Orange City holds the annual Tulip Festival, a celebration of the strong Dutch heritage in the region.[104]

Sioux City boasts a revitalized downtown, attractions include the Sergeant Floyd Monument英语Sergeant Floyd Monument, Sergeant Floyd英语Sergeant Floyd River Museum, and the Orpheum Theater英语Orpheum Theater (Sioux City).

Loess Hills east of Mondamin

Council Bluffs, part of the Omaha (Nebr.) Metropolitan Area英语Omaha Metro and a hub of southwest Iowa, sits at the base of the Loess Hills National Scenic Byway. With three casino resorts, the city also includes such cultural attractions as the Western Hills Trails Center, Union Pacific Railroad Museum, the Grenville M. Dodge House英语Grenville M. Dodge House, and the Lewis and Clark Monument, with clear views of the Downtown Omaha英语Downtown Omaha skyline found throughout the city.

Northwest Iowa is home to some of the largest concentrations of wind turbine farms in the world. Other western communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Storm Lake, Spencer, Le Mars, Glenwood, Carroll, Harlan, Atlantic, Red Oak, Denison, Creston, Mount Ayr, Sac City, and Walnut.

Northeast and Northern Iowa编辑

Ruins of historic Fort Atkinson英语Fort Atkinson State Preserve

The Driftless Area英语Driftless Area of northeast Iowa has many steep hills and deep valleys, checkered with forest and terraced fields. Effigy Mounds National Monument英语Effigy Mounds National Monument in Allamakee and Clayton Counties has the largest assemblage of animal-shaped prehistoric mounds in the world.

Waterloo is home of the Grout Museum英语Grout Museum and is headquarters of the Silos & Smokestacks National Heritage Area英语Silos & Smokestacks National Heritage Area. Cedar Falls is home of the University of Northern Iowa.

Dubuque is a regional tourist destination with attractions such as the National Mississippi River Museum and Aquarium英语National Mississippi River Museum and Aquarium and the Port of Dubuque英语Port of Dubuque.

Dyersville is home to the famed Field of Dreams英语Field of Dreams (Dubuque County, Iowa) baseball diamond. Maquoketa Caves State Park英语Maquoketa Caves State Park, near Maquoketa, contains more caves than any other state park.

Fort Atkinson State Preserve英语Fort Atkinson State Preserve in Fort Atkinson has the remains of an original 1840s Dragoon fortification.

Fort Dodge is home of The Fort historical museum and the Blanden Art Museum, and host Frontiers Days which celebrate the town history.

Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Decorah, McGregor, Mason City, Elkader, Guttenberg英语Guttenberg, Iowa, Algona, Spillville, Charles City, and Independence.


RAGBRAI – the Register's Annual Great Bike Ride Across Iowa – attracts thousands of bicyclists and support personnel. It has crossed the state on various routes each year since 1973. Iowa is home to more than 70 wineries,[105] and hosts five regional wine tasting trails.[106] Many Iowa communities hold farmers' markets during warmer months; these are typically weekly events, but larger cities can host multiple markets.[107]


Iowa state quarter with reverse image based on a painting by American artist Grant Wood

CNBC's list of "Top States for Business in 2010" has recognized Iowa as the sixth best state in the nation. Scored in 10 individual categories, Iowa was ranked 1st when it came to the "Cost of Doing Business"; this includes all taxes, utility costs, and other costs associated with doing business. Iowa was also ranked 10th in "Economy", 12th in "Business Friendliness", 16th in "Education", 17th in both "Cost of Living" and "Quality of Life", 20th in "Workforce", 29th in "Technology and Innovation", 32nd in "Transportation" and the lowest ranking was 36th in "Access to Capital".[108]

Iowa gross state products by industry, 2006[109]

While Iowa is often viewed as a farming state, agriculture is a relatively small portion of the state's diversified economy, with manufacturing, biotechnology, finance and insurance services, and government services contributing substantially to Iowa's economy.[63] This economic diversity has helped Iowa weather the late 2000s recession better than most states, with unemployment substantially lower than the rest of the nation.[110][111]

If the economy is measured by gross domestic product, in 2005 Iowa's GDP was about US$124 billion.[112] If measured by gross state product, for 2005 it was US$113.5 billion.[113] Its per capita income for 2006 was US$23,340.[113]

On July 2, 2009, Standard & Poor's rated the state of Iowa's credit as AAA (the highest of its credit ratings, held by only 11 U.S. state governments).[114]

As of December 2015, the state's unemployment rate is 3.4%.[115]


Manufacturing is the largest sector of Iowa's economy, with $20.8 billion (21%) of Iowa's 2003 gross state product. Major manufacturing sectors include food processing, heavy machinery, and agricultural chemicals. Sixteen percent of Iowa's workforce is dedicated to manufacturing.[63]

Food processing is the largest component of manufacturing. Besides processed food, industrial outputs include machinery, electric equipment, chemical products, publishing, and primary metals. Companies with direct or indirect processing facilities in Iowa include ConAgra Foods, Wells Blue Bunny英语Wells Dairy, Barilla英语Barilla Group, Heinz, Tone's Spices, General Mills, and Quaker Oats. Meatpacker Tyson Foods has 11 locations, second only to its headquarter state Arkansas.[116]

Major non-food manufacturing firms with production facilities in Iowa include 3M, ALCOA, Amana Corporation英语Amana Corporation, Dexter Apache Holdings, Inc., Electrolux/Frigidaire英语Frigidaire, Emerson Process Management, Fisher Controls International, Hagie Manufacturing Company, HON Industries英语HON Industries, The HON Company英语The HON Company, SSAB英语SSAB, John Deere, Lennox Manufacturing英语Lennox International, Maytag Corporation英语Maytag Corporation, Pella Corporation英语Pella (company), Procter & Gamble, Rockwell Collins, Terex英语Terex, Vermeer Company英语Vermeer Company, and Winnebago Industries.[來源請求]


Harvesting corn in Jones County
Farm in rural Northwest Iowa
Central Iowa cornfield and dairy in June

Though industrial-scale, commodity agriculture predominates in much of the state, Iowa has seen growth in the organic farming sector. Iowa ranks fifth in the nation in total number of organic farms. In 2016, there were approximately 732 organic farms in the state, an increase of about 5% from the previous year, and 103,136 organic acres, an increase of 9,429 from the previous year.[117][118] Iowa has also seen an increase in demand for local, sustainably-grown food. Northeast Iowa, part of the Driftless Area英语Driftless Area, has led the state in development of its regional food system and grows and consumes more local food than any other region in Iowa.[119][120]

Iowa's Driftless Region is also home to the nationally recognized Seed Savers Exchange英语Seed Savers Exchange, a non-profit seed bank英语seed bank housed at an 890-acre heritage farm near Decorah, in the northeast corner of the state.[121][122] The largest nongovernmental seed bank of its kind in the United States, Seed Savers Exchange safeguards over 20,000 varieties of rare, heirloom seeds.[123]

As of 2007, the direct production and sale of conventional agricultural commodities contributed only about 3.5% of Iowa's gross state product.[124] In 2002 the impact of the indirect role of agriculture in Iowa's economy, including agriculture-affiliated business, was calculated at 16.4% in terms of value added and 24.3% in terms of total output. This was lower than the economic impact of non-farm manufacturing, which accounted for 22.4% of total value added and 26.5% of total output.[125] Iowa's main conventional agricultural commodities are hogs, corn, soybeans, oats, cattle, eggs, and dairy products. Iowa is the nation's largest producer of ethanol and corn and some years is the largest grower of soybeans. In 2008, the 92,600 farms in Iowa produced 19% of the nation's corn, 17% of the soybeans, 30% of the hogs, and 14% of the eggs.[126]

Mural in Mt. Ayr Post Office, "The Corn Parade" by Orr C. Fischer, commissioned as part of the New Deal[127]

截至2009年 (2009-Missing required parameter 1=month!) major Iowa agricultural product processors include Archer Daniels Midland, Ajinomoto, Cargill, Inc., Diamond V Mills, Garst Seed Company英语Garst Seed Company, Heartland Pork Enterprises, Hy-Vee英语Hy-Vee, Monsanto Company, Pioneer Hi-Bred International英语Pioneer Hi-Bred International, and Quaker Oats.[128][來源請求]

Health insurance编辑

As of 2014, there were 16 organizations offering health insurance products in Iowa, per the State of Iowa Insurance Division.[129] Iowa was the 4th out of 10 states with the biggest drop in competition levels of health insurance between 2010 and 2011, per the 2013 annual report on the level of competition in the health insurance industry by the American Medical Association[130] using 2011 data from HealthLeaders-Interstudy, the most comprehensive source of data on enrollment in health maintenance organization英语health maintenance organization (HMO), preferred provider organization英语preferred provider organization (PPO), point-of-service英语point-of-service (POS) and consumer-driven health care英语consumer-driven health care plans.[131] According to the AMA annual report from 2007 Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield英语Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield had provided 71% of the state's health insurance.[132]

The Iowa Insurance Division "Annual report to the Iowa Governor and the Iowa Legislature" from November 2014 looked at the 95% of health insurers by premium, which are 10 companies. It found Wellmark Inc. to dominate the 3 health insurance markets it examined (individual, small group and large group) at 52–67%.[133]:2 Wellmark HealthPlan of Iowa and Wellmark Inc had the highest risk-based capital percentages of all 10 providers at 1158% and 1132%, respectively.[133]:31 Rising RBC is an indication of profits.[133]:31

Other sectors编辑

Ethanol plant under construction in Butler County
Wind turbines near Williams

Iowa has a strong financial and insurance sector, with approximately 6,100 firms,[63] including AEGON, Nationwide Group英语Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, Aviva USA, Farm Bureau Financial Services英语Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, Voya Financial英语Voya Financial, Marsh Affinity Group英语Marsh & McLennan Companies, MetLife, Principal Financial Group, Principal Capital Management英语Principal Capital Management, Wells Fargo, and University of Iowa Community Credit Union.

Iowa is host to at least two business incubators, Iowa State University Research Park and the BioVentures Center at the University of Iowa.[134] The Research Park hosts about 50 companies, among them NewLink Genetics, which develops cancer immunotherapeutics, and the U.S. animal health division of Boehringer Ingelheim, Vetmedica.[134]

Ethanol production consumes approximately one-third of Iowa's corn production, and renewable fuels account for 8% of the state's gross domestic product. A total of 39 ethanol plants produced 3.1 × 109美制加侖(12,000,000立方米) of fuel in 2009.[135]

Renewable energy has become a major economic force in northern and western Iowa, with wind turbine electrical generation increasing exponentially since 1990.[10] In 2010, wind power in Iowa英语wind power in Iowa accounted for 15.4% of electrical energy produced, and 3675 megawatts of generating capacity had been installed at the end of the year.[136] Iowa ranked first of U.S. states in percentage of total power generated by wind and second in wind generating capacity behind Texas.[136] Major producers of turbines and components in Iowa include Acciona Energy英语Acciona Energy of West Branch, TPI Composites of Newton, and Siemens Energy of Fort Madison.

In 2016, Iowa was the headquarters for three of the top 2,000 companies for revenue.[137] They include Principal Financial, Rockwell Collins, and American Equity Investment.[138][139][140] Iowa is also headquarters to other companies including Hy-Vee英语Hy-Vee, Pella Corporation英语Pella (company), Vermeer Company英语Vermeer Company, Kum & Go英语Kum & Go gas stations, Von Maur英语Von Maur, Pioneer Hi-Bred英语Pioneer Hi-Bred, and Fareway英语Fareway.[141][142][143][144][145][146][147]


Iowa imposes taxes on net state income of individuals, estates, and trusts. There are nine income tax brackets, ranging from 0.36% to 8.98%, as well as four corporate income tax brackets ranging from 6–12%, giving Iowa the country's highest marginal corporate tax rate.[148] The state sales tax rate is 6%, with non-prepared food having no tax.[149] Iowa has one local option sales tax that may be imposed by counties after an election.[150] Property tax is levied on the taxable value of real property. Iowa has more than 2,000 taxing authorities. Most property is taxed by more than one taxing authority. The tax rate differs in each locality and is a composite of county, city or rural township, school district and special levies. Iowa allows its residents to deduct their federal income tax英语federal income taxes from their state income taxes.[151]


Interstate highways编辑

Iowa's major interstates, larger cities, and counties

Iowa has four primary interstate highways. Interstate 29英语Interstate 29 in Iowa (I-29) travels along the state's western edge through Council Bluffs and Sioux City. I-35英语Interstate 35 in Iowa travels from the Missouri state line to the Minnesota state line through the state's center, including Des Moines. I-74英语Interstate 74 in Iowa begins at I-80 just northeast of Davenport. I-80 travels from the Nebraska state line to the Illinois state line through the center of the state, including Council Bluffs, Des Moines, Iowa City, and the Quad Cities. I-380英语Interstate 380 (Iowa) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway, which travels from I-80 near Iowa City through Cedar Rapids ending in Waterloo and is part of the Avenue of the Saints英语Avenue of the Saints highway. Iowa is among the few jurisdictions where municipalities install speed cameras on interstate highways providing a substantial revenue source from out of state drivers.[152]

Airports with scheduled flights编辑

Iowa is served by several regional airports including the Des Moines International Airport, the Eastern Iowa Airport英语Eastern Iowa Airport, in Cedar Rapids, Quad City International Airport英语Quad City International Airport, in Moline, Illinois, and Eppley Airfield英语Eppley Airfield, in Omaha, Nebraska. Smaller airports in the state include the Davenport Municipal Airport (Iowa)英语Davenport Municipal Airport (Iowa), Dubuque Regional Airport英语Dubuque Regional Airport, Fort Dodge Regional Airport英语Fort Dodge Regional Airport, Mason City Municipal Airport英语Mason City Municipal Airport, Sioux Gateway Airport英语Sioux Gateway Airport, Southeast Iowa Regional Airport英语Southeast Iowa Regional Airport, and Waterloo Regional Airport英语Waterloo Regional Airport.[來源請求]


Amtrak's California Zephyr serves the south of Iowa with stops at Burlington, Mount Pleasant, Ottumwa, Osceola, and Creston on its daily route between Chicago and Emeryville, California (across the bay from San Francisco). Fort Madison is served by Amtrak's Southwest Chief英语Southwest Chief, running daily between Chicago and Los Angeles.[來源請求]

Law and government编辑


The Iowa State Capitol, completed in 1886, is the only state capitol in the United States to feature five domes, a central golden dome surrounded by four smaller domes. It houses the Iowa General Assembly, comprising the Iowa House of Representatives and Iowa Senate.
The Supreme Court of Iowa英语Supreme Court of Iowa, located on Court Avenue across from the state capitol in Des Moines, is the state's highest court.

截至2018年 (2018-Missing required parameter 1=month!), the 43rd and current Governor of Iowa英语Governor of Iowa is Kim Reynolds英语Kim Reynolds (R).

Other statewide elected officials are:

The Code of Iowa英语Code of Iowa contains Iowa's statutory laws. It is periodically updated by the Iowa Legislative Service Bureau, with a new edition published in odd-numbered years and a supplement published in even-numbered years.

Iowa is an alcohol monopoly or alcoholic beverage control state英语alcoholic beverage control state.


The two U.S. Senators:

The four U.S. Representatives:

After the 2010 United States Census and the resulting redistricting, Iowa lost one seat in Congress, falling to four seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. Incumbent U.S. Representatives Leonard Boswell英语Leonard Boswell (D) and Tom Latham (R) ran against each other in 2012英语United States House of Representatives elections in Iowa, 2012 in the third congressional district which had new boundaries; Latham won and retired after the 2014 elections英语United States House of Representatives elections in Iowa, 2014. King represented the old fifth congressional district英语Iowa's 5th congressional district.

Political parties编辑

Samuel J. Kirkwood英语Samuel J. Kirkwood, founder of the Iowa Republican Party, abolitionist, and Iowa's Civil War Governor

In Iowa, the term "political party" refers to political organizations which have received two percent or more of the votes cast for president or governor in the "last preceding general election". Iowa recognizes three political parties – the Republican Party英语Republican Party of Iowa, the Democratic Party英语Iowa Democratic Party, and the Libertarian Party.[153] The Libertarian Party obtained official political party status in 2017 as a result of presidential candidate Gary Johnson receiving 3.8% of the Iowa vote in the 2016 general election.[154] Third parties, officially termed "nonparty political organizations", can appear on the ballot as well. Four of these have had candidates on the ballot in Iowa since 2004 for various positions: the Constitution Party, the Green Party, the Pirate Party英语United States Pirate Party, and the Socialist Workers Party.[155][156]

Voter trends编辑

As a result of the 2010 elections, each party controlled one house of the Iowa General Assembly: the House had a Republican majority, while the Senate had a Democratic majority. As a result of the 2016 elections, Republicans gained control of the Senate. Incumbent Democratic governor Chet Culver was defeated in 2010 by Republican Terry Branstad, who had served as governor from 1983 to 1999. On December 14, 2015, Branstad became the longest serving governor in U.S. history, serving (at that time) 20 years, 11 months, and 3 days; eclipsing George Clinton, who served 21 years until 1804.[157] Lieutenant Governor Kim Reynolds succeeded him on May 24, 2017, following Branstad's appointment as U.S. Ambassador to China.

As of February 1, 2016, there were 2,095,639 registered voters. 635,687 or 30.3% were Democrats, 800,629 or 38.2% of voters were not registered in a party, 651,039 or 31.1% were Republicans, and 8,284 or 0.004% were registered with another party.[158]

Presidential caucus编辑

The state gets considerable attention every four years because the Iowa caucus英语Iowa caucus, gatherings of voters to select delegates to the state conventions, is the first presidential caucus in the country. The caucuses, held in January or February of the election year, involve people gathering in homes or public places and choosing their candidates, rather than casting secret ballots as is done in a presidential primary election.[來源請求] Along with the New Hampshire primary英语New Hampshire primary the following week, Iowa's caucuses have become the starting points for choosing the two major-party candidates for president.[159] The national and international media give Iowa and New Hampshire extensive attention, which gives Iowa voters leverage.[160] Those who enter the caucus race often expend enormous effort to reach voters in each of Iowa's 99 counties.[來源請求]

Civil rights编辑

Racial equality编辑

The Union Block英语Union Block (Mount Pleasant, Iowa) building, Mount Pleasant, scene of early civil rights and women's rights activities

In the 19th century Iowa was among the earliest states to enact prohibitions against race discrimination, especially in education, but was slow to achieve full integration in the 20th century. In the very first decision of the Supreme Court of Iowa英语Supreme Court of IowaIn Re the Matter of Ralph,[161] decided July 1839–the Court rejected slavery in a decision that found a slave named Ralph became free when he stepped on Iowa soil, 26 years before the end of the Civil War.[162] The state did away with racial barriers to marriage in 1851, more than 100 years before the U.S. Supreme Court would ban miscegenation statutes nationwide.[163]

The Iowa Supreme Court decided Clark v. The Board of Directors[164] in 1868, ruling that racially segregated "separate but equal" schools had no place in Iowa, 85 years before Brown v. Board of Education.[162] By 1875, a number of additional court rulings effectively ended segregation in Iowa schools.[165] Social and housing discrimination continued against Blacks at state universities until the 1950s.[166] The Court heard Coger v. The North Western Union Packet Co.[167] in 1873, ruling against racial discrimination in public accommodations 91 years before the U.S. Supreme Court reached the same decision.[162]

In 1884, the Iowa Civil Rights Act apparently outlawed discrimination by businesses, reading: "All persons within this state shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, restaurants, chophouses, eating houses, lunch counters, and all other places where refreshments are served, public conveyances, barber shops, bathhouses, theaters, and all other places of amusement." However, the courts chose to narrowly apply this act, allowing de facto discrimination to continue.[168] Racial discrimination at public businesses was not deemed illegal until 1949, when the court ruled in State of Iowa v. Katz英语State of Iowa v. Katz that businesses had to serve customers regardless of race; the case began when Edna Griffin英语Edna Griffin was denied service at a Des Moines drugstore.[169] Full racial civil rights were codified under the Iowa Civil Rights Act of 1965.[170]

Women's rights编辑

As with racial equality, Iowa was a vanguard in women's rights in the mid-19th century, but was slow to give women the right to vote. In 1847, the University of Iowa became the first public university in the U.S. to admit men and women on an equal basis.[171] In 1869, Iowa became the first state in the union to admit women to the practice of law, with the Court ruling women may not be denied the right to practice law in Iowa and admitting Arabella A. Mansfield英语Arabella A. Mansfield to the practice of law.[162] Several attempts to grant full voting rights to Iowa women were defeated between 1870 and 1919. In 1894 women were given "partial suffrage", which allowed them to vote on issues, but not for candidates. It was not until the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1920 that women had full suffrage in Iowa.[172] Although Iowa supported the Federal Equal Rights Amendment, in 1980 and 1992 Iowa voters rejected an Equal Rights Amendment to the state constitution.[173] Iowa did add the word "women" to the Iowa Constitution in 1998. After Amendment, it reads: "All men and women are, by nature, free and equal, and have certain inalienable rights – among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness." [174]

In May 2018 Iowa signed into law one of the country's most restrictive abortion bans: the requirement that a doctor cannot perform an abortion if they can detect a fetal heartbeat, which in many cases would restrict abortions pregnancies less than six weeks old, a period of time many women do not even know they are pregnant. In January 2019 an Iowa state judge struck down the so-called "fetal heartbeat" law, saying it was unconstitutional.[175]

Political speech编辑

In the aftermath of the civil rights movement, court decisions in Iowa clarified and expanded citizens' rights. The landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District英语Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969) confirmed the right of students to express political views. The state's law criminalizing same-sex sexual activity was repealed in June 1976, 27 years before Lawrence v. Texas.

LGBT rights编辑

In 2007, the Iowa Legislature added "sexual orientation" and "gender identity" to the protected classes listed in the Iowa Civil Rights Act.[176]

On April 3, 2009, the Iowa Supreme Court decided Varnum v. Brien英语Varnum v. Brien,[177] holding in a unanimous decision,[178] the state's law forbidding same-sex marriage was unconstitutional英语unconstitutional. This made Iowa the third state in the U.S. and first in the Midwest to permit same-sex marriage.[179][180]

Sister jurisdictions编辑

Iowa has ten official partner jurisdictions:[181]


Primary and secondary schools编辑

Iowa is often credited with the start of the high school movement in the U.S. Around 1910, secondary schools as we know them today were established across the state, which was unprecedented at the time. As the high school movement gathered pace and went beyond Iowa, there was clear evidence of how more time spent in school led to greater income.[來源請求]

The four-year graduation rate for high schoolers was 90% in 2015.[182] The state has the top graduation rate in the nation.[183] Iowa has 365 school districts,[184] and has the 12th lowest student-to-teacher ratio of 13.8.[185] Teacher pay is ranked 42nd, with the average salary being $39,284.[185]

The Iowa State Board of Education works with the Iowa Department of Education to provide oversight, supervision, and support for the state's education system that includes all public elementary and secondary schools, nonpublic schools that receive state accreditation, area education agencies, community colleges, and teacher preparation programs. The State Board consists of ten members: nine voting members who are appointed by the governor for six-year terms and subject to Senate confirmation; and one nonvoting student member who serves a one-year term, also appointed by the governor. The Iowa Board of Educational Examiners is an autonomous board in control of teacher licensure standards and professional discipline; it has a majority of licensed teachers as members and is the oldest state educational board.[來源請求]

截至2015年 (2015-Missing required parameter 1=month!) transportation spending is a significant part of the budgets of rural school districts as many are geographically large and must transport students across vast distances. This reduces the amount of money spent on other aspects of the districts.[186]

Colleges and universities编辑

Christ the King Chapel at Saint Ambrose University英语Saint Ambrose University in Davenport
Palmer Chiropractic College in Davenport is the first school of chiropractic in the world.
Alexander Dickman Hall, located at Upper Iowa University英语Upper Iowa University in Fayette

The Iowa Board of Regents英语Board of Regents, State of Iowa is composed of nine citizen volunteers appointed by the governor to provide policymaking, coordination, and oversight of the state's public universities, two special K-12 schools, and affiliated centers.

Iowa's three public universities include:

The special K-12 schools include the Iowa School for the Deaf英语Iowa School for the Deaf in Council Bluffs and the Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School英语Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School in Vinton. Both Iowa State University and The University of Iowa are major research institutions and members of the prestigious Association of American Universities. In addition to the three state universities, Iowa has multiple private colleges and universities.

Private colleges and universities include:

Private liberal arts colleges include:




The state has four major college teams playing in Division I for all sports. In football, Iowa State University and the University of Iowa compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), whereas the University of Northern Iowa and Drake University英语Drake University compete in the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). Although Iowa has no professional major league sports teams, Iowa has minor league sports teams in baseball, basketball, hockey, and other sports.

The following table shows the Iowa sports teams with average attendance over 8,000. All of the following teams are NCAA Division I football, basketball, or wrestling teams:[187][188][189][190]

Iowa sports teams (attendance > 8,000)
Team Location Attendance
Iowa Hawkeyes football英语Iowa Hawkeyes football Iowa City 67,512
Iowa State Cyclones football英语Iowa State Cyclones football Ames 52,197
Iowa Hawkeyes men's basketball英语Iowa Hawkeyes men's basketball Iowa City 14,976
Iowa State Cyclones men's basketball英语Iowa State Cyclones men's basketball Ames 14,192
Northern Iowa Panthers football英语Northern Iowa Panthers football Cedar Falls 12,490
Iowa State Cyclones women's basketball英语Iowa State Cyclones women's basketball Ames 9,289
Iowa Hawkeye Wrestling英语Iowa Hawkeyes wrestling Iowa City 8,358

College sports编辑

The state has four NCAA Division I college teams. In NCAA FBS, the University of Iowa Hawkeyes英语Iowa Hawkeyes play in the Big Ten Conference and the Iowa State University Cyclones英语Iowa State Cyclones compete in the Big 12 Conference. The two intrastate rivals compete annually for the Cy-Hawk Trophy英语Cy-Hawk Trophy as part of the Iowa Corn Cy-Hawk Series英语Iowa Corn Cy-Hawk Series.

In NCAA FCS, the University of Northern Iowa Panthers英语Northern Iowa Panthers play at the Missouri Valley Conference英语Missouri Valley Conference and Missouri Valley Football Conference英语Missouri Valley Football Conference (despite the similar names, the conferences are administratively separate), whereas the Drake University英语Drake University Bulldogs英语Drake Bulldogs play at the Missouri Valley Conference in most sports and Pioneer League英语Pioneer Football League for football.

Modern Woodmen Park英语Modern Woodmen Park is home to the Quad Cities英语Quad Cities River Bandits baseball team.


Des Moines is home to the Iowa Cubs英语Iowa Cubs, a Class AAA team in the Pacific Coast League and affiliate of the Chicago Cubs. Iowa has four Class A minor league teams in the Midwest League英语Midwest League: the Burlington Bees英语Burlington Bees, Cedar Rapids Kernels, Clinton LumberKings英语Clinton LumberKings, and the Quad Cities River Bandits英语Quad Cities River Bandits. The Sioux City Explorers英语Sioux City Explorers are part of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball英语American Association of Independent Professional Baseball.

Ice hockey编辑

Des Moines is home to the Iowa Wild英语Iowa Wild, who are affiliated with the Minnesota Wild and are members of the American Hockey League.

The United States Hockey League英语United States Hockey League has five teams in Iowa: the Cedar Rapids RoughRiders英语Cedar Rapids RoughRiders, Sioux City Musketeers英语Sioux City Musketeers, Waterloo Black Hawks英语Waterloo Black Hawks, Des Moines Buccaneers英语Des Moines Buccaneers, and the Dubuque Fighting Saints英语Dubuque Fighting Saints. The North Iowa Bulls英语North Iowa Bulls play in the North American 3 Hockey League英语North American 3 Hockey League in Mason City.


The Des Moines Menace英语Des Moines Menace of the USL League Two英语USL League Two play their home games at Drake Stadium (Drake University)英语Drake Stadium (Drake University) in Des Moines, Iowa. Starting in the 2015–16 season of the Major Arena Soccer League英语Major Arena Soccer League, the Cedar Rapids Rampage英语Cedar Rapids Rampage plays in the U.S. Cellular Center英语U.S. Cellular Center (Cedar Rapids, Iowa). As well as the Cedar Rapids Rampage United英语Cedar Rapids Rampage United plays at Kingston Stadium.

Other sports编辑

Iowa is a hotbed of wrestling in the United States. Iowa and Iowa State have won a combined 30 NCAA Division I titles.

Iowa has two professional basketball teams. The Iowa Wolves英语Iowa Wolves, an NBA G League team that plays in Des Moines, is owned and affiliated with the Minnesota Timberwolves of the NBA. The Sioux City Hornets play in the American Basketball Association.

Iowa has three professional football teams. The Sioux City Bandits英语Sioux City Bandits play in the Champions Indoor Football英语Champions Indoor Football league. The Iowa Barnstormers英语Iowa Barnstormers play in the Indoor Football League英语Indoor Football League at Wells Fargo Arena英语Wells Fargo Arena (Des Moines) in Des Moines. The Cedar Rapids Titans英语Cedar Rapids Titans play in the Indoor Football League英语Indoor Football League at the U.S. Cellular Center英语U.S. Cellular Center (Cedar Rapids, Iowa).

The Iowa Speedway英语Iowa Speedway oval track has hosted auto racing championships such as the IndyCar Series英语IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series英语NASCAR Nationwide Series and NASCAR Truck Series英语NASCAR Truck Series since 2006. Also, the Knoxville Raceway英语Knoxville Raceway dirt track hosts the Knoxville Nationals英语Knoxville Nationals, one of the classic sprint car racing英语sprint car racing events.

The John Deere Classic is a PGA Tour golf event held in the Quad Cities since 1971. The Principal Charity Classic英语Principal Charity Classic is a Champions Tour英语Champions Tour event since 2001. The Des Moines Golf and Country Club英语Des Moines Golf and Country Club hosted the 1999 U.S. Senior Open英语U.S. Senior Open and has scheduled the 2017 Solheim Cup英语Solheim Cup.

Notable Iowans编辑

President Herbert Hoover
Vice President Henry Wallace

Iowa is the birthplace of U.S. President Herbert Hoover, Vice President Henry A. Wallace, and two first ladies, Lou Henry Hoover and Mamie Eisenhower. Other national leaders who lived in Iowa include President Ronald Reagan, President Richard Nixon, John L. Lewis, Harry Hopkins, Carrie Chapman Catt英语Carrie Chapman Catt, Jefferson Davis, Chief Black Hawk英语Black Hawk (chief), and John Brown.

Five Nobel Prize winners hail from Iowa: Norman Borlaug, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize; Thomas Cech, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; Alan J. Heeger, also a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; John Mott, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize; and Stanley B. Prusiner, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Other notable scientists who worked or were born in Iowa include astronomer and space pioneer James A. Van Allen, ecologist Aldo Leopold, computer pioneer John Vincent Atanasoff, inventor and plant scientist George Washington Carver, geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson, and Intel co-founder Robert Noyce.

Notable writers, artists, and news personalities from Iowa include Bill Bryson, Corey Taylor英语Corey Taylor, George Gallup, Susan Glaspell, Mauricio Lasansky英语Mauricio Lasansky, Tomas Lasansky英语Tomas Lasansky, Harry Reasoner英语Harry Reasoner, Phil Stong英语Phil Stong, James Hearst英语James Hearst, and Grant Wood.

Musicians, actors, and entertainers from Iowa include Tom Arnold英语Tom Arnold (actor), Julia Michaels, Bix Beiderbecke, Johnny Carson, Buffalo Bill Cody, Simon Estes英语Simon Estes, Nathan Jonas Jordison, Corey Taylor英语Corey Taylor, Shawn Crahan英语Shawn Crahan, William Frawley英语William Frawley, Charlie Haden英语Charlie Haden, Ashton Kutcher, Cloris Leachman, Glenn Miller, Kate Mulgrew英语Kate Mulgrew, Eric Christian Olsen, Donna Reed, George Reeves英语George Reeves, Brandon Routh, Jean Seberg, Tionne Watkins英语Tionne Watkins of TLC, John Wayne, Brooks Wheelan英语Brooks Wheelan, Andy Williams, Meredith Willson英语Meredith Willson, and Elijah Wood.

Olympic gold medal-winning athletes from Iowa include Tom Brands英语Tom Brands, Dan Gable英语Dan Gable, Shawn Johnson, and Cael Sanderson. Iowa athletes inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame include Cap Anson英语Cap Anson, Fred Clarke英语Fred Clarke, and Bob Feller. In college football, Jay Berwanger英语Jay Berwanger was the first winner of the Downtown Athletic Club英语Downtown Athletic Club Trophy in 1935, later renamed the Heisman Trophy and won by Nile Kinnick英语Nile Kinnick in 1939. In professional football, Kurt Warner英语Kurt Warner was the Super Bowl XXXIV MVP winner and a two-time NFL MVP award winner. Frank Gotch英语Frank Gotch was a World Heavyweight Wrestling Champion英语List of early world heavyweight champions in professional wrestling, Zach Johnson won the 2007 Masters Golf Tournament英语2007 Masters Tournament and the 2015 British Open, and Jeremy Hellickson won the 2011 American League Rookie of the Year award pitching for the Tampa Bay Rays. Former WWE Heavyweight Champion Seth Rollins is from Davenport. The first UFC Welterweight Champion英语UFC Welterweight Champion and a member of the UFC Hall of Fame英语UFC Hall of Fame, Pat Miletich英语Pat Miletich, was born in Davenport.

See also编辑


  1. ^ The Missouri and Mississippi river boundaries are as they were mapped in the 19th century, which can vary from their modern courses.


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Further reading编辑

External links编辑

List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on December 28, 1846 (29th)

坐标42°N 93°W / 42°N 93°W / 42; -93 Category:1846 establishments in the United States英语Category:1846 establishments in the United States