18世紀起的醫學文獻中就有描述過類似注意力不足過動症的症狀。自1970年起，就有出現有關注意力不足過動症疾病本身、其診斷及治療方式的爭議，爭議和臨床醫師、教師、政策訂定者、家長及媒體有關。爭議焦點包括ADHD的病因，以及是否要用興奮劑來治療ADHD。目前大部份的醫療人員都接受ADHD是兒童及成人的遺傳性疾病，科學界的爭議點則是在其診斷方式及治療方式。此疾病在1980年至1987年的正式名稱是注意力缺失症（attention-deficit disorder，簡稱ADD），在更早期的名稱是兒童過度活躍的反應（hyperkinetic reaction of childhood）。
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^ 77.077.1Ertürk E, Wouters S, Imeraj L, Lampo A. Association of ADHD and Celiac Disease: What Is the Evidence? A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Attention Disorders (Review). January 2016: 108705471561149. PMID 26825336. doi:10.1177/1087054715611493. Up till now, there is no conclusive evidence for a relationship between ADHD and CD. Therefore, it is not advised to perform routine screening of CD when assessing ADHD (and vice versa) or to implement GFD as a standard treatment in ADHD. Nevertheless, the possibility of untreated CD predisposing to ADHD-like behavior should be kept in mind. ... It is possible that in untreated patients with CD, neurologic symptoms such as chronic fatigue, inattention, pain, and headache could predispose patients to ADHD-like behavior (mainly symptoms of inattentive type), which may be alleviated after GFD treatment. (CD: celiac disease; GFD: gluten-free diet)
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^Hyperactivity: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus. 2018-07-09 [2018-07-15]. （原始内容存档于2017-07-15）. Hyperactivity is often considered more of a problem for schools and parents than it is for the child. But many hyperactive children are unhappy, or even depressed. Hyperactive behavior may make a child a target for bullying, or make it harder to connect with other children. Schoolwork may be more difficult. Kids who are hyperactive are frequently punished for their behavior.
Excessive movement (hyperkinetic behavior) often decreases as the child grows older. It may disappear entirely by adolescence.参数|quote=值左起第378位存在換行符 (帮助)
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^Maturation of the brain, as reflected in the age at which a cortex area attains peak thickness, in ADHD (above) and normal development (below). Lighter areas are thinner, darker areas thicker. Light blue in the ADHD sequence corresponds to the same thickness as light purple in the normal development sequence. The darkest areas in the lower part of the brain, which are not associated with ADHD, had either already peaked in thickness by the start of the study, or, for statistical reasons, were not amenable to defining an age of peak cortex thickness. Movie of same data below. Source: NIMH Child Psychiatry Branch
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^Berry MD. The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials. January 2007, 2 (1): 3–19. PMID 18473983. doi:10.2174/157488707779318107. （原始内容存档于2017-02-01）. Although there is little direct evidence, changes in trace amines, in particular PE, have been identified as a possible factor for the onset of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). … Further, amphetamines, which have clinical utility in ADHD, are good ligands at trace amine receptors. Of possible relevance in this aspect is modafanil, which has shown beneficial effects in ADHD patients and has been reported to enhance the activity of PE at TAAR1. Conversely, methylphenidate, …showed poor efficacy at the TAAR1 receptor. In this respect it is worth noting that the enhancement of functioning at TAAR1 seen with modafanil was not a result of a direct interaction with TAAR1.已忽略未知参数|citeseerx= (帮助)
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^ 175.0175.1Kiely B, Adesman A. What we do not know about ADHD… yet. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. June 2015, 27 (3): 395–404. PMID 25888152. doi:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000229. In addition, a consensus has not been reached on the optimal diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Moreover, the benefits and long-term effects of medical and complementary therapies for this disorder continue to be debated. These gaps in knowledge hinder the ability of clinicians to effectively recognize and treat ADHD.
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^Cortese, Samuele; Adamo, Nicoletta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Mohr-Jensen, Christina; Hayes, Adrian J; Carucci, Sara; Atkinson, Lauren Z; Tessari, Luca; Banaschewski, Tobias; Coghill, David; Hollis, Chris; Simonoff, Emily; Zuddas, Alessandro; Barbui, Corrado; Purgato, Marianna; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Shokraneh, Farhad; Xia, Jun; Cipriani, Andrea. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry. September 2018, 5 (9): 727–738. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30269-4.
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^Biederman, Joseph. New-Generation Long-Acting Stimulants for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Medscape. 2003 [19 June 2016]. （原始内容存档于7 December 2003）. As most treatment guidelines and prescribing information for stimulant medications relate to experience in school-aged children, prescribed doses for older patients are lacking. Emerging evidence for both methylphenidate and Adderall indicate that when weight-corrected daily doses, equipotent with those used in the treatment of younger patients, are used to treat adults with ADHD, these patients show a very robust clinical response consistent with that observed in pediatric studies. These data suggest that older patients may require a more aggressive approach in terms of dosing, based on the same target dosage ranges that have already been established – for methylphenidate, 1–1.5–2 mg/kg/day, and for D,L-amphetamine, 0.5–0.75–1 mg/kg/day.... In particular, adolescents and adults are vulnerable to underdosing, and are thus at potential risk of failing to receive adequate dosage levels. As with all therapeutic agents, the efficacy and safety of stimulant medications should always guide prescribing behavior: careful dosage titration of the selected stimulant product should help to ensure that each patient with ADHD receives an adequate dose, so that the clinical benefits of therapy can be fully attained.
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^ 187.0187.1187.2Shoptaw SJ, Kao U, Ling W. Shoptaw SJ, Ali R, 编. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. January 2009, (1): CD003026. PMID 19160215. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3. A minority of individuals who use amphetamines develop full-blown psychosis requiring care at emergency departments or psychiatric hospitals. In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation. More common (about 18%) is for frequent amphetamine users to report psychotic symptoms that are sub-clinical and that do not require high-intensity intervention ... About 5–15% of the users who develop an amphetamine psychosis fail to recover completely (Hofmann 1983) ... Findings from one trial indicate use of antipsychotic medications effectively resolves symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
^Adderall XR Prescribing Information(PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Shire US Inc. December 2013 [30 December 2013]. （原始内容存档(PDF)于2013-12-30）. Treatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. ... In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
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^van de Loo-Neus GH, Rommelse N, Buitelaar JK. To stop or not to stop? How long should medication treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder be extended?. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011-08, 21 (8): 584–99. PMID 21530185. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.03.008.
^ 193.0193.1193.2Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Sydor A, Brown RY, 编. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 323, 368. ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. supervised use of stimulants at therapeutic doses may decrease risk of experimentation with drugs to self-medicate symptoms. Second, untreated ADHD may lead to school failure, peer rejection, and subsequent association with deviant peer groups that encourage drug misuse. ... amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to treat narcolepsy (Chapter 12). Despite their clinical uses, these drugs are strongly reinforcing, and their long-term use at high doses is linked with potential addiction
^Krause J. SPECT and PET of the dopamine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. April 2008, 8 (4): 611–25. PMID 18416663. doi:10.1586/1473718.104.22.1681. Zinc binds at ... extracellular sites of the DAT , serving as a DAT inhibitor. In this context, controlled double-blind studies in children are of interest, which showed positive effects of zinc [supplementation] on symptoms of ADHD [105,106]. It should be stated that at this time [supplementation] with zinc is not integrated in any ADHD treatment algorithm.
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^ 263.0263.1NIH awards nearly $100 million for Autism Centers of Excellence program. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2017-09-06 [2017-11-08]. （原始内容存档于2017-11-09）. Duke University, Durham, North Carolina – Understanding and potentially treating ASD-ADHD combination. An estimated 40 to 60 percent of people with ASD have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which encompasses such symptoms as difficulty paying attention, problems controlling behavior and hyperactivity. Co-investigators Geraldine Dawson, Ph.D., and Scott Kollins, Ph.D., aim to learn how ADHD may influence the diagnosis and treatment of autism and plan to observe children who have ASD alone, ASD and ADHD, and ADHD alone and compare them to typically developing children. They will also test whether the stimulant medication used to treat ADHD will help children with both conditions.