- Ainslie Thomas Embree, Stephen N. Hay, William Theodore De Bary, Sources of Indian Tradition: Modern India and Pakistan. Columbia University Press, 1988, page 215.
- David Kalupahana. The Philosophy of the Middle Way. SUNY Press, 1986, pages 15-16: "The old Indian term dharma was retained by the Buddha to refer to phenomena or things. However, he was always careful to define this dharma as "dependently arisen phenomena" (paticca-samuppanna-dhamma) ... In order to distinguish this notion of dhamma from the Indian conception where the term dharma meant reality (atman), in an ontological sense, the Buddha utilized the conception of result or consequence or fruit (attha, Sk. artha) to bring out the pragmatic meaning of dhamma."
- Carol Henderson Garcia Culture and customs of India. 2002, page 31
- Brodd, Jefferey. World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5.