法 (印度哲學)

梵語धर्मdharma巴利語धम्मdhamma),音译为達摩,是在印度哲學宗教中極其重要的一個含義多變的術語。

在傳統印度社會中,法在歷史上已經指稱了各種思想,比如吠陀儀式,道德指導、種姓制度和民法與刑法。它的最常用含義附屬著兩個基本思想: 社會生活應當通過良好定義或良好調控的等級(varna)來組織,而在某等級內的個人的生活應當組織成確定的階段(ashrama,參見 dharmasastra)。[1]

依據各種印度宗教,比如印度教佛教耆那教錫克教,如法生活的人更快趨向解脫(dharma yukam, moksha 或 nirvana)。而不如法(adharma)意味著不和諧、不道德或錯誤。

佛教創始人佛陀及耆那教創始人大雄的教導和學說,也使用法這個術語。在佛教哲學中,法還是含義為現象的術語。[2]

語源编辑

法的梵語字根來自dhr-,意思為保持、支撐,並且和拉丁語表示堅固、穩定的詞彙firmus相關[3],由此得來「既定、公認的慣例」以及「律法」的意思。其源自古老的吠陀梵語梨俱吠陀等),拼法為帶有n-詞幹dharman-,字面意思為承擔者、支撐者,而這是指吠陀宗教中的重要概念──ṛta英语Ṛta/ˈrɪtə/; 梵語 ऋत ṛta,秩序、規則、真理)的面向而言[4]阿維斯陀語中表示真實、正確、秩序的詞彙aṣ̌a英语Asha(𐬀𐬴𐬀)為ṛta的同源詞,在古波斯語中拼作arta(𐎠𐎼𐎫)。

古典梵語和最晚成立的吠陀書──阿闥婆吠陀,其拼法是dharma。而在普拉克里特諸語言(古印度俗語)和巴利語中的拼法則是dhamma。在阿育王詔書的古石刻文書坎達哈雙語岩石銘文英语Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription中,用古希臘語eusebeia英语Eusebeia(εὐσέβεια,虔誠、靈性的成熟、恭敬神明)和亞蘭語qšyṭʾ(קשיטא,真理、真實),來翻譯印度的宗教哲學詞彙──法[5][6]

印度教编辑

印度教的語境中,它意味著一個人的正當義務與責任,[43]印度宗教的法受個人的年齡、等級、職業和性別的影響。[44]在現代印度語言中依賴於語境,它可以簡單的等價於“宗教”。

佛教编辑

参考文献编辑

  1. ^ Ainslie Thomas Embree, Stephen N. Hay, William Theodore De Bary, Sources of Indian Tradition: Modern India and Pakistan. Columbia University Press, 1988, page 215.
  2. ^ David Kalupahana. The Philosophy of the Middle Way. SUNY Press, 1986, pages 15-16: "The old Indian term dharma was retained by the Buddha to refer to phenomena or things. However, he was always careful to define this dharma as "dependently arisen phenomena" (paticca-samuppanna-dhamma) ... In order to distinguish this notion of dhamma from the Indian conception where the term dharma meant reality (atman), in an ontological sense, the Buddha utilized the conception of result or consequence or fruit (attha, Sk. artha) to bring out the pragmatic meaning of dhamma."
  3. ^ Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, Barnhart, R. K., editor (1998).
  4. ^ Day, Terence P. The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. 1982: 42-45. 
  5. ^ How did the 'Ramayana' and 'Mahabharata' come to be (and what has 'dharma' got to do with it)?. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2018-12-16). 
  6. ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf. Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative. Oxford University Press, USA. 2011: 36–37 [2021-05-26]. ISBN 978-0-19-539423-8. (原始内容存档于2021-10-31) (英语). 
  7. ^ Ṛgveda(Rigveda) - The Veda. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  8. ^ 𑀥𑀁𑀫. wiktionary. [2021-05-18]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-15). 
  9. ^ * Inscriptions of Asoka. New Edition by E. Hultzsch. 1925: 56–57 (Sanskrit). 
  10. ^ Mon - Aksharamukha. [2021-05-27]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-27). 
  11. ^ * Ahom - Aksharamukha. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  12. ^ Tai Tham Ad-hoc Meeting Report (PDF). [2021-06-14]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2020-10-09). 
  13. ^ Denise Cush; Michael York; Catherine Robinson. Encyclopedia of Hinduism. 2012: 455 [2021-06-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-14). For instance, if we find Hindi speakers talking of dharm, Bengalis of dhormo, and Tamils of tharumam, it is useful to know that these are all tatsama forms of the same Sanskrit word dharma. 
  14. ^ * File:Sri Yashodharman.jpg. [2021-05-28]. (原始内容存档于2021-08-31). 
  15. ^ * 義淨. 梵語千字文 (東京東洋文庫本). [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-18). 
  16. ^ * Anshuman Pandey. Final proposal to encode Nandinagari in Unicode (PDF). [2021-05-28]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-01-21). 
  17. ^ Shriramana Sharma. Proposal to encode characters for Extended Tamil (PDF). [2021-06-10]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-06-10). 
  18. ^ Dieter Maue. Non-Indian Brāhmī scripts along the Silk Roads. 2010 [2021-06-04]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-04). 
  19. ^ * Bali lontar - Palm Leaf Wiki. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-05). 
  20. ^ Javanese character notes - r12a. [2021-05-27]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-27). 
  21. ^ 吳昭新. 新編台灣閩南語用字彙編 (PDF). [2021-06-17]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-05-05). 達:tat8 ……無、麼、摩、磨:moo5 
  22. ^ ta̍t 的發音: môo 的發音:
  23. ^ * Georgios T. Halkias. When the Greeks Converted the Buddha: Asymmetrical Transfers of Knowledge in Indo-Greek Cultures. [2021-06-07]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-07). Greco-Bactrian inscription at Jaḡatu, afghanistan, of the sanskrit refuge formula to the “three-jewels” 
  24. ^ Budhist Terminology in Sogdian (PDF). [2021-06-04]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-08-31). 
  25. ^ Georgios T. Halkias. When the Greeks Converted the Buddha: Asymmetrical Transfers of Knowledge in Indo-Greek Cultures. 2014 [2021-06-02]. (原始内容存档于2019-06-07). In later bilingual Indian-Greek coins, dharma is equated with the Greek word dikē (δίκη), right or justice and is not restricted to eusebeia (εὐσέβεια). 
  26. ^ * UNESCO Staff. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. 1994: 400 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  27. ^ Michaël Peyrot. Points of Tocharian Agramma (PDF). [2021-06-04]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-06-04). 
  28. ^ Tocharian word of the week: "dharma". 
  29. ^ Mauro Maggi. A folio of the Ratnakūṭa (Kāśyapaparivarta) in Khotanese. 法鼓佛學學報. 2015 [2021-06-05]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-06). 
  30. ^ The Turkic Peoples of Central Asia and Buddhism. [2021-06-04]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-04). Tremblay made the point that both the Uyghur and the Manichaean Sogdian terms were independently copied from spoken Buddhist Sogdian. The frequent usage of nwm for Skt. dharma instead of the Buddhist Sogdian loanword δrm in Uyghur Buddhist texts would point in the same direction: nwm 
  31. ^ * Peter Zieme. The first leaf of an Old Uyghur 觀無量壽經 Guanwuliangshoujing translation. Written Monuments of the Orient. 2020 [2021-06-05]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-05). 
  32. ^ Edited by Khulan D. English-Mongolian Buddhist Glossary. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  33. ^ 莊吉發. 國立故宮博物院典藏《大藏經》滿文譯本研究. 東方宗教研究. 1990 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-27). 「法輪」,滿文譯作"nomun i kurdun"……「而為沙門,受佛法者」,滿文譯作"fucihi i nomun be aliha sarmana" ,意即「受佛法之沙門」 
  34. ^ 西夏文 - 古今文字集成. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-21). 
  35. ^ * Heleen Plaisier. 3. Unravelling Lepcha manuscripts. [2021-06-02]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-28). In the titles of Lepcha works......cho (book, learning)......These designations are obviously direct loans from equivalent categories in Tibetan literature......Chos......Indeed, a Lepcha book, referred to as cho, typically conveys a canonical message 
  36. ^ * 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 - 法. [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  37. ^ David Wharton. Language, Orthography and Buddhist Manuscript Culture of the Tai Nuea – An Apocryphal Jātaka Text in Mueang Sing, Laos. University of Passau. 2018: 240 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-04). 
  38. ^ Stephen Morey. Ahom and Tangsa: Case studies of language maintenance and loss in North East India (PDF). Language Documentation & Conservation. 2014, 7 [2021-06-20]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2017-11-14). 
  39. ^ Marseille, Carmen Eva. Shan-Ni grammar and processes of linguistic change. 2019: 34 [2021-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-26). 
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1 * d'Hubert, Thibaut. A Persian Account of the Religious Customs of the Magh (Arakanese) from Early Colonial Bengal. Iranian Studies. 2018 [2021-06-03]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-03). By the blessing of Tārā (i.e Dharma)......The term tārā transcribes the Arakanese/Burmese tarāḥ, which may be translated as "precept"or "law". This is the same term used by the Chakmas to designate the ritual texts called Āgar tārā, that the Luris used to recite on various occasions. 
  41. ^ Vinodh Rajan. Aksharamukha : Script Converter. [2021-06-01]. (原始内容存档于2021-07-05). 
  42. ^ polyhedron. 做了一個滿文阿禮嘎禮的輸入法. [2021-05-31]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-03). 
  43. ^ Carol Henderson Garcia Culture and customs of India. 2002, page 31
  44. ^ Brodd, Jefferey. World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5.