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Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya (Russian)
Russia国旗
国旗
{{{coat_alt}}}
国徽
Russia proper (dark green) Crimean peninsula (disputed(英语:Political status of Crimea)) (light green)a
Russia proper (dark green)
Crimean peninsula (disputed英语Political status of Crimea) (light green)a
首都
及最大城市
莫斯科
官方语言 Russian
认可的语言 35 other languages co-official英语Languages of Russia in various regions[來源請求]
族群(2010[1]
政府 Federal semi-presidential 共和制
• President
弗拉基米尔·弗拉基米罗维奇·普京
德米特里·阿纳托利耶维奇·梅德韦杰夫
瓦莲京娜·马特维延科
Sergey Naryshkin英语Sergey Naryshkin
立法机构 Federal Assembly
Federation Council
国家杜马
Formation
• Arrival of Rurik英语Rurik, considered as a foundation event by the Russian authorities[2]
862
882
1283
16 January 1547
22 October 1721
6 November 1917
• 苏联
10 December 1922
• Russian Federation
25 December 1991
• Adoption of the current Constitution of Russia
12 December 1993
面积
• 总计
17,098,242 (Crimea not included) km21st
• 水域率
13[3] (including swamps) %
人口
• 2015年估计
143,975,923[4] (not including the 克里米亞共和國 and 塞瓦斯托波爾)(9th
• 密度
8.4/km2217th
GDPPPP 2015年估计
• 总计
$3.458 trillion[5]6th
• 人均
$24,067[6]53rd
GDP(国际汇率) 2015年估计
• 总计
$1.176 trillion[5]15th
• 人均
$8,184[6]74th
基尼系数 0.42[7](2012年)
 · 83rd
人类发展指数  0.778[8](2013年)
 · 57th
货币 俄罗斯卢布RUB
时区 UTC+2 to +12
日期格式 dd.mm.yyyy
行驶方位 right
电话区号 +7英语Telephone numbers in Russia
ISO 3166码 RU
互联网顶级域
  1. The Crimean Peninsula is recognized英语United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 as territory of 乌克兰 by most of the international community, but is de facto administered by Russia.[9]

Russia (俄语:Россия羅馬化RossiyaIPA:[rɐˈsʲijə] 聆聽), also officially known as the Russian Federation[10] (俄语:Российская Федерация羅馬化Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaIPA:[rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] 聆聽), is a country in northern 歐亞大陸.[11] It is a federal 半总统制 republic. At 17,075,400平方公里(6,592,800平方英里), Russia is the 世界各国和地区面积列表, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous nation with nearly 144 million people as of 2015.[12]

Extending across the entirety of northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments英语Environment of Russia and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders英语borders of Russia with 挪威, 芬兰, 爱沙尼亚, 拉脫維亞, 立陶宛 and 波兰 (both with 加里宁格勒州), 白俄罗斯, 乌克兰, Georgia, 阿塞拜疆, 哈萨克斯坦, 中华人民共和国, 蒙古国, and 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国. It shares maritime border英语maritime borders with 日本 by the 鄂霍次克海 and the 美国州份 of 阿拉斯加州 across the 白令海峡.

The nation's history began with that of the 東斯拉夫民族, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.[13] Founded and ruled by a 瓦良格人 warrior elite and their descendants, the 中世纪 state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the 拜占庭帝国,[14] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined 俄罗斯文化 for the next millennium英语Millennium of Russia.[14] Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic 欽察汗國.[15] The 莫斯科公国 gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of 基辅罗斯. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration英语Russian explorers to become the 俄罗斯帝国, which was the third 最大帝國列表 in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.[16][17]

Following the 1917年俄国革命, the 俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国 became the largest and leading constituent of the 苏联, the world's first constitutionally 社会主义国家 and a recognized superpower,[18] which played a decisive role in the Allied victory in 第二次世界大战.[19][20] The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements英语Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, and the first man in space. Following the 苏联解体 in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state) of the Union state英语Government of the Soviet Union.[21]

The 俄羅斯經濟 ranks as the fifteenth largest by 国内生产总值 and sixth largest by 购买力平价 in 2015.[22] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world,[23] have made it one of the largest producers of oil and natural gas globally.[24][25] The country is one of the five recognized 擁有核武器的國家列表 and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.[26] Russia was the world's second biggest exporter of major arms in 2010-14, according to 斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所 data.[27] Russia is a 大国 and a permanent member of the 联合国安全理事会, a member of the 20國集團, the 欧洲委员会, the 亚洲太平洋经济合作组织, the 上海合作组织, the 歐亞經濟共同體, the 歐洲安全與合作組織 (OSCE), and the 世界贸易组织 (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the 獨立國家聯合體.

目录

Etymology编辑

The name Russia is derived from Rus, a medieval state populated mostly by the 東斯拉夫民族. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaya zemlya), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus英语Rus (name) itself comes from 羅斯人, a group of 瓦良格人 (possibly Swedish英语Swedes (Germanic tribe) 維京人s)[28][29] who founded the state of Rus (Русь).

An old Latin version of the name Rus' was 羅塞尼亞, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the 中古希腊语 designation of the Kievan Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelt Ρωσία (Rosía 发音 [roˈsia]) in 现代希腊语.[30]

The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is as "Russians英语Rossiyane" (Rossiyane).

History编辑

Early periods编辑

 
墳塚假說: South Russia as the urheimat英语urheimat of Indo-European peoples

In prehistoric times the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of 游牧.[31] Remnants of these steppe civilizations were discovered in such places as Ipatovo英语Ipatovo kurgan,[31] Sintashta英语Sintashta,[32] Arkaim英语Arkaim,[33] and Pazyryk英语Pazyryk burials,[34] which bear the earliest known traces of mounted warfare, a key feature in the nomadic way of life.

In 古典时代, the 東歐大草原 was known as Scythia. Since the 8th century BC, 古希臘語 traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais英语Tanais and Phanagoria英语Phanagoria. The Romans settled on the western part of the 裏海, where their empire stretched towards the east.[35] In 3rd – 4th centuries AD a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium英语Oium existed in Southern Russia till it was overrun by 匈人. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies,[36] was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars英语Eurasian Avars.[37] A 突厥人, the Khazars, ruled the lower 伏尔加河 basin steppes between the Caspian and 黑海s until the 10th century.[38]

The ancestors of modern 俄羅斯人 are the 斯拉夫人, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes英语Pinsk Marshes.[39] The East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from 基輔 toward present-day 苏兹达尔 and 穆罗姆 and another from 波洛茨克 toward 大诺夫哥罗德 and 罗斯托夫. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia[40] and slowly but peacefully[來源請求] assimilated the native Finno-Ugric peoples英语Finno-Ugric peoples, including the Merya英语Merya, the Muromians英语Muromians, and the Meshchera英语Meshchera.

Kievan Rus'编辑

thumb英语File:Kievan Rus en.jpg The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of 瓦良格人, the traders, warriors and settlers from the Baltic Sea region. Primarily they were 維京人 of 斯堪的纳维亚n origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black英语From the Varangians to the Greeks and Caspian英语Volga trade route Seas.[41] According to the 往年纪事, a Varangian from 羅斯人, named Rurik英语Rurik, was elected ruler of 大诺夫哥罗德 in 862. In 882 his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered 基輔,[42] which had been previously paying tribute to the 可萨人, founding Kievan Rus'. Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the 可萨人 and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium英语Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus' and Persia英语Caspian expeditions of the Rus'.

In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.[43] The reigns of 弗拉基米尔一世·斯维亚托斯拉维奇 (980–1015) and his son 智者雅罗斯拉夫 (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age英语Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of英语Christianization of Kievan Rus' Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium and the creation of the first East Slavic written 法典, the Russkaya Pravda英语Russkaya Pravda.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks英语Kipchaks and the 佩切涅格人, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye英语Zalesye.[44]

The age of 封建制度 (歐洲) and decentralization was marked by constant in-fighting between members of the 留里克王朝 that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of 弗拉基米尔-苏兹达尔大公国 in the north-east, 诺夫哥罗德共和国 in the north-west and 加利西亞-沃里尼亞王國 in the south-west.

Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of 1237–40,[45] that resulted in the destruction of Kiev[46] and the death of about half the population of Rus'.[47] The invading Mongol elite, together with their conquered Turkic subjects (Cumans, Kipchaks, Bulgars) became known as 鞑靼人, formed the state of the 欽察汗國, which pillaged the Russian principalities; the Mongols ruled the Cuman-Kipchak confederation and 伏尔加保加利亚 (modern-day southern and central expanses of Russia) for over two centuries.[48]

Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the 波蘭立陶宛, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation.[14] The Novgorod together with 普斯科夫 retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the 蒙古征服俄罗斯 and were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Prince 亚历山大·雅罗斯拉维奇·涅夫斯基, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva英语Battle of the Neva in 1240, as well as the Germanic crusaders in the 楚德湖战役 in 1242, breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'.

Grand Duchy of Moscow编辑

The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow[49] ("Moscovy" in the Western chronicles), initially a part of 弗拉基米尔-苏兹达尔大公国. While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the main leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.

Those were hard times, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids英语Mongol-Tatar raids and agriculture suffering from the beginning of the 小冰期. As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between 1350 and 1490.[50] However, because of the lower population density and better hygiene (widespread practicing of banya英语banya (sauna), the wet steam bath), the death rate from plague was not as severe as in Western Europe,[51] and population numbers recovered by 1500.[50]

Led by Prince 德米特里·顿斯科伊 of Moscow and helped by the 俄罗斯正教会, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo英语Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including the formerly strong rivals, such as Tver and Novgorod.

伊凡三世 ("the Great") finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde, consolidated the whole of Central and Northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion, and was the first to take the title "Grand Duke of all the Russias".[52] After the 君士坦丁堡的陷落 in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the 拜占庭帝国. Ivan III married 索菲娅·帕列奥罗格, the niece of the last 拜占庭皇帝列表 君士坦丁十一世, and made the Byzantine 双头鹰 his own, and eventually Russia's, coat-of-arms.

Tsardom of Russia编辑

In development of the 第三羅馬 ideas, the Grand Duke 伊凡四世 (the "Terrible")[53] was officially crowned the first 沙皇 ("Caesar") of Russia in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550英语Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor英语Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions.[54][55]

During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of disintegrated 欽察汗國): Kazan and Astrakhan along the 伏尔加河, and 西伯利亚汗国 in Southwestern Siberia. Thus, by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnic英语multiethnic, multidenominational and 跨大陸國家列表.

However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful 立窩尼亞戰爭 against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.[56] At the same time the Tatars of the 克里米亞汗國, the only remaining successor to the Golden Horde, continued to raid Southern Russia.[57] In an effort to restore the Volga khanates, Crimeans and their Ottoman allies invaded central Russia英语Russo-Crimean Wars and were even able to burn down parts of Moscow英语Fire of Moscow (1571) in 1571.[58] But next year the large invading army was thoroughly defeated by Russians in the Battle of Molodi英语Battle of Molodi, forever eliminating the threat of the Ottoman–Crimean expansion into Russia. The slave raids of Crimeans英语Crimean-Nogai raids into East Slavic lands, however, didn't cease until the late 17th century, though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line英语Great Abatis Line, constantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions.[59]


The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient 留里克王朝 in 1598, and in combination with the famine of 1601–03英语famine of 1601–03[60] led to the civil war, the rule of pretenders and foreign intervention during the 俄罗斯混乱时期 in the early 17th century.[61] 波蘭立陶宛 occupied parts of Russia, including Moscow. In 1612, the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant 库兹马·米宁 and Prince 德米特里·米哈伊洛维奇·波扎尔斯基. The 罗曼诺夫王朝 acceded the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis.

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of 哥薩克. Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling 海盗 and pioneers of the New World英语pioneers of the New World. In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks英语Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the 赫梅尔尼茨基起义, because of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule. In 1654, the Ukrainian leader, 博格丹·赫梅利尼茨基, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Russian Tsar, 阿列克谢·米哈伊洛维奇·罗曼诺夫. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Finally, Ukraine was split along the 第聂伯河, leaving the western part, 右岸烏克蘭, under Polish rule and eastern part (左岸烏克蘭 and 基輔) under Russian. Later, in 1670–71 the Don Cossacks英语Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin英语Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga Region英语Volga Region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.

In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable 毛皮s and 象牙. Russian explorers英语Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes英语Siberian River Routes, and by the mid-17th century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the 楚科奇半岛, along the 黑龙江, and on the Pacific coast. In 1648, the 白令海峡 between Asia and North America was passed for the first time by Fedot Popov英语Fedot Popov and Semyon Dezhnyov英语Semyon Dezhnyov.

Imperial Russia编辑

Under 彼得大帝, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the 大北方戰爭, forcing it to cede West 卡累利阿 and 英格里亞 (two regions lost by Russia in the 俄罗斯混乱时期),[62] as well as Estland and 立窝尼亚, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade.[63] On the 波罗的海 Peter founded a new capital called 圣彼得堡, later known as Russia's "Window to Europe". 彼得大帝改革 brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia.

The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–62 saw Russia's participation in the 七年战争 (1756–63). During this conflict Russia annexed 東普魯士 for a while and even took Berlin. However, upon Elisabeth's death, all these conquests were returned to 普魯士王國 by pro-Prussian 彼得三世 (俄国).

Catherine II ("the Great"), who ruled in 1762–96, presided over the Age of Russian Enlightenment英语Russian Enlightenment. She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the 瓜分波蘭, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. In the south, after successful Russo-Turkish Wars英语Russo-Turkish Wars against the Ottoman Empire, Catherine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, defeating the 克里米亞汗國. As a result of victories over the Qajar Persian Empire, by the first half of the 19th century Russia also made significant territorial gains in 南高加索 and the 北高加索.[64][65] This continued with Alexander I's (1801–25) wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of 比薩拉比亞 from the Ottomans in 1812. At the same time Russians colonized Alaska and even founded settlements in California, like Fort Ross英语Fort Ross.

In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation英语first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages. In 1820 a Russian expedition discovered the continent of 南极洲.

In alliances with various European countries, Russia fought against 拿破仑一世's France. The 俄法战争 at the height of Napoleon's power in 1812 failed miserably as the obstinate resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian Winter英语Russian Winter led to a disastrous defeat of invaders, in which more than 95% of the pan-European Grande Armée英语Grande Armée perished.[66] Led by 米哈伊尔·伊拉里奥诺维奇·库图佐夫 and 米哈伊尔·博格达诺维奇·巴克莱·德托利, the Russian army ousted Napoleon from the country and drove through Europe in the 第六次反法同盟, finally entering Paris. Alexander I headed Russia's delegation at the 维也纳会议 that defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe.

The officers of the 拿破崙戰爭 brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive 十二月党人起义 of 1825. At the end of the conservative reign of 尼古拉一世 (俄国) (1825–55), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe was disrupted by defeat in the 克里米亚战争. Between 1847 and 1851, about one million people died of Asiatic 霍亂.[67]

Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–81) enacted significant changes in the country, including the 1861年俄國農奴制度改革. These Great Reforms spurred industrialization and modernized the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 俄土战争 (1877年-1878年).

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. Alexander II was killed in 1881 by revolutionary terrorists, and the reign of his son Alexander III (1881–94) was less liberal but more peaceful. The last Russian Emperor, 尼古拉二世 (俄罗斯) (1894–1917), was unable to prevent the events of the Russian 1905年俄国革命, triggered by the unsuccessful 日俄战争 and the demonstration incident known as Bloody Sunday. The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms, including granting the 新闻自由 and assembly, the legalization of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma of the Russian Empire英语State Duma of the Russian Empire. The Stolypin agrarian reform英语Stolypin reform led to a massive peasant migration and settlement into 西伯利亚. More than four million settlers arrived in that region between 1906 and 1914.[68]

In 1914, Russia entered 第一次世界大战 in response to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia, and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its 三國協約 allies. In 1916, the 勃鲁西洛夫攻势 of the Russian Army almost completely destroyed the military of 奥匈帝国. However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties, and rumors of corruption and treason. All this formed the climate for the 1917年俄国革命 of 1917, carried out in two major acts.

Revolution and Russian Republic编辑

The 俄國二月革命 forced Nicholas II to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed英语Ipatiev House during the 俄国内战. The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government. An alternative socialist establishment existed alongside, the 彼得格勒苏维埃, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets. The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Eventually, the 十月革命, led by 布尔什维克 leader 列宁, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first 社会主义国家.

Soviet Russia and civil war编辑

 
The symbols of the early Soviet era: Tatlin's Tower英语Tatlin's Tower project and the giant Worker and Kolkhoz Woman英语Worker and Kolkhoz Woman sculpture group

Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the 反共主义 俄国白军 and the new Soviet英语Workers' council regime with its 苏联红军. Bolshevist Russia lost its Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic, and Finnish territories by signing the 布列斯特-立陶夫斯克條約 that concluded hostilities with the 同盟國 (第一次世界大戰) of World War I. The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces. In the meantime both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the 红色恐怖 and White Terror英语White Terror (Russia). By the end of the civil war, the Russian economy and its infrastructure were heavily damaged. Millions became 白俄 (移民)s,[69] and the Povolzhye famine英语Povolzhye famine of 1921 claimed up to 5 million victims.[70]

Soviet Union编辑

thumb英语File:Soviet Union - Russian SFSR (1922).svg thumb英语File:Soviet Union - Russian SFSR (1936).svg The 俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国 (called Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic at the time) together with the Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasion Soviet Socialist Republics, formed the 苏联 (USSR), or Soviet Union, on 30 December 1922. Out of the 15 republics that would make up the USSR, the largest in size and over half of the total USSR population was the Russian SFSR, which came to dominate the union for its entire 69-year history.

Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika was designated to govern the Soviet Union. However, 斯大林, an elected General Secretary of the Communist Party, managed to suppress all opposition groups within the party and consolidate power in his hands. 列夫·达维多维奇·托洛茨基, the main proponent of 世界革命, was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929, and Stalin's idea of 一国社会主义 became the primary line. The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik party culminated in the 苏联肃反运动, a period of mass repressions in 1937–38, during which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including original party members英语Old Bolshevik and military leaders accused of coup d'état plots.[71]

Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a 計劃經濟, industrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps,[72] including many political convicts for their opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[72] The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the 1932年苏联大饥荒.[73] The Soviet Union, though with a heavy price, was transformed from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time.

The 绥靖主义 policy of Great Britain and France towards 阿道夫·希特勒's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia did not stem an increase in the power of 納粹德國 and put a threat of war to the Soviet Union. Around the same time the Third Reich allied with the 大日本帝国, a rival of the USSR in the Far East and an open enemy of the USSR in the 蘇日邊界衝突 in 1938–39.

 
Citizens of 圣彼得堡 during the 872-day siege, in which about one million civilians died

In August 1939, after another failure of attempts to establish an anti-Nazi alliance with Britain and France, the Soviet government decided to improve relations with Germany by concluding the 苏德互不侵犯条约, pledging non-aggression between the two countries and dividing their spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. While Hitler conquered Poland, France and other countries actied on single front at the start of 第二次世界大战, the USSR was able to build up its military and claim some of the former territories of the Russian Empire as a result of the 蘇聯入侵波蘭, 冬季战争 and the occupation of the Baltic states英语Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940).


On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the non-aggression treaty and invaded the Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history,[74] opening the largest theater of World War II. Although the German army had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the 莫斯科戰役. Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the 斯大林格勒战役 in the winter of 1942–43,[75] and then in the 库尔斯克会战 in the summer of 1943. Another German failure was the 列寧格勒圍城戰, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941–44 by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.[76] Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such commanders as 格奥尔基·康斯坦丁诺维奇·朱可夫 and 康斯坦丁·康斯坦丁诺维奇·罗科索夫斯基, Soviet forces took Eastern Europe in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May 1945. In August 1945 the Soviet Army英语Soviet Army ousted the Japanese from China's 满洲国 and North Korea, contributing to the allied victory over Japan.

The 1941–45 period of World War II is known in Russia as the "Great Patriotic War英语Great Patriotic War (term)". During this conflict, which included many of the most lethal battle operations英语List of battles by casualties in human history, Soviet military and civilian deaths were 10.6 million and 15.9 million respectively,[77] accounting for about a third of all 第二次世界大战各国伤亡统计. The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater.[78] The 蘇聯經濟 and infrastructure suffered massive devastation,[79] but the Soviet Union emerged as an acknowledged military superpower on the continent.

 
史普尼克1號 was the world's first artificial satellite

The 苏联红军 occupied Eastern Europe after the war, including 東德. Dependent socialist governments were installed in the 東方集團 satellite states. Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power, the USSR established the 华沙条约组织 alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the 冷战, with the United States and 北大西洋公约组织. The Soviet Union supported revolutionary movements across the world, including the newly formed People's Republic of China, the 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国 and, later on, the 古巴. Significant amounts of the Soviet resources were allocated in aid英语International relations within the Comecon to the other socialist states.[80]

After Stalin's death and a short period of collective rule, new leader 尼基塔·謝爾蓋耶維奇·赫魯曉夫 denounced the 个人崇拜 of Stalin and launched the policy of 去斯大林化. The penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated (many of them posthumously).[81] The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the 赫鲁晓夫解冻. At the same time, tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial 人造衛星, 史普尼克1號, thus starting the Space Age英语Space Age. Russian 宇航员 尤里·阿列克谢耶维奇·加加林 became the first human to orbit the Earth aboard 東方一號 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961.

Following the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule英语Collectivity of leadership ensued, until 列昂尼德·伊里奇·勃列日涅夫 became the leader. The era of the 1970s and the early 1980s was designated later as the 停滯時代, a period when the economic growth slowed and social policies became static. The 1965 Kosygin reform英语Kosygin reform aimed for partial 权力分散 of the 蘇聯經濟 and shifted the emphasis from 重工業 and weapons to 輕工業 and 制成品 but was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership.

 
Soviet General Secretary 米哈伊尔·谢尔盖耶维奇·戈尔巴乔夫 and U.S. President 罗纳德·里根 in Red Square during the Moscow Summit英语Moscow Summit (1988), 31 May 1988

In 1979, after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces entered that country at request of the new regime. The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. Ultimately the Soviet Army was withdrawn from Afghanistan in 1989 due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.

From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader 米哈伊尔·谢尔盖耶维奇·戈尔巴乔夫, who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of 開放政策 (openness) and 经济改革 (restructuring) in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratise the government. This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world,[82] but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in money supply leading to inflation.[83]

By 1991, economic and political turmoil began to boil over, as the Baltic republics chose to secede from the Union. On 17 March, a referendum英语Soviet Union referendum, 1991 was held, to which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of preserving the Soviet Union as a renewed federation. In August 1991, a coup d'état attempt by members of Gorbachev's government, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to the end of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Despite the will expressed by the people, on 25 December 1991, the USSR was dissolved into 15 post-Soviet states英语post-Soviet states.

Russian Federation编辑

1991年6月,鲍里斯·尼古拉耶维奇·叶利钦当选为俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国总统,同年12月俄罗斯独立,成立俄罗斯联邦。During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including 私有化英语Privatization in Russia市场与贸易自由化 were undertaken,[84]俄罗斯实行了美国和國際貨幣基金組織所推介的“休克疗法”等激进政策,[85]引发了严重的金融危机,从1990年至1995年,国内生产总值和工业总产值的降幅高达50%。[84][86]

The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government. Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight英语capital flight.[87] The depression of the economy led to the collapse of social services; the 出生率 plummeted while the 死亡率 skyrocketed.[88] Millions plunged into poverty, from 1.5% level of poverty in the late Soviet era, to 39–49% by mid-1993.[89] The 1990s saw extreme corruption and lawlessness, the rise of criminal gangs and violent crime.[90]

The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the 北高加索, both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist 伊斯兰主义 insurrections. From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war has been fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military. Terrorist attacks against civilians英语Terrorism in Russia carried out by separatists, most notably the 莫斯科歌劇院脅持事件 and 别斯兰人质危机, caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention.

Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution.[91] High budget deficits caused the 1998年俄罗斯金融危机[92] and resulted in a further GDP decline.[84]

On 31 December 1999, President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, 弗拉基米尔·弗拉基米罗维奇·普京, who then won the 2000 presidential election英语Russian presidential election, 2000. Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency, although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. High oil prices and the initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption, and investments has helped the economy grow for nine straight years, improving the standard of living and increasing Russia's influence on the world stage.[93] While many reforms made during the Putin presidency have been generally criticized by Western nations as un-democratic,[94] Putin's leadership over the return of order, stability, and progress has won him widespread admiration in Russia.[95]

On 2 March 2008, 德米特里·阿纳托利耶维奇·梅德韦杰夫 was elected President of Russia, while Putin became Prime Minister. Putin returned to the presidency following the 2012 presidential elections, and Medvedev was appointed Prime Minister.

In 2014, after President 維克多·費奧多羅維奇·亞努科維奇 of 乌克兰 fled as a result of a revolution, Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine英语2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine.[96][97][98][99][100] Following a Crimean referendum in which separation was favored by a large majority of voters, which was not accepted internationally,[101][102][103][104][105][106] the Russian leadership announced the annexation of Crimea by Russia. On 27 March the United Nations General Assembly voted in favor of a non-binding resolution opposing the Russian annexation of Crimea.[107]

Politics编辑

Governance编辑

 
克里姆林宫, the working residence of the 俄罗斯总统

According to the 俄罗斯联邦宪法, the country is a federation and 半总统制 republic, wherein the President is the 國家元首[108] and the Prime Minister is the 政府首脑. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party 代議民主制, with the federal government composed of three branches:

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term).[109] Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). Leading political parties in Russia include 統一俄羅斯, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and 公正俄罗斯. In 2013, Russia was ranked as 122nd of 167 countries in the 民主指数, compiled by 经济学人 Intelligence Unit,[110] while the World Justice Project英语World Justice Project currently ranks Russia 80th of 99 countries surveyed in terms of rule of law.[111]

Foreign relations编辑

 
As a 跨大陸國家列表, Russia is a member of both the 欧洲委员会 (COE) and the Asia Cooperation Dialogue英语Asia Cooperation Dialogue.
 
The Russian Federation became the 39th member state of the 欧洲委员会 on 28 February 1996
 
Member states, observers and partners of the 上海合作组织

The Russian Federation is recognized in international law as a 國家繼承 of the former 苏联.[21] Russia continues to implement the international commitments of the USSR, and has assumed the USSR's permanent seat in the UN Security Council, membership in other international organisations, the rights and obligations under international treaties, and property and debts. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. As of 2009, it maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and has 144 embassies. The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the 俄罗斯联邦外交部.[112]

As the successor to a former superpower, Russia's geopolitical status has often been debated, particularly in relation to unipolar and multipolar英语Polarity in international relations views on the global political system. While Russia is commonly accepted to be a 大国, in recent years it has been characterized by a number of world leaders,[113][114] scholars,[115] commentators and politicians[116] as a currently reinstating or 潜在超级大国.[117][118][119]

As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, Russia plays a major role in maintaining international peace and security. The country participates in the 中東問題有關四方 and the 六方会谈 with North Korea. Russia is a member of the 八大工業國組織 industrialized nations, the 欧洲委员会, OSCE, and APEC. Russia usually takes a leading role in regional organisations such as the CIS, EurAsEC, CSTO, and the SCO.[120] Russia became the 39th member state of the Council of Europe in 1996.[121] In 1998, Russia ratified the 歐洲人權公約. The legal basis for EU relations with Russia is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which came into force in 1997. The Agreement recalls the parties' shared respect for democracy and human rights, political and economic freedom and commitment to international peace and security.[122] In May 2003, the EU and Russia agreed to reinforce their cooperation on the basis of common values and shared interests.[123] Former President Vladimir Putin had advocated a strategic partnership with close integration in various dimensions including establishment of EU-Russia Common Spaces英语EU-Russia Common Spaces.[124] Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has developed a friendlier relationship with the United States英语Russia-United States relations and NATO英语NATO-Russia relations. The NATO-Russia Council英语NATO-Russia Council was established in 2002 to allow the United States, Russia and the 27 allies in NATO to work together as equal partners to pursue opportunities for joint collaboration.[125]

Russia maintains strong and positive relations with other BRIC countries. 印度 is the largest customer of Russian military equipment and the two countries share extensive defense and strategic relations英语India–Russia relations.[126] In recent years, the country has strengthened bilateral ties especially with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the 东西伯利亚-太平洋石油管道 and gas pipeline from Siberia to China英语Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline.[127][128]

An important aspect of Russia's relations with the West is the criticism of Russia's political system and human rights management (including LGBT rights, media freedom英语media freedom in Russia, and reports about killed journalists英语List of journalists killed in Russia) by the Western governments, the mass media and the leading democracy and human rights watchdogs英语wikt:watchdog. In particular, such organisations as the 國際特赦組織 and 人权观察 consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.[129][130] 自由之家, an international organisation funded by the United States, ranks Russia as "not free", citing "carefully engineered elections" and "absence" of debate.[131] Russian authorities dismiss these claims and especially criticise Freedom House. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the 2006 Freedom in the World英语Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States. The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into dominant tendencies.[132]

Military编辑

The Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force. There are also three independent arms of service: 俄羅斯戰略火箭軍, Aerospace Defence Forces, and the Airborne Troops. In 2006, the military had 1.037 million personnel on active duty.[133] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces.[93]

Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world. It has the second largest fleet of 弹道导弹潜艇s and is the only country apart from the United States with a modern 战略轰炸机 force.[26][134] Russia's 坦克 force is the largest in the world, its surface navy and air force are among the largest ones.

The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry英语Defense industry of Russia, producing most of its own military equipment with only few types of weapons imported. Russia is one of the world's top supplier of arms, a spot it has held since 2001, accounting for around 30% of worldwide weapons sales[135] and exporting weapons to about 80 countries.[136] The 斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所, SIPRI, found that Russia was the second biggest exporter of arms in 2010-14, increasing their exports by 37 per cent from the period 2005-2009. In 2010-14, Russia delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine.[27]

The Russian government's published 2014 military budget is about 2.49 trillion rubles英语rubles (approximately US$69.3 billion), the third largest in the world behind the US and China. The official budget is set to rise to 3.03 trillion rubles (approximately US$83.7 billion) in 2015, and 3.36 trillion rubles (approximately US$93.9 billion) in 2016.[137] However, unofficial estimates put the budget significantly higher, for example the 斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所 (SIPRI) 2013 Military Expenditure Database estimated Russia's military expenditure in 2012 at US$90.749 billion.[138] This estimate is an increase of more than US$18 billion on SIPRI's estimate of the Russian military budget for 2011 (US$71.9 billion).[139] As of 2014, Russia's military budget is higher than any other European nation.

According to 2012 全球和平指數, Russia is the sixth least peaceful out of 162 countries in the world, principally because of its defense industry. Russia has historically ranked low on the index since its inception in 2007.[140]

Political divisions编辑

center英语File:Russian Regions-EN.svg

Federal subjects

According to the Constitution, the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects,[141] including the 克里米亞共和國 and the federal city of 塞瓦斯托波爾, whose recent establishment is internationally disputed and criticized as illegal annexation.[142] In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were eighty-nine federal subjects listed, but later some of them were merged. These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council.[143] However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.

  • 46 oblasts (provinces): most common type of federal subjects, with locally elected governor and legislature.[144]
  • 22 republics: nominally autonomous; each is tasked with drafting its own constitution, direct-elected[144] head of republic[145] or a similar post, and parliament. Republics are allowed to establish their own official language alongside Russian but are represented by the federal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities.
  • 9 krais (territories): essentially the same as oblasts. The "territory" designation is historic, originally given to frontier regions and later also to the administrative divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs or autonomous oblasts.
  • 4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts): originally autonomous entities within oblasts and krais created for ethnic minorities, their status was elevated to that of federal subjects in the 1990s. With the exception of 楚科奇自治区, all autonomous okrugs are still administratively subordinated to a krai or an oblast of which they are a part.
  • 1 autonomous oblast英语autonomous oblast (the 犹太自治州): historically, autonomous oblasts were administrative units subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of them except for the Jewish AO were elevated in status to that of a republic.
  • 3 俄罗斯联邦直辖市 (Moscow, 圣彼得堡, and 塞瓦斯托波爾): major cities that function as separate regions.
Federal districts

Federal subjects are grouped into nine federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.[146] Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.

Geography编辑

thumb英语File:Russland Relief.png Russia is the 世界各国和地区面积列表; its total area is 17,075,400平方公里(6,592,800平方英里). There are 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia英语World Heritage Sites in Russia, 40 UNESCO 人與生物圈計劃s,[147] 41 national parks and 101 nature reserves英语Zapovednik. It lies between latitudes 41°英语41st parallel north and 82° N英语82nd parallel north, and longitudes 19° E英语19th meridian east and 169° W英语169th meridian west.

Russia's territorial expansion was achieved largely in the late 16th century under the Cossack, 葉爾馬克·齊莫菲葉維奇, during the reign of 伊凡四世, at a time when competing city-states in the western regions of Russia had banded together to form one country. Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward, where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols, defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum英语Kuchum.[148]

Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.

Topography编辑

The two widest separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km(4,971 mi) apart along a 测地线 line. These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60 km(37 mi) long Vistula Spit英语Vistula Spit separating the 格但斯克湾 from the 维斯图拉潟湖; and the farthest southeast of the 千島群島. The points which are furthest separated in 经度 are 6,600 km(4,101 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: in the west, the same spit; in the east, the 拉特曼諾夫島. The Russian Federation spans 9 时区s.

 
厄尔布鲁士山, the highest point of the 高加索, Russia and Europe

Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly 干草原 to the south and heavily forested to the north, with 凍土層 along the northern coast. Russia possesses 10% of the world's 耕地.[149] Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing 厄尔布鲁士山, which at 5,642米(18,510英尺) is the highest point in both Russia and Europe) and the Altai (containing 別盧哈山, which at the 4,506米(14,783英尺) is the highest point of Siberia outside of the 俄屬遠東); and in the eastern parts, such as the 上揚斯克山脈 or the volcanoes of 堪察加半島 (containing 克柳切夫火山, which at the 4,750米(15,584英尺) is the highest 火山 in Eurasia as well as the highest point of 北亚). The 乌拉尔山脉, rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia.

Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 km(22,991 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the 波罗的海, 亞速海, 黑海 and 裏海.[93] The 巴倫支海, 白海, 喀拉海, 拉普捷夫海, 东西伯利亚海, 楚科奇海, 白令海, 鄂霍次克海, and the 日本海 are linked to Russia via the Arctic and Pacific. Russia's major islands and archipelagos include 新地岛, the 法兰士约瑟夫地群岛, the 北地群岛, the 新西伯利亞群島, 弗兰格尔岛, the 千島群島, and 库页岛. The 迪奧米德群島 (one controlled by Russia, the other by the U.S.) are just 3 km(1.9 mi) apart, and 國後島 is about 20 km(12.4 mi) from 北海道, Japan.

Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid 淡水.[150] The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is 贝加尔湖, the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake.[151] Baikal alone contains over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water.[150] Other major lakes include Ladoga and Onega, two of the 欧洲湖泊列表. Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the 各国可再生水资源列表. Of the country's 100,000 rivers,[152] the 伏尔加河 is the most famous, not only because it is the 歐洲河流列表, but also because of its major role in Russian history.[93] The Siberian rivers Ob, 葉尼塞河, Lena and Amur are among the 世界河流列表.

Climate编辑

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the 温带大陆性湿润气候, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.[153]

Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia has a 亚寒带气候, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the 萨哈共和国, where the Northern 寒極點 is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C或−96.2 °F), and more moderate elsewhere. The strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Russian Arctic islands英语Russian Arctic islands, have a 寒带.

The coastal part of 克拉斯诺达尔边疆区 on the Black Sea, most notably in 索契, possesses a 副热带湿润气候 with mild and wet winters. Winter is dry compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a 半干旱气候.

Russia (records)气候平均数据
月份 1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月 全年
历史最高温​℃(℉) 22.2
(72)
23.8
(74.8)
30.3
(86.5)
34.0
(93.2)
37.7
(99.9)
43.2
(109.8)
45.4
(113.7)
43.5
(110.3)
41.5
(106.7)
33.7
(92.7)
29.1
(84.4)
25.0
(77)
45.4
(113.7)
历史最低温​℃(℉) −71.2
(−96.2)
−64.4
(−83.9)
−60.6
(−77.1)
−46.4
(−51.5)
−28.9
(−20)
−9.7
(14.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
−17.1
(1.2)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−47.6
(−53.7)
−58.5
(−73.3)
−62.8
(−81)
−71.2
(−96.2)
来源:Pogoda.ru.net[154]

Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low temperatures and extremely high.[153] The coldest month is January (February on the coastline), the warmest usually is July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.[155] The continental interiors are the driest areas.

Biodiversity编辑

 
The 棕熊 is a popular symbol of Russia英语Russian Bear, particularly shown as a Russian symbol in the West.

From north to south the 东欧平原, also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic 凍土層, coniferous forest (北方針葉林), mixed and broad-leaf forests英语mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland (干草原), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia has the world's largest 自然保护区,[156] known as "the lungs of Europe",[157] second only to the 亞馬遜雨林 in the amount of 二氧化碳 it absorbs.

There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Russia. A total of 415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation英语Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of 1997 and are now protected.[158]

Economy编辑

thumb英语File:WTC-Moscow.jpg Russia has a developed, high-income英语World Bank high-income economy 市场经济 with enormous natural resources, particularly oil英语Russian oil industry and natural gas. It has the 15th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by 购买力平价 (PPP). Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas. Real GDP per capita, PPP (current international) was 19,840 in 2010.[159] Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports.[93] The average nominal salary in Russia was $967 per month in early 2013, up from $80 in 2000.[160][161] In March 2014 the average nominal monthly wages reached 30,000 RUR (or US$980),[162][163] while tax on the income of individuals is payable at the rate of 13% on most incomes.[164] Approximately 12.8% of Russians lived below the national poverty line英语Poverty by country in 2011,[165] significantly down from 40% in 1998 at the worst point of the post-Soviet collapse.[89] Unemployment in Russia was at 5.4% in 2014, down from about 12.4% in 1999.[166] The middle class has grown from just 8 million persons in 2000 to 104 million persons in 2013.[167][168] Sugar imports reportedly dropped 82% between 2012 and 2013 as a result of the increase in domestic output.[169]

thumb英语File:Russian economy since fall of Soviet Union.PNG Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad.[93] Since 2003, the exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Despite higher energy prices, oil and gas only contribute to 5.7% of Russia's GDP and the government predicts this will be 3.7% by 2011.[170] Oil export earnings allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on 1 August 2008, the third 各國外匯儲備列表 in the world.[171] The macroeconomic policy under Finance Minister 阿列克谢·库德林 was prudent and sound, with excess income being stored in the Stabilization Fund of Russia英语Stabilization Fund of Russia.[172] In 2006, Russia repaid most of its formerly massive debts,[173] leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies.[174] The Stabilization Fund helped Russia to come out of the global financial crisis in a much better state than many experts had expected.[172]

A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue.[175] Russia has a 单一税 rate of 13%. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.[176] According to Bloomberg, Russia is considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry.[177] The country has a higher proportion of higher education graduates than any other country in Eurasia.[178]

 
On 21 May 2014, Russia and 中华人民共和国 signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019 Russia plans to provide 天然气 to China for the next 30 years.

The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a very large share of the country's GDP.[179] Inequality of household income and wealth has also been noted, with Credit Suisse finding Russian wealth distribution so much more extreme than other countries studied it "deserves to be placed in a separate category."[180][181] Another problem is modernisation of infrastructure, ageing and inadequate after years of being neglected in the 1990s; the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020.[182] In December 2011, Russia finally[需要解释] joined the World Trade Organisation, allowing it a greater access to overseas markets. Some analysts estimate that WTO membership could bring the Russian economy a bounce of up to 3% annually.[183] Russia ranks as the second-most corrupt country in Europe (after Ukraine), according to the 貪污感知指數. The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that "[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with".[184] The high rate of corruption acts as a hidden tax as businesses and individuals often have to pay money that is not part of the official tax rate. It is estimated that corruption is costing the Russian economy an estimated $2 billion (80 billion rubles) per year.[185] In 2014, a book-length study by Professor Karen Dawisha was published concerning corruption in Russian under Putin's government.[186]

The Russian central bank announced plans in 2013 to free float the Russian ruble in 2015. According to a stress test conducted by the central bank Russian financial system would be able to handle a currency decline of 25%–30% without major central bank interference. However, Russian economy began stagnating in late 2013 and in combination with the 乌克兰亲俄罗斯武装冲突 (2014年-2015年) is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation. The Russian ruble collapsed by 24% from October 2013 to October 2014 entering the level where the central bank may need to intervene to strengthen the currency. Moreover, after bringing inflation down to 3.6% in 2012, the lowest rate since gaining independence from the Soviet Union, inflation in Russia jumped to nearly 7.5% in 2014, causing the central bank to increase its lending rate to 8% from 5.5% in 2013.[187][188][189] In an October 2014 article in Bloomberg Business Week, it was reported that Russia had significantly started shifting its economy towards China in response to increasing financial tensions following its annexation of Crimea and subsequent Western economic sanctions.[190]

Agriculture编辑

 
Rye Fields, by 伊凡·伊凡諾維奇·希施金. Russia is the world's top producer of 裸麥, 大麦, 蕎麥, 燕麦 and 葵花籽, and one of the largest producers and exporters of wheat.

The 各国土地使用情况列表 in Russia was estimated as 1,237,294 km2 in 2005, the fourth largest in the world.[191] From 1999 to 2009, Russia's agriculture demonstrated steady growth,[192] and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after EU and the United States.[193] The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow.[194]

This restoration of agriculture was supported by credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms, that once were Soviet kolkhoz英语kolkhozes and still own the significant share of agricultural land.[195] While large farms concentrate mainly on the production of grain and 农业 products, small private household plot英语household plots produce most of the country's yield of potatoes, vegetables and fruits.[196]

With access to three of the world's oceans—the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific—Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the world's fish supply英语world's fish supply. The total capture of fish was at 3,191,068 tons in 2005.[197] Both exports and imports of fish and sea products grew significantly in the recent years, reaching correspondingly $2,415 and $2,036 millions in 2008.[198]

Sprawling from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, Russia has more than a fifth of the world's forests, which makes it the largest forest country in the world.[156][199] However, according to a 2012 study by the 联合国粮食及农业组织 and the Government of the Russian Federation,[200] the considerable potential of Russian forests is underutilized and Russia's share of the global trade in forest products is less than four percent.[201]

Energy编辑

 
Russia is a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe.

In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower英语energy superpower.[202][203] The country has the world's largest 各国天然气储量列表,[204] the 8th largest oil reserves英语oil reserves,[205] and the second largest .[206] Russia is the world's leading 各国天然气出口量列表[207] and second largest 各国天然气产量列表,[25] while also the largest 各国石油出口量列表 and the largest 各国石油产量列表.[24]

Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer英语electricity producer in the world[208] and the 5th largest 各国可再生能源电力产量列表, the latter because of the well-developed 水力發電 production in the country.[209] Large cascades of 水力發電s are built in European Russia along big rivers like Volga. The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations, however the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.

Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world's 奥布宁斯克核电站. Currently the country is the 4th largest 各国核能利用情况,[210] with all nuclear power in Russia英语nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom英语Rosatom State Corporation. The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 16.9% to 23% by 2020. The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.[211]

In May 2014 on a two-day trip to Shanghai, President Putin signed a deal on behalf of Gazprom for the Russian energy giant to supply China英语Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. Construction of a pipeline to facilitate the deal was agreed whereby Russia would contribute $55bn to the cost, and China $22bn, in what Putin described as "the world's biggest construction project for the next four years." The natural gas would begin to flow sometime between 2018 and 2020 and would continue for 30 years at an ultimate cost to China of $400bn.[212]

Transport编辑

 
The marker for kilometre 9288 at the end of the 西伯利亞鐵路 in 海參崴

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run 俄罗斯铁路 monopoly. The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia's GDP and handles 39% of the total freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic.[213] The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeds 85,500 km(53,127 mi),[213] second only to the United States. Over 44,000 km(27,340 mi) of tracks are electrified,[214] which is the largest number in the world, and additionally there are more than 30,000 km(18,641 mi) of industrial non-common carrier lines. Railways in Russia, unlike in the most of the world, use 宽轨 of 1,520毫米(4英尺11 2732英寸), with the exception of 957 km(595 mi) on 库页岛 island using narrow gauge of 1,067毫米(3英尺6英寸). The most renown railway in Russia is Trans-Siberian (Transsib), spanning a record 7 time zones and serving the longest single continuous services in the world, Moscow-海參崴 (9,259 km(5,753 mi)), Moscow–平壤 (10,267 km(6,380 mi))[215] and 基輔–Vladivostok (11,085 km(6,888 mi)).[216]

As of 2006 Russia had 933,000 km of roads, of which 755,000 were paved.[217] Some of these make up the Russian federal motorway system英语Russian federal motorway system. With a large land area the road density is the lowest of all the 八大工業國組織 and 金砖四国 countries.[218]

Much of Russia's inland waterways, which total 102,000 km(63,380 mi), are made up of natural rivers or lakes. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas", because of its waterway connections to the Baltic, White, Caspian, Azov and 黑海s.

Major sea ports of Russia include 顿河畔罗斯托夫 on the Azov Sea, 新罗西斯克 on the Black Sea, 阿斯特拉罕 and 馬哈奇卡拉 on the Caspian, 加里寧格勒 and St Petersburg on the Baltic, 阿尔汉格尔斯克 on the White Sea, 摩爾曼斯克 on the Barents Sea, 堪察加彼得巴甫洛夫斯克 and 海參崴 on the Pacific Ocean. In 2008 the country owned 1,448 merchant marine英语Merchant marine by country ships. The world's only fleet of nuclear-powered icebreaker英语nuclear-powered icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia英语continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the 北方海路 between Europe and East Asia.

By total length of pipelines英语total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Currently many new pipeline projects are being realized, including Nord Stream英语Nord Stream and South Stream英语South Stream natural gas pipelines to Europe, and the 东西伯利亚-太平洋石油管道 (ESPO) to the Russian Far East and China.

Russia has 1,216 airports,[220] the busiest being 谢列梅捷沃国际机场, Domodedovo, and 伏努科沃國際機場 in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St. Petersburg. The total length of runways in Russia exceeds 600,000公里(370,000英里).[221]

Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, 無軌電車 and tram. Seven Russian cities, namely Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod英语Nizhny Novgorod Metro, Novosibirsk, Samara, Yekaterinburg英语Yekaterinburg Metro, and Kazan, have underground metros, while 伏尔加格勒 features a metrotram英语Volgograd Metrotram. The total length of metros英语total length of metros in Russia is 465.4公里(289.2英里). Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in 1935 and 1955 respectively. These two are among the fastest and 世界各城市地鐵列表 in the world, and are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition on Russian metros and railways.

Science and technology编辑

 
米哈伊尔·瓦西里耶维奇·罗蒙诺索夫, 博学家 scientist, inventor, poet and artist
 
巴甫洛夫 (1849–1936), physiologist, Nobel Prize in 1904

Science and technology in Russia blossomed since the 啟蒙時代, when 彼得大帝 founded the 俄羅斯科學院 and 圣彼得堡国立大学, and 博学家 米哈伊尔·瓦西里耶维奇·罗蒙诺索夫 established the 莫斯科国立大学, paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation. In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors.

The Russian physics school英语Russian physics school began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the 能量守恒定律. Russian discoveries and inventions in physics include the 电弧, electrodynamical 楞次定律, 空间群 of 晶体s, 太阳能电池, 超流体, 契忍可夫輻射, 電子自旋共振, 异质结s and 全息摄影. 激光s and 激微波s were co-invented by 尼古拉·根纳季耶维奇·巴索夫 and 亚历山大·米哈伊洛维奇·普罗霍罗夫, while the idea of 托卡马克 for controlled 核聚变 was introduced by 伊戈尔·叶夫根耶维奇·塔姆, 安德烈·德米特里耶维奇·萨哈罗夫 and Lev Artsimovich英语Lev Artsimovich, leading eventually the modern international 国际热核聚变实验反应堆 project, where Russia is a party.

Since the time of 尼古拉·罗巴切夫斯基 (the "尼古拉·哥白尼 of 几何学" who pioneered the 非欧几里得几何) and a prominent tutor 巴夫尼提·列波维奇·切比雪夫, the Russian mathematical school英语Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential in the world.[222] Chebyshev's students included 亞歷山大·李亞普諾夫, who founded the modern stability theory英语stability theory, and 安德雷·马尔可夫 who invented the 马尔可夫链s. In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as 安德雷·柯爾莫哥洛夫, 伊斯拉埃爾·蓋爾范德, and 舍蓋·劉維奇·索伯列夫, made major contributions to various areas of mathematics. Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians were awarded with 菲尔兹奖, a most prestigious award in mathematics. Recently 格里戈里·佩雷尔曼 was offered the first ever Clay 千禧年大獎難題 Award for his final proof of the 庞加莱猜想 in 2002.[223]

Russian chemist英语Russian chemist 德米特里·伊万诺维奇·门捷列夫 invented the 元素周期表, the main framework of modern 化學. Aleksandr Butlerov英语Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure英语chemical structure, playing a central role in 有机化学. Russian biologists英语Russian biologists include 德米特里·伊凡諾夫斯基 who discovered viruses, 巴甫洛夫 who was the first to experiment with the 古典制約, and 埃黎耶·埃黎赫·梅契尼可夫 who was a pioneer researcher of the 免疫系统 and 益生菌.

Many Russian scientists and inventors were 流亡分子, like 伊戈尔·伊万诺维奇·西科尔斯基, who built the first 民航飛機s and modern-type helicopters; 弗拉基米尔·佐利金, often called the father of TV; chemist 伊利亚·普里高津, noted for his work on 耗散系統 and 复杂系统; Nobel Prize-winning economists 西蒙·史密斯·库兹涅茨 and 瓦西里·列昂季耶夫; physicist 乔治·伽莫夫 (an author of the 大爆炸 theory) and social scientist Pitirim Sorokin英语Pitirim Sorokin. Many foreigners worked in Russia for a long time, like 萊昂哈德·歐拉 and 阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔.

Russian inventions英语Russian inventions include 電弧焊 by Nikolay Benardos英语Nikolay Benardos, further developed by 尼庫萊·斯拉夫耶諾夫, Konstantin Khrenov英语Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers. Gleb Kotelnikov英语Gleb Kotelnikov invented the 降落伞, while Evgeniy Chertovsky英语Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit英语pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin英语Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov英语Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of 電光源, and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky英语Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first 三相電 systems, widely used today. Sergei Lebedev英语Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber英语synthetic rubber. The first 三進制計算機, 三進制計算機, was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov英语Nikolay Brusentsov.

 
The T-50戰鬥機 is a 第五代戰鬥機 being developed for the 俄罗斯空军.

In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers英语Soviet aerospace engineers, inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky, Sergei Chaplygin英语Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs (Construction Bureaus) that now constitute the bulk of Russian 聯合航空製造公司. Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu-series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi-series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the 航空器最高製造數量列表 in history.

Famous Russian battle tanks include T34, the most heavily produced tank design of World War II,[224] and further tanks of T-series, including the most produced tank in history, T54/55.[225] The AK-47突击步枪 and AK74 by 米哈伊尔·卡拉什尼科夫 constitute the most widely used type of 突击步枪 throughout the world—so much so that more AK-type rifles have been manufactured than all other assault rifles combined.[226]

With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to 節約能源 and 制成品 production. The crisis of the 1990s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a 人才外流 migration from Russia.

In the 2000s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and 創新. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev formulated top priorities for the country's technological development:

Currently Russia has completed the 格洛纳斯系统 satellite navigation system英语satellite navigation system. The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant英语mobile nuclear plant in the world.

Space exploration编辑

 
Soviet and Russian 空间站 和平号空间站

Russian achievements in the field of 航天技术 and 太空探索 are traced back to 康斯坦丁·齐奥尔科夫斯基, the father of theoretical 太空工程.[228] His works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as 谢尔盖·帕夫洛维奇·科罗廖夫, Valentin Glushko英语Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the 苏联太空计划 on early stages of the 太空競賽 and beyond.

In 1957 the first Earth-orbiting artificial 人造衛星, 史普尼克1號, was launched; in 1961 the first human trip into space was successfully made by 尤里·阿列克谢耶维奇·加加林. Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records英语space exploration records ensued, including the first 舱外活动 performed by 阿列克谢·列昂诺夫, 月球9号 was the first spacecraft to land on the 月球, 金星7號 was the first to land on another planet (金星), 火星3號 then the first to land on 火星, the first 探測車 Lunokhod 1 and the first 空间站 禮炮1號 and 和平号空间站.

After the 苏联解体, some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified.

Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher.[229] After the U.S. 航天飞机 program ended in 2011, Soyuz rockets became the only provider of transport for astronauts at the 国际空间站.

 
Soyuz TMA-2英语Soyuz TMA-2 is launched from 拜科努爾, 哈萨克斯坦, carrying one of the first resident crews to the 国际空间站

Demographics编辑

Percentage of ethnic Russians by region in 2010
  >80%
  70—79%
  50—69%
  20—49%
  <20%
Natural population growth rate in Russia, 2012.

Ethnic Russians comprise 81% of the country's population.[1] The Russian Federation is also home to several sizeable minorities. In all, 160 different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders.[230] Though Russia's population is comparatively large, its density is low because of the country's enormous size. Population is densest in 歐洲俄羅斯, near the 乌拉尔山脉, and in southwest Siberia. 73% of the population lives in urban areas while 27% in rural ones.[231] The results of the 2010 Census英语Russian Census (2010) show a total population of 142,856,536.[232]

Russia's population peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the 苏联解体. It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mid-1990s.[233] The decline has slowed to near stagnation in recent years because of reduced 死亡率, increased 出生率 and increased 外來移民.[234]

In 2009, Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10,500.[234] 279,906 migrants arrived to the Russian Federation the same year, of which 93% came from CIS countries.[234] The number of Russian emigrants steadily declined from 359,000 in 2000 to 32,000 in 2009.[234] There are also an estimated 10 million illegal immigrants英语Illegal immigration in Russia from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[235] Russia is home to approximately 116 million ethnic Russians[230] and about 20 million ethnic Russians live outside Russia in the former republics of the Soviet Union,[236] mostly in Ukraine and Kazakhstan.[237]

The 2010 census英语Russian Census (2010) recorded 81% of the population as ethnically Russian, and 19% as other ethnicities:[1] 3.7% 鞑靼人; 1.4% Ukrainians英语Ukrainians in Russia; 1.1% 巴什基爾人; 1% Chuvashes; 11.8% others and unspecified. According to the Census, 84.93% of the Russian population belongs to European ethnic groups (Slavic, Germanic, Finnic other than Ugric英语Ugric peoples, Greek, and others). This is a decline from the 2002, when they constituted for more than 86% of the population.[1]

Russia's birth rate is higher than that of most European countries (12.6 births per 1000 people in 2010[234] compared to the 欧洲联盟 average of 9.90 per 1000),[238] but its death rate is also substantially higher (in 2010, Russia's death rate was 14.3 per 1000 people[234] compared to the EU average of 10.28 per 1000).[239] The Russian Ministry of Health and Social Affairs predicted that by 2011 the death rate would equal the birth rate because of increase in fertility and decline in mortality.[240] The government is implementing a number of programs designed to increase the birth rate and attract more migrants. Monthly government child-assistance payments were doubled to US$55, and a one-time payment of US$9,200 was offered to women who had a second child since 2007.[241]

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".[242] In 2009 Russia experienced its highest birth rate since the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[234][243] In 2012, the birth rate increased again. Russia recorded 1,896,263 births, the highest number since 1990, and even exceeding annual births during the period 1967–1969, with a TFR of about 1.7, the highest since 1991. (Source: Vital statistics table below)

In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[244]

Largest cities编辑

Template:Largest cities of Russia

Language编辑

 
Area where 俄语 is spoken

Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages.[11] According to the 2002 Census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and Ukrainian with 1.8 million speakers.[245] Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian.[246]

Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout the country. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken 斯拉夫语族.[247] It belongs to the 印欧语系 family and is one of the living members of the 东斯拉夫语支, the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian (and possibly Rusyn). Written examples of Old East Slavic英语Old East Slavic (Old Russian) are attested from the 10th century onwards.[248]

Russian is the second-most used language on the 互联网 after English,[249] one of two official languages aboard the 国际空间站[250] and is one of the six official languages of the UN英语official languages of the UN.[251]

Religion编辑

 
Church of the Transfiguration, 基日島的木結構教堂 in the 卡累利阿共和国

There is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In August 2012, ARENA[252] estimated that about 46.8% of Russians are Christians (including Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, and non-denominational), which is slightly less than an absolute 50%+ majority. However, later that year, the Levada Center英语Levada Center estimated that 76% of Russians are Christians,[253] and in June 2013, the Public Opinion Foundation[254] estimated that 65% of Russians are Christians. These findings are in line with 皮尤研究中心's 2011 survey,[255] which estimated that 73.6% of Russians are Christians, with Russian Public Opinion Research Center英语Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM)'s 2010 survey (~77% Christian),[256] and with Ipsos MORI英语Ipsos MORI's 2011 survey (69%).[257] Orthodox Christianity英语Orthodox Christianity in Russia, Islam, Judaism英语Judaism in Russia and Buddhism are Russia's traditional religions, and are all legally a part of Russia's "historical heritage".[258]

Traced back to the Christianization of Kievan Rus'英语Christianization of Kievan Rus' in the 10th century, Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country; smaller Christian denominations such as Catholics, 亚美尼亚使徒教会 and various Protestant churches also exist. The 俄罗斯正教会 was the country's state religion prior to the Revolution and remains the largest religious body in the country. An estimated 95% of the registered Orthodox parishes belong to the Russian Orthodox Church while there are a number of smaller Orthodox Churches英语Religion in Russia.[259] However, the vast majority of Orthodox believers do not attend church on a regular basis. Easter is the most popular religious holiday in Russia, celebrated by a large segment of the Russian population, including large numbers of those who are non-religious. More than three-quarters of the Russian population celebrate Easter by making traditional Easter cakes, coloured eggs and paskha英语paskha (dish).[260]

伊斯兰教 is the second largest religion in Russia after Russian Orthodoxy.[261] It is the traditional or predominant religion amongst some Caucasian ethnicities (notably the 车臣人, the Ingush and the Circassians英语Circassians), and amongst some 突厥人 (notably the 鞑靼人 and the 巴什基爾人). Altogether, there are 9,400,000 Muslims in Russia or 6.5% of the total population as of 2012 (the share of Muslims is probably much higher because the survey doesn't include detailed data for the traditionally Islamic states of 车臣共和国 and 印古什共和国). Notwithstanding, various differences split the Muslim population in different groups. According to the survey, most of the Muslims (precisely 6,700,000 or 4.6% of the total population) are "unaffiliated" to any Islamic schools and branches英语Islamic schools and branches or Islamic organisation, this is mainly because it is not essential for Muslims to be affiliated with any specific sect or organization. Those who are affiliated are mostly 遜尼派 Muslims, with 什叶派 and 阿赫迈底亚 minorities.[262] Unaffiliated Muslims constitute significant numbers of over 10% in 卡巴爾達-巴爾卡爾共和國 (49%), 巴什科尔托斯坦共和国 (38%), 卡拉恰伊-切尔克斯共和国 (34%), 鞑靼斯坦共和国 (31%), 亚马尔-涅涅茨自治区 (13%), 奧倫堡州 (11%), 阿迪格共和国 (11%) and 阿斯特拉罕州 (11%). Most of the regions of 西伯利亚 have an unaffiliated Muslim population of 1% to 2%.[252][263]

Buddhism is traditional in three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia, 图瓦共和国, and 卡尔梅克共和国. Some residents of the Siberian and Far Eastern regions, such as 萨哈共和国 and Chukotka, practice 萨满教, 泛神论, and 異教 rites, along with the major religions. Induction into religion takes place primarily along ethnic lines. Slavs are significantly Orthodox Christian, Turkic speakers are predominantly Muslim, and Mongolic peoples are generally Buddhists.[264]

Various reports put the number of non-religious in Russia at between 16–48% of the population.[265] The number of atheists has decreased significantly; according to the recent statistic, only seven percent declared themselves atheists, a decrease of 5% in three years.[266]

Health编辑

thumb英语File:Terapevt Mudrov train.JPG

The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care英语universal health care for all its citizens.[267] In practice, however, free health care is partially restricted because of mandatory registration英语Registration in Russia.[268] While Russia has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis,[269] since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the health of the Russian population has declined considerably as a result of social, economic, and lifestyle changes;[270] the trend has been reversed only in the recent years, with average life expectancy having increased 5.2 years for males and 3.1 years for females between 2006–14.[271]

As of 2014, the average life expectancy in Russia was 65.29 years for males and 76.49 years for females.[271] The biggest factor contributing to the relatively low life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males. Deaths mostly occur because of preventable causes (e.g., alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents, violent crime).[234] As a result of the large gender difference in life expectancy, and also because of the lasting effect of high casualties in World War II, the gender imbalance英语gender imbalance remains to this day; there are 0.859 males to every female.[93]

Education编辑

Russia have the most college-level or higher graduates in percentage of population in the world.[272] Russia has a 免費教育 system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the Constitution,[273] however entry to subsidized higher education is highly competitive.[274] As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and aerospace research is generally of a high order.[275]

Since 1990, the 11-year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. University level education is free, with exceptions. A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay (many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years).[276]

In 2004, state spending for education amounted to 3.6% of the GDP, or 13% of the consolidated state budget.[277] The Government allocates funding to pay the tuition fees within an established quota or number of students for each state institution. In higher education institutions, students are paid a small stipend英语stipend and provided with free housing if they are from out of town.[278]

The oldest and largest 俄罗斯大学列表 are 莫斯科国立大学 and 圣彼得堡国立大学. In the 2000s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding. These new institutions include the Southern Federal University英语Southern Federal University, 西伯利亚联邦大学, 喀山国立大学, North-Eastern Federal University英语North-Eastern Federal University, and 远东联邦大学.

Culture编辑

民俗文化与饮食编辑

 
The Merchant's Wife by Boris Kustodiev英语Boris Kustodiev, showcasing the Russian tea culture英语Russian tea culture

俄罗斯有超过160个各异的族群。[230]俄罗斯人有着斯拉夫东正教传统,鞑靼人巴什基尔人英语巴什基尔人秉承突厥穆斯林文化,他们同信仰佛教游牧民族布里亚特人卡尔梅克人、信仰巫觋宗教西北部联邦管区居民、北高加索的山地居民和西北部的芬兰-乌戈尔人英语芬兰-乌戈尔人共同为这个国家贡献了多样的文化。

德姆科沃玩具英语Dymkovo toy霍赫洛玛装饰画英语Russian jokes蓝花瓷英语Gzhel帕列赫微型画英语palekh miniature等工艺品代表了俄罗斯民俗文化的面貌。俄罗斯民族服饰包括男人的卡夫坦长衫英语kaftan俄式偏领衬衫英语kosovorotka苏联毛帽英语苏联毛帽,妇女的萨拉凡连衣裙英语Sarafan盾环装饰英语Kokoshnik,以及树皮鞋英语lapti毡靴英语valenki。南俄的哥萨克服饰包括毡斗篷英语burka毛皮高帽英语papaha,与北高加索居民共有。

俄罗斯菜广泛使用鱼类、禽肉、蘑菇、浆果和蜂蜜,黑麦、小麦、大麦小米等粮食是面包、薄烤饼格瓦斯、啤酒、伏特加等饮料的原料。 和世界上其它地方相比,黑麦面包在俄罗斯非常普遍。饼类则以小馅饼俄式薄煎饼英语blini乳渣馅饼英语Syrniki最具当地特色。基辅鸡卷英语Chicken Kiev肉馅白菜卷英语Cabbage roll俄式烤串俄国饺子英语俄国饺子是流行的荤菜,其中后两种分别源自鞑靼和高加索。 白菜汤英语白菜汤红甜菜汤鱼汤英语ukha杂拌汤英语杂拌汤冻汤英语Okroshka是最为家常的汤菜,奥利维耶沙拉英语Olivier salad甜菜丝鲱鱼沙拉英语Dressed herring是最受欢迎的沙拉。汤和沙拉常佐以口味很重的斯美塔那酸奶油

俄罗斯各民族的民间音乐各具特色,典型的俄罗斯民族乐器有古斯里琴英语gusli巴拉莱卡琴扎列卡管英语zhaleika手风琴等。民间音乐对俄罗斯古典乐作曲家影响很深。时至今日,它仍是磨坊乐队英语Melnitsa等许多通俗民乐队的灵感来源。在亚历山德罗夫红旗歌舞团等享誉世界的乐团的曲目主要是俄罗斯民歌和苏联爱国歌曲。

俄罗斯人有许多传统,洗俄式蒸气浴是其中之一。[51]古老的俄罗斯民间传说英语Russian folklore植根于斯拉夫神話。大量的俄罗斯童话英语Russian fairy tales勇士赞歌英语俄罗斯勇士赞歌为动画电影提供了素材。bylina英语bylinas were adaptated for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko英语Aleksandr Ptushko (Ilya Muromets英语Ilya Muromets (film), Sadko英语Sadko (film)) and Aleksandr Rou英语Aleksandr Rou (Morozko英语Morozko, Vasilisa the Beautiful英语Vasilisa the Beautiful). Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov英语Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov and Leonid Filatov英语Leonid Filatov, made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of 亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇·普希金, also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.

Architecture编辑

 
聖瓦西里主教座堂 in Moscow, a well known piece of Russian architecture英语Russian architecture

Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus'英语Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the 拜占庭式建筑. Apart from fortifications (克里姆林s), the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches英语Orthodox church (building) with their many 圓頂s, often gilded or brightly painted.

Aristotle Fioravanti英语Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought 文艺复兴 trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like church英语tent-like churches culminating in 聖瓦西里主教座堂.[279] By that time the 洋蔥形圓頂 design was also fully developed.[280] In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and 雅罗斯拉夫尔, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque英语Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s. After the 彼得大帝改革 the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe.

The 18th-century taste for 洛可可 architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli英语Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. The reigns of 叶卡捷琳娜二世 and her grandson Alexander I saw the flourishing of 新古典主义建筑, most notably in the capital city of 圣彼得堡. The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine英语Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire and Russian Revival英语Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the 新艺术运动, Constructivism英语Constructivist architecture, and the 斯大林式建筑.

In 1955, a new Soviet leader, 尼基塔·謝爾蓋耶維奇·赫魯曉夫, condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture,[281] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain 功能主義建築. This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles. The situation improved in the recent two decades. Many temples demolished in Soviet times were rebuilt, and this process continues along with the restoration of various historical buildings destroyed in World War II. A total of 23,000 Orthodox churches have been rebuilt between 1991 and 2010, which effectively quadrapled the number of operating churches in Russia.[282]

Visual arts编辑

 
A piece of Russian Icon art known as 安德烈·魯布烈夫's Trinity
 
Karl Bryullov英语Karl Bryullov (1799–1852), a key figure in transition from the Russian neoclassicism to romanticism.

Early Russian painting is represented in icons英语Russian icons and vibrant 濕壁畫s, the two genres inherited from 拜占庭. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek英语Theophanes the Greek, Dionisius英语Dionisius and 安德烈·魯布烈夫 became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.

The Russian Academy of Arts英语Russian Academy of Arts was created in 1757[283] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov英语Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky英语Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovsky英语Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting英语portrait painting. In the early 19th century, when 新古典主義 and 浪漫主义 flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov英语Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov英语Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov.

In the mid-19th century the 巡回展览画派 (Wanderers) group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.[284] These were mostly realist painters who captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism英语social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism英语Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences) flourished under the reign of Alexander II. Leading realists include 伊凡·伊凡諾維奇·希施金, Arkhip Kuindzhi英语Arkhip Kuindzhi, 伊凡·克拉姆斯柯依, Vasily Polenov英语Vasily Polenov, 艾萨克·伊里奇·列维坦, 瓦西里·伊万诺维奇·苏里科夫, 维克多·瓦斯涅佐夫, 伊利亚·叶菲莫维奇·列宾, and Boris Kustodiev英语Boris Kustodiev.

The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel英语Mikhail Vrubel, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin英语Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, and Nicholas Roerich.

The Russian avant-garde英语Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of 现代艺术 that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism英语neo-primitivism, 至上主义, constructivism英语constructivism (art), rayonism英语rayonism, and Russian Futurism英语Russian Futurism. Notable artists from this era include 埃尔·利西茨基, 卡济米尔·谢韦里诺维奇·马列维奇, 瓦西里·康定斯基, and 馬克·夏卡爾. Since the 1930s the revolutionary ideas of the 前衛 clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of 社会主义的现实主义.

Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and 反法西斯主義 during and after the 苏德战争. Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina英语Vera Mukhina, Yevgeny Vuchetich英语Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny英语Ernst Neizvestny.

Music and dance编辑

 
The Snowdance scene from 胡桃夹子 ballet, composed by 彼得·伊里奇·柴可夫斯基

Music in 19th century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer 米哈伊尔·伊万诺维奇·格林卡 along with other members of 强力集团, who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society英语Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and 尼古萊·格里戈里耶維奇·魯賓斯坦s, which was musically conservative. The later tradition of 彼得·伊里奇·柴可夫斯基, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by 谢尔盖·瓦西里耶维奇·拉赫玛尼诺夫.[285] World-renowned composers of the 20th century include 亞歷山大·尼古拉耶維奇·斯克里亞賓, 伊戈尔·费奥多罗维奇·斯特拉文斯基, 謝爾蓋·謝爾蓋耶維奇·普羅科菲耶夫, 德米特里·德米特里耶维奇·肖斯塔科维奇 and 阿尔弗雷德·加里耶维奇·施尼特凯.

Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. Among the best known are violinists 雅沙·海菲茨, 大卫·奥伊斯特拉赫, 列奥尼德·柯岗, 基東·克雷默, and Maxim Vengerov英语Maxim Vengerov; cellists 姆斯蒂斯拉夫·列奥波尔多维奇·罗斯特罗波维奇, Natalia Gutman英语Natalia Gutman; pianists 弗拉基米爾·薩莫伊洛維奇·霍羅威茨, 斯维亚托斯拉夫·里赫特, Emil Gilels英语Emil Gilels, 弗拉基米尔·弗拉基米洛维奇·索弗朗尼茨基 and 艾夫根尼·紀新; and vocalists Fyodor Shalyapin英语Fyodor Shalyapin, Mark Reizen英语Mark Reizen, 艾蓮娜·奧布拉茨索娃, Tamara Sinyavskaya英语Tamara Sinyavskaya, Nina Dorliak英语Nina Dorliak, 卡麗娜·維許涅芙絲卡雅, 安娜·奈瑞贝科 and 季米特里·霍洛斯托夫斯基.[286]

During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers 安娜·巴甫洛娃 and 瓦斯拉夫·弗米契·尼金斯基 rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev英语Sergei Diaghilev and his 俄派芭蕾' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.[287] Soviet ballet preserved the perfected 19th century traditions,[288] and the Soviet Union's choreography schools produced many internationally famous stars, including 加林娜·乌兰诺娃, Maya Plisetskaya英语Maya Plisetskaya, 魯道夫·紐瑞耶夫, and Mikhail Baryshnikov英语Mikhail Baryshnikov. The Bolshoi Ballet英语Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow and the 鞑靼语 in St Petersburg remain famous throughout the world.[289]

Modern Russian rock英语Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western 摇滚 and heavy metal, and in traditions of the Russian bards英语Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as 弗拉基米尔·维索茨基 and Bulat Okudzhava英语Bulat Okudzhava.[290] Popular Russian rock groups include Mashina Vremeni英语Mashina Vremeni, DDT英语DDT (band), Aquarium英语Aquarium (group), Alisa, Kino英语Kino (band), Kipelov英语Kipelov, Nautilus Pompilius英语Nautilus Pompilius (band), Aria, Grazhdanskaya Oborona英语Grazhdanskaya Oborona, Splean英语Splean and Korol i Shut英语Korol i Shut. Russian pop英语Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as T.A.T.u., 圣女天团 and Vitas.

Literature and philosophy编辑

 
列夫·托爾斯泰, novelist and philosopher

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment英语Russian Enlightenment, the development of 俄国文学 was boosted by the works of 米哈伊尔·瓦西里耶维奇·罗蒙诺索夫 and 冯维辛. By the early 19th century a modern native tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history. This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry英语Golden Age of Russian Poetry, began with 亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇·普希金, who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".[291] It continued into the 19th century with the poetry of 米哈伊尔·莱蒙托夫 and 尼古拉·阿列克谢耶维奇·涅克拉索夫, dramas of 亚历山大·尼古拉耶维奇·奥斯特洛夫斯基 and 安东·帕夫洛维奇·契诃夫, and the prose of 尼古拉·瓦西里耶维奇·果戈里 and 伊万·谢尔盖耶维奇·屠格涅夫. 列夫·托爾斯泰 and 費奧多爾·米哈伊洛維奇·陀思妥耶夫斯基 have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time.[292][293]

By the 1880s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres. The next several decades became known as the 白银时代 (俄国文学), when the previously dominant literary realism英语literary realism was replaced by symbolism. Leading authors of this era include such poets as Valery Bryusov英语Valery Bryusov, Vyacheslav Ivanov英语Vyacheslav Ivanov (poet), 亚历山大·勃洛克, 尼古拉斯·斯捷潘诺维奇·古米廖夫 and 安娜·安德烈耶芙娜·艾哈迈托娃, and novelists 列昂尼德·尼古拉耶维奇·安德列耶夫, 伊万·蒲宁, and 马克西姆·高尔基.

Russian philosophy英语Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers英语Westernizers, advocating Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles英语Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky英语Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev英语Konstantin Leontiev, the founders of 歐亞主義. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism英语Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas. Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev英语Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher), Sergei Bulgakov英语Sergei Bulgakov, and 弗拉基米尔·伊万诺维奇·维尔纳茨基.

Following the 1917年俄国革命 of 1917 many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, 弗拉基米爾·弗拉基米羅維奇·納博科夫 and 尼古拉·亚历山德罗维奇·别尔佳耶夫, while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture英语working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state. In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of 社会主义的现实主义. In the late 1950s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines. Leading authors of the Soviet era include novelists 葉夫根尼·伊萬諾維奇·扎米亞京, Ilf and Petrov英语Ilf and Petrov, 米哈伊尔·阿法纳西耶维奇·布尔加科夫 and 米哈伊爾·亞歷山大羅維奇·肖洛霍夫, and poets 弗拉基米尔·弗拉基米罗维奇·马雅可夫斯基, 叶夫根尼·叶夫图申科, and 安德烈·沃兹涅先斯基.

The Soviet Union was also a major producer of science fiction, written by authors like 斯特魯加茨基兄弟, Kir Bulychov英语Kir Bulychov, 亚历山大·罗曼诺维奇·别利亚耶夫 and Ivan Yefremov英语Ivan Yefremov.[294] Traditions of Russian science fiction and fantasy英语Russian science fiction and fantasy are continued today by numerous writers.

Cinema, animation and media编辑

 
Former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in the Washington studio of 今日俄罗斯 with Margarita Simonyan英语Margarita Simonyan.

Russian and later Soviet cinema英语Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following the 1917, resulting in world-renowned films such as 战舰波将金号 by 谢尔盖·米哈依洛维奇·爱森斯坦.[295] Eisenstein was a student of filmmaker and theorist 列维·库勒修, who developed the Soviet montage theory英语Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography英语All-Union Institute of Cinematography. Dziga Vertov英语Dziga Vertov, whose kino-glaz ("film-eye") theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism. The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity, however many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, like Chapaev英语Chapaev (film), 雁南飞, and Ballad of a Soldier英语Ballad of a Soldier.[295]

1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in the Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov英语Eldar Ryazanov's and Leonid Gaidai英语Leonid Gaidai's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today. In 1961–68 谢尔盖·邦达尔丘克 directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic 戰爭與和平, which was the most expensive film英语the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.[296] In 1969, Vladimir Motyl英语Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert英语White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern英语ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts英语cosmonauts before any trip into space.[297]

 
Shukhov Tower英语Shukhov Tower in Moscow served for the early radio and TV broadcasting.

Russian animation英语Russian animation dates back to the late 俄罗斯帝国 times. During Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm英语Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer. Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano英语Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Fyodor Khitruk英语Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky英语Aleksandr Tatarsky. Many Soviet cartoon heroes, such as the Russian-style 小熊維尼, cute little 小小車布歷險記, Wolf and Hare from 兔子,等着瞧! are iconic images in Russia and many surrounding countries.

The late 1980s and 1990s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced. The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival. Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany.[298] Russia's total box-office revenue in 2007 was $565 million, up 37% from the previous year.[299] In 2002 the 創世紀 (電影) became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation英语Melnitsa Animation.

Russia was among the first countries to introduce radio英语Radio Day and television英语Timeline of the introduction of television. While there were few channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and private-owned radio stations英语Russian language radio stations and TV channels英语TV in Russia appeared. In 2005 a state-run English language 今日俄罗斯 started broadcasting, and its Arabic version Rusiya Al-Yaum英语Rusiya Al-Yaum was launched in 2007.

Sports编辑

Combining the total medals of Soviet Union and Russia, the country is second among all nations by number of gold medals both at the Summer Olympics and at the Winter Olympics. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top three for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics. Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weight lifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.[300] The 1980年夏季奥林匹克运动会 were held in Moscow while the 2014年冬季奥林匹克运动会 were hosted in 索契.

 
KHL finals, the league is considered to be the second-best in the world

Although 冰球 was only introduced during the Soviet era, the national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested. Russian players Valery Kharlamov英语Valery Kharlamov, Sergei Makarov英语Sergei Makarov (ice hockey), Vyacheslav Fetisov英语Vyacheslav Fetisov and Vladislav Tretiak英语Vladislav Tretiak hold four of six positions in the 国际冰球联合会 Team of the Century.[301] Russia has not won the Olympic ice hockey tournament since the Unified Team英语Unified Team at the Olympics won gold in 1992. Recently Russia won the 2008英语2008 IIHF World Championships, 2009英语2009 IIHF World Championship,[302] 2012英语2012 IIHF World Championship and the 2014年世界冰球錦標賽s. Russia dominated the 2012 tournament, winning all of its ten matches—the first time any team had done so since the Soviet Union in 1989.[303]

The 大陸冰球聯盟 (KHL) was founded in 2008 as a successor to the Russian Superleague英语Russian Superleague. It is seen as a rival to the 國家冰球聯盟 (NHL), is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of 2009,[304] and the second-best in the world.[305] It is an international professional ice hockey league in 歐亞大陸 and consists of 28 teams, of which 21 are based in Russia and 7 more are located in 拉脫維亞, 哈萨克斯坦, 白俄罗斯, 乌克兰, 捷克, 斯洛伐克, and 克罗地亚.

班迪球, also known as 班迪球, is another traditionally popular ice sport.[306] The Soviet Union won all the Bandy World Championships for men英语Bandy World Championship for men between 1957–79[307] and some thereafter too. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships.

Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first ever European Champions by winning 1960年歐洲國家盃. Appearing in four 世界盃足球賽s from 1958 to 1970, 列夫·耶辛 is regarded to be one of the greatest goalkeepers in the history of football, and was chosen on the FIFA World Cup Dream Team英语FIFA World Cup Dream Team.[308][309] The Soviet national team reached the final of 1988年欧洲足球锦标赛. In 1956 and 1988, the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament. Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and 圣彼得堡泽尼特足球俱乐部 won the 欧足联欧洲联赛 in 2005 and 2008 respectively. The 俄羅斯國家足球隊 reached the semi-finals of 2008年欧洲足球锦标赛, losing only to the eventual champions Spain. Russia will host the 2018年世界盃足球賽, with 11 host cities located in the European part of the country and in the Ural region.

In 2007, the 俄羅斯國家男子籃球隊 won the European Basketball Championship. Russian basketball club 莫斯科中央陸軍籃球俱樂部 is one of the top teams in Europe, winning the 歐洲籃球聯賽 in 2006英语2005–06 Euroleague and 2008英语2007–08 Euroleague.

拉里莎·拉特尼娜, who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman (and held the record for most Olympic medals won per person from 1964 until 2012 when swimmer 迈克尔·菲尔普斯 replaced her record), established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years.[310] Today, Russia is the leading nation in 艺术体操 with 葉夫根尼婭·卡納耶娃. Russian 花样游泳 is the best in the world, with almost all gold medals at Olympics and World Championships having been swept by Russians in recent decades. 花样滑冰 is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating英语pair skating and 冰舞. With the exception of 2010 a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since 1964.

Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including 玛丽亚·莎拉波娃, the world's highest paid female athlete.[311] In martial arts, Russia produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like 菲德·埃密利亞恩寇. 國際象棋 is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from 1927, Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship英语world chess championship almost continuously.[312]

The 2014年冬季奥林匹克运动会 were held in Sochi in the south of Russia. Russia won the largest number of medals among the participating nations with 13 gold, 11 silver, and 9 bronze medals for a total of 33 medals. Commentators evaluated the Games as having been an overall success.[313][314]

Formula One is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia. In 2010 维塔利·佩特罗夫 became the first Russian to drive in Formula One. There had only been two Russian Grands Prix (in 1913 and 1914), but the 俄罗斯大奖赛 returned as part of the 一级方程式赛车 season in 2014, as part of a six-year deal.[315]

National holidays and symbols编辑

 
Scarlet Sails celebration on the 涅瓦河 river in 圣彼得堡

There are seven public holidays in Russia英语public holidays in Russia,[316] except those always celebrated on Sunday. Russian New Year traditions resemble those of the Western Christmas, with New Year Tree英语New Year Trees and gifts, and Ded Moroz英语Ded Moroz (Father Frost英语Father Frost) playing the same role as 圣诞老人. 圣诞节 falls on 7 January, because 俄罗斯正教会 still follows the 儒略曆 and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Western ones. Another two major Christian holidays are Easter and 聖三一主日. 古尔邦节 and 開齋節 are celebrated by Russian Muslims.

Further Russian public holidays include 祖国保卫者日 (23 February), which honors Russian men, especially those serving in the army; 国际妇女节 (8 March), which combines the traditions of 母亲节 and 情人节; 国际劳动节 (1 May); Victory Day; Russia Day英语Russia Day (12 June); and Unity Day (4 November), commemorating the popular uprising which expelled the Polish occupation force from Moscow in 1612.

Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over 纳粹主义 in the 苏德战争. A huge 阅兵, hosted by the 俄罗斯总统, is annually organised in Moscow on 紅場. Similar parades took place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city英语Hero city or City of Military Glory.

Popular non-public holidays include Old New Year英语Old New Year (New Year according to Julian Calendar on 14 January), Tatiana Day英语Tatiana Day (students holiday on 25 January), 谢肉节 (a pre-Christian spring holiday a week before the Great Lent英语Great Lent), 载人空间飞行国际日 (in tribute to the first human trip into space), 伊凡·庫帕拉節 (another pre-Christian holiday on 7 July) and Peter and Fevronia Day英语Peter and Fevronia Day (taking place on 8 July and being the Russian analogue of Valentine's Day, which focuses, however, on the family love and fidelity).

 
俄罗斯套娃 taken apart

State symbols of Russia include the 拜占庭帝国 双头鹰, combined with St. George of Moscow英语St. George of Moscow in the 俄羅斯聯邦國徽. The 俄羅斯聯邦國旗 dates from the late 俄罗斯沙皇国 period and has been widely used since the time of the 俄罗斯帝国. The 俄羅斯聯邦國歌 shares its music with the 牢不可破的联盟, though not the lyrics. The imperial 座右銘 God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite! are now obsolete and no new motto has replaced them. The 锤子与镰刀 and the full 蘇聯國徽 are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations. The Soviet 紅星s are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner英语Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the 胜利旗 of 1945.

The 俄罗斯套娃 is a recognizable symbol of Russia, and the towers of 克里姆林宫 and 聖瓦西里主教座堂 in Moscow are main Russia's architectural icons. 小小車布歷險記 is a mascot of the 奧林匹克運動會俄羅斯代表團. 馬利亞 (耶穌的母親), 圣尼古拉, 安得烈, 圣乔治, 亚历山大·雅罗斯拉维奇·涅夫斯基, St. Sergius of Radonezh英语St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarov英语St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's 主保聖人s. Chamomile英语Chamomile is the 国花, while 桦木属 the 國樹. The Russian bear英语Russian bear is an animal symbol and a 国家化身 of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently. The native Russian national personification is 俄羅斯母親.

Tourism编辑

 
Grand Cascade英语Peterhof Palace#The Grand Cascade and Samson Fountain in Peterhof英语Peterhof Palace, a popular tourist destination in Saint Petersburg

Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet times, first domestic tourism and then international tourism, fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country. Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the 俄羅斯金環 of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the 伏尔加河, and long journeys on the famous 西伯利亞鐵路. In 2013, Russia was visited by 28.4 million 旅游s, it is the ninth most visited country in the world and the seventh most visited in Europe.[317]


The most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and the former capitals of the country. Recognized as 全球城市, they feature such world-renowned museums as 特列季亚科夫画廊 and Hermitage, famous theaters like Bolshoi and Mariinsky, ornate churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral, 基督救世主主教座堂 (莫斯科), 圣以撒主教座堂 and 滴血救世主教堂, impressive fortifications like 克里姆林宫 and 彼得保罗要塞, beautiful squares and streets like 紅場, 冬宫广场, 特維爾大街 and 涅瓦大街. Rich palaces and parks are found in the former imperial residences in suburbs of Moscow (科罗缅斯克, Tsaritsyno英语Tsaritsyno Park) and St Petersburg (Peterhof英语Peterhof Palace, Strelna英语Strelna, Oranienbaum英语Oranienbaum, Russia, Gatchina英语Gatchina Palace, Pavlovsk英语Pavlovsk Palace and Tsarskoye Selo英语Tsarskoye Selo). Moscow displays the 斯大林式建筑 at its best, along with modern skyscrapers, while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North, boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, channels and bridges英语Bridges in Saint Petersburg.

喀山, the capital of 鞑靼斯坦共和国, shows a mix of Christian Russian and Muslim Tatar cultures. The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia, though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including 新西伯利亚, 葉卡捷琳堡 and 下诺夫哥罗德.

The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like 索契, the follow-up host of the 2014年冬季奥林匹克运动会. Large artificial Federation Island英语Federation Island in the sea near the Sochi of Khostinsky City District is shaped like the Russian Federation and host hotels and offices. The mountains of the 北高加索 contain popular ski resorts, including Dombay英语Dombay, Russia. The most famous natural destination in Russia is 贝加尔湖, the Blue Eye of Siberia. This unique lake, oldest and deepest in the world has crystal-clean waters and is surrounded by 北方針葉林-covered mountains. Other popular natural destinations include 堪察加半島 with its volcanoes and geysers, 卡累利阿 with its lakes and 花崗岩 rocks, the snowy 阿尔泰山脉, and the wild steppes of 图瓦共和国.

See also编辑

References编辑

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