Help:夏威夷語國際音標

下表显示了國際音標夏威夷語的发音的方式。有关在维基百科文章中添加IPA字符的指南,请参见{{IPA-haw}}和维基百科:格式手册/音标 § Notes

请参阅夏威夷语语音英语Hawaiian phonology,以更全面地了解夏威夷語的发音。

辅音
IPA 举例 英语近似发音
h Honolulu hat
j Mauna Kea [ˈkɛjə][1] yes
k Kamehameha[2] sky
l Honolulu, Lānaʻi lean
m Maui moon
n naʻi[3] note
p Pele spy
t Waikīkī, wikiwiki[2] steal
v wikiwiki[4] vision
w Loa [ˈlowə], Kīlauea [tiːlɐwˈwɛjə][4] wall
ʔ Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu uh-oh!
( 卡在喉咙里)
重音
IPA 举例 备注
ˈ Honolulu [honoˈlulu] 加在重读音节之前[5]
元音
IPA 举例 英语近似发音
Lānaʻi father
ɐ Oʻahu, Molokaʻi[6] nut
ə Hawaiʻi, Mauna Loa[6] sofa
Kēōkea hey
ɛ Pele[7] bed
e Kahoʻolawe[7] 西班牙语 seta
Waikīkī peel
i wikiwiki 西班牙语 hijo
ʻōʻū more
o Honolulu 西班牙语 loco
ʻōʻū moon
u Honolulu 西班牙语 tuyo
双元音
短双元音
ju kiu cue
ow kākou mole
o̯i poi queen
ew heu 葡萄牙语和西班牙语 neutro
ej lei May
ɐw Mauna[8] cow
ɐj Waikīkī[8] light
ɐo̯ haole 意大利语 ciao
ɐe̯ koaea 日语 kaeru
长双元音
oːw ʻōuli no way
eːj kēia may you
aːw kāu RP far west
aːj kāia RP far younger
aːo̯ ʻāoka crowd
aːe̯ māea [比如?]

Notes编辑

  1. ^ The y sound [j] is not written, but appears between a front vowel (i, e) and a non-front vowel (a, o, u)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 [k] and [t], spelled k, are variants of a single consonant. [k] is almost universal at the beginnings of words, while [t] is most common before the vowel i. [t] is also more common in the western dialects, as on Kauaʻi, while [k] predominates on the Big Island.
  3. ^ In some dialects the letter l tends to be pronounced [n], especially in words with an n in them. On the western islands it tends to be pronounced as a tap, [ɾ].
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 [w] and [v], spelled w, are variants of a single consonant. [w] is the norm after back vowels u, o, while [v] is the norm after front vowels i, e. Initially and after the central vowel a, as in Hawaiʻi, they are found in free variation. [w] also occurs, though it is usually not written, between a back vowel (u, o) and a non-back vowel (i, e, a).
  5. ^ Stress falls on the penultimate vowel, with diphthongs and long vowels counting as two (that is, a final long vowel or diphthong will be stressed). Longer words may have a second stressed vowel, whose position is not predictable.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Short a is pronounced [ɐ] when stressed and [ə] when not.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Short e is [ɛ] when stressed and generally when next to l, n, or another syllable with a [ɛ]; otherwise it is [e].
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 In rapid speech, /ɐw/ and /ɐj/ tend to be pronounced [ɔw] and [ɛj], respectively.