IPA 举例
英语近似发音 汉语拼音近似发音
b[1] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia; fútbol best 浊音b
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva 介于 baby和 bevy之间 介于v和b之间,浊音
d[1] dedo; cuando; aldaba dead 浊音d
ð diva; arder; admirar this
f fase; café face f
ɡ[1] gato; lengua; guerra got 浊音g
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo 类似于go, 但不像g那样完全阻住气流 类似于g, 但不像g那样完全阻住气流
ʝ[1][2] ayuno; poyo you
ɟʝ[1][2] cónyuge; abyecto job 类似于zh
k caña; laca; quise; kilo scan g
l lino; alhaja; principal lean l
ʎ[1][2] llave; pollo million 类似于li
m[3] madre; comer; campo; anfibio mother m
n[3] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum need n
ɲ[3] ñandú; cañón; enyesar canyon 类似于ni
ŋ[3] cinco; venga; conquista sing ang
p pozo; topo spouse p
r[4] rumbo; carro; honra; amor; amor eterno trilled r 无(大舌颤音
ɾ[4] caro; bravo; amor eterno batter (American English)
s[5] saco; espita; xenón sack s
θ[5] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz thing
t tamiz; átomo stand d
chubasco; acechar choose 类似于ch
v[6] afgano van 浊音f
x jamón; eje; reloj; general; México[7] Scottish loch h
z[6] isla; mismo; deshuesar quiz 浊音s,平舌r
Marginal phonemes
IPA 举例 英语近似发音  
ʃ[8] show; Rocher; Freixenet shack 类似于sh
ts abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats c
IPA 举例 英语近似发音 
a azahar father
e vehemente set
i dimitir; mío; y see
o boscoso sole
u cucurucho; dúo food


IPA 举例 英语近似发音 
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
w[10] cuadro; fuego; Huila arduo wine
IPA 举例 英语近似发音 
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Mayan

注释 编辑

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], like English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions unlike their English counterparts.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Most Spanish speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between s (/s/) and soft c or z (/θ/).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
  7. ^ The letter x represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas).
  8. ^ /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns.
  9. ^ The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro).
  10. ^ Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g.