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Help:阿拉伯語國際音標

下表為阿拉伯語發音在維基百科中用國際音標(IPA)表示的方式。

符號 英語近似發音 阿拉伯語字母 羅馬字轉寫 注释
A–B
a father,但更短暫 َ a e [a]
father ا‎ ى ā aa a [b]
aw /a/+/w/ و aw au o [c]
b bee ب b [d]
D
d deal د d [e]
重音 /d/

接近於dark

ض [f][e]
jam ج j ǧ dj [g]
ð these ذ dh ḏ [h]
ðˤ 重音 /ð/ ظ [f][i]
E
bay ي ay ey ai ei e [j]
F–H
f father ف f [k]
h he ه h
ħ 沒有對等的發音 ح [l]
I–K
ɪ sit[1] ِ i e [m]
machine ي ī ee i [n]
j yes ي y
k skin ك k [o]
L–N
l lease公認發音 ل l
ɫ tool l [p]
m me م m
n no ن n
O–R
θ think ث th ṯ [h]
q 比較接近scar的c ق q g [q]
r 比較接近 ray ر r [r]
S
s see س s
重音 /s/

比較接近massage

ص [f]
ʃ she ش sh š ch
T–W
t stik ت‎(有时为ة‎) t [e][o]
重音 /t/

比較接近 star

ط [f][e]
u put ُ u o ou [s]
rule و ū oo ou u [t]
w we و w
X–Z
x 蘇格蘭英語 loch

西班牙語 jota

خ kh ḫ [u]
ɣ 西班牙語 fuego

法語 parler

غ gh ġ [v]
z zoo ز z
其他
ʔ uh-oh!中的停頓 ء ʾ ’ ' [w]
ʕ 沒有對等發音 ع ʿ ‘ ' ` [x][y]
θ O–R
ˈ [ˈkiːwi] كيوي‎ 'kiwi' 表示下面的字母發重音

例如 /ˈʕarabiː/.

ː [kiːs] كيس‎ 'sack' 表示前面的元音延長

註釋编辑

  1. ^ Allophones of /a/ include [ɑ] before emphatic consonants and [q] , [r] and [æ] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008,第595, 600页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第52–53页; Kaye 1997,第193, 197页).
  2. ^ Allophones of /aː/ include [ɑː] before emphatic consonants and [q] , [r]
    and [æː]
    elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008,第595, 600页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第52–53页; Kaye 1997,第193, 197页).
  3. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, /aw/ may be realized as [] ~[ɔː] may occur (Al-Ani 2008,第595页; Kaye 1997,第198页).
  4. ^ The letter ب‎ may represent [p] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written پ‎) as well as before voiceless consonants (Kaye 1997,p.193).
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 /d dˤ t tˤ/ are realized as either dental, denti-alveolar or alveolarAl-Ani 2008,p.597).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Emphatic consonants may be equally pharyngealized or velarized (Al-Ani 2008,第599页; Kaye 1997,第193页).
  7. ^ The letter ج‎ is pronounced as [ɡ] in Egypt, [ʒ] in the Levant and Maghreb (Al-Ani 2008,第598页; Gairdner 1925,第23页).
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 In non-standard pronunciations, /θ/ and /ð/ may be pronounced as [s] and [z]Gairdner 1925,p.19, 81).
  9. ^ The letter ظ‎ is realized as [ðˤ] or []Al-Ani 2008,p.601).
  10. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, [] may be realized as /aj/~[ɛː] (Al-Ani 2008,第595页; Kaye 1997,第198页).
  11. ^ The letter ف‎ may represent [v] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written ڤ‎ or ڥ‎), and may be pronounced as well as before voiced consonants (Kaye 1997,p.193).
  12. ^ /ħ/ is realized as [ħ] or [ʜ] .
  13. ^ Allophones of /ɪ/ include [i] ~[e] before emphatic consonants and [q] , [r] , [ħ] , [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008,第595, 600页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第52–53页; Kaye 1997,第193, 197页).
  14. ^ Allophones of /iː/ include [ɪː] ~[ɨː] before emphatic consonants and [q] , [r] , [ħ] , [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008,第595, 600页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第52–53页; Kaye 1997,第193, 197页).
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 /k/ is usually aspiratedAl-Ani 2008,p.597–598).
  16. ^ [ɫ] only occurs in the word Allah: [ɑɫˈɫɑh] (Al-Ani 2008,第600页; Kaye 1997,第196页).
  17. ^ /q/ may be pronounced as [ʔ] in Egypt and the Levant, [ɡ] or [ɢ] in other dialects (Gairdner 1925,p.26–27).
  18. ^ /r/ is either a trill [r] or flap [ɾ] . May be velarized or pharyngealized as well (Al-Ani 2008,p.600).
  19. ^ Allophones of /u/ include [ʊ] ~[ɤ] ~[o] before emphatic consonants and [q] , [r] , [ħ] , [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008,第595, 600页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第52–53页; Kaye 1997,第193, 197页).
  20. ^ Allophones of /uː/ include [ʊː] ~[ɤː] ~[] before emphatic consonants and [q] , [r] , [ħ] , [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008,第595, 600页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第52–53页; Kaye 1997,第193, 197页).
  21. ^ /x/ is realized as [x] or [χ] .
  22. ^ /ɣ/ is realized as [ɣ] or [ʁ] (Al-Ani 2008,第599页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第598页; Gairdner 1925,第26页).
  23. ^ /ʔ/ is usually written above or below three letters: أ‎, إ‎, آ‎, ئ‎, ؤ‎.
  24. ^ /ʕ/ is realized as [ʕ] or [ʔˤ] (Al-Ani 2008,第599页; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999,第51页).
  25. ^ /ʢ/ Neither pharyngeal nor fricative, but is more correctly described as a creaky-voiced epiglottal approximant (Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)).

参考资料编辑

  • Al-Ani, Salman H. Phonetics. Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics III. Brill. 2008: 593–603. 
  • Gairdner, W. H. T. The Phonetics of Arabic. Oxford University Press. 1925. 
  • Kaye, Alan S. Arabic phonology. Phonologies of Asia and Africa I. 1997: 187–204. 
  • Kaye, Alan S. Arabic. (编) Comrie, Bernard. The World’s Major Languages (PDF) 2nd. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge. 2009: 560–577. ISBN 978-0-415-35339-7. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian. The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. 1996. ISBN 0-631-19815-6. 
  • Mitchell, T. F. Pronouncing Arabic I. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1990. 
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'adeddin, M. Akram. Arabic. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. 1999: 51–54.